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Morane-Saulnier Type L

Morane-Saulnier Type L


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Morane-Saulnier Type L

The Morane-Saulnier Type L was a parasol winged two-seat reconnaissance aircraft, most famous for being the aircraft used by Rolland Garros when he achieved the first successful victory by an aircraft with a fixed forward firing machine gun.

Morane-Saulnier first produced a parasol winged aircraft in the summer of 1913. This was a modification of their earlier Type G shoulder-wing two seat monoplane, but with the wing raised well above the only slightly modified fuselage. One of these aircraft was exhibited at the Paris Aero Salon on 5 December 1913. It was powered by a 100hp Gnome Monosoupape engine, and in an attempt to sell it as a reconnaissance aircraft was equipped with a downward pointing camera mounted behind the observer's seat.

At this stage the French Aviation militaire wasn't interested in the Type L, but it did catch the eye of the Ottoman Turks, who ordered fifty. These aircraft had to use a 50hp Gnome engine as all 80hp or larger engines were reserved for French aircraft. The production version of the Type L had a 3ft wider wing span than the prototype, a longer fuselage and individual seats for the crew of two, replacing a long single 'bench' that had been used on the Type G. The Type L had a slab-sided fuselage, used wing warping controls and had a cross axle landing gear with large V struts. There was a large cut-out in the rear of the wing to improve access for the observer. They had a small tail with a small rudder and elevator but no fixed surfaces.

Later production aircraft received a fixed vertical fin and had the V struts on the undercarriage modified, with the forward strut moved back so that it was almost vertical when the aircraft was in flight.

In August 1914 the Turkish aircraft were taken over by the French military as part of the mobilization before the outbreak of the First World War. They were given 80hp engines and then used to equip two new Escadrilles, MS 23 and MS 26. These were reconnaissance units, and the aircraft were normally unarmed, but the crew often carried pistols or carbines. Late in 1914 some were give a Lewis gun, but their main claim to fame came in the spring of 1915.

One of the early Type L pilots was Roland Garros. In December 1914 he got together with Raymond Saulnier and attempted to come up with workable interrupter gear that would allow a machine gun to fire through the propeller disc without hitting the blades. For the moment these efforts failed, and so Garros moved onto a more brute-force approach. His mechanic, Jules Hue, fitted armoured bullet deflectors to the propeller blades. These protected the blades against any bullet hits, and made Garros's Type L the first tractor driven aircraft to be equipped with a fixed forward firing machine gun.

On 1 April 1915 Garros took to the skies in his modified aircraft, and achieved his first combat victory with the new equipment. He scored two more successes, one each on 15 April and 18 April, but later on 18 April he was forced down behind German lines after his aircraft was hit by ground fire. Garros survived, and his aircraft was captured intact. The Germans turned to Anthony Fokker, who used the opportunity to introduce his interrupter gear. This was installed on the Fokker E.I, beginning the period of the 'Fokker scourge', where German fighter pilots gained an ascendancy over the Western Front.

Although the Type L is most famous for Garros's exploits, its main function was still as a reconnaissance aircraft. Over 600 were built, and they remained in use with the Aviation militaire until replaced by the improved Type LA and the newly designed Type P. The Type L wasn't a popular aircraft in French service and was seen as difficult and dangerous to fly.

The Type L also saw service with the British, in both the RFC and the RNAS, with the Russians, and ironically with the Germans. The RFC received just over 50, with the first aircraft being delivered on 2 December 1914. They were mainly used by No.3 Squadron, although a small number went to No.1 and No.2 Squadrons. The RFC used them as a reconnaissance aircraft during 1915.

The RNAS received twenty-five Type Ls. Six were sent to Mudros, where they briefly served over Gallipoli, but once again they were unpopular and were soon replaced by alternative aircraft. They were more successful with No.1 Wing, RNAS, which was based at Dunkirk. On 7 June 1915 Flt Sub-Lt R.A.J. Warneford became the first Allied pilot to destroy a Zeppelin in flight. Zeppelin LZ 37 was taking part in a raid on Dunkirk when Warneford flew over it and dropped six 20lb bombs onto its envelope. The Zeppelin caught fire and crashed, tragically killing two nuns on the ground although some of the crew survived. Warneford was awarded the Victoria Cross, but was killed ten days later in a Henry Farman F.27.

Early in 1914 the Pfalz Flugzeugwerke acquired a licence to build the Morane-Saulnier Type H and Type L. Pfalz produced three variants - the A.I powrred by an 80hp Oberursel engine and the A.II and E.III with a 100hp Oberursel engine. The E.III carried a synchronized fixed forward firing machine gun and was used as a single-seat fighter by some Bavarian units.

The Type L was also produced under licence in Russia, where around 430 were built. They were used a two-seat reconnaissance aircraft and later as training aircraft.

The Type L was followed in 1915 by the modified Type LA, which was a similar aircraft but with mainly minor modifications and then by the new Type P.

Engine: Gnome or Le Rhône Rotary engine
Power: 80hp
Crew: 2
Wing span: 36ft 9in
Length: 22ft 6 3/4in
Height: 12ft 10 3/4in
Empty Weight: 849lb
Maximum take-off weight: 1,444lb
Max Speed: 71mph
Cruising Speed:
Service Ceiling:
Endurance: 2 hours
Armament: 8mm Hotchkiss or 7.7mm Lewis machine gun in rear cockpit

Books on the First World War |Subject Index: First World War


1 July 1915

Leutnant Kurt Wintgens, Luftstreitkräfte, wearing the Pour le Mérite (the “Blue Max”) (Postkartenvertrieb W. Sanke)

1 July 1915: German Luftstreitkräfte fighter pilot Leutnant Kurt Wintgens was flying a pre-production Fokker M.5K/MG, number E.5/15, (designated Eindecker III when placed in production), which was equipped with a single fixed, forward-firing machine gun. An interrupter gear driven off the engine stopped the machine gun momentarily as the propeller blades crossed the line of fire. This was known as synchronization.

Leutnant Wintgens’ Fokker M.5K/MG Eindecker fighter, E.5/15. (Peter M. Grosz Collection)

At approximately 1800 hours, Leutnant Wintgens engaged a French Morane-Saulnier Type L two-place observation airplane east of Lunéville in northeastern France. The French airplane’s observer fired back with a rifle. Eventually, the Morane-Saulnier was struck by bullets in its engine and forced down.

Wintgens is believed to have achieved the first aerial victory using a synchronized machine gun, though because his victim went down inside Allied lines, the victory was not officially credited.

Closeup of a Fokker E.I’s Oberursel U.0 seven cylinder rotary engine, and Stangensteuerung synchronizer gear drive cam/rod unit behind engine crankcase.

The Fokker prototype was armed with an air-cooled 7.9 mm Parabellum MG14 aircraft machine gun made by Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken Aktien-Gesellschaft. This gun fired ammunition from a cloth belt which was contained inside a metal drum. It had a rate of fire of 600–700 rounds per minute. The synchronization mechanism had been designed by Anton Herman Gerard Fokker, who was also the airplane’s designer.

A Fokker advertisement in Motor, 1917.

The Fokker Aviatik GmbH M.5K/MG Eindecker III was a single-place, single-engine monoplane fighter constructed of a steel tubing fuselage with a doped fabric covering. It had a length of 6.75 meters (22.15 feet), a wingspan of 8.95 meters (29.36 feet) and height of 2.40 meters (7.87 feet). The airplane had an empty weight of 370 kilograms (815.7 pounds) and gross weight of 580 kilograms (1,278.7 pounds).

It was powered by an 11.835 liter (722.2 cubic inch) air-cooled Motorenfabrik Oberursel U.0 seven-cylinder rotary engine which produced 80 Pferdestärke (78.9 horsepower). This engine was a German-built version of the French Société des Moteurs Gnome 7 Lambda engine.

The M.5K/MG had a maximum speed of 130 kilometers per hour (80.8 miles per hour) and a service ceiling of 3,000 meters (9,843 feet). Its range was 200 kilometers (124.3 miles).

Morane Saulnier Type L (Getty Images/Hulton Archive)

The Aéroplanes Morane-Saulnier Type L was a single-engine two-place monoplane used as a scouting aircraft. The single wing is mounted above to fuselage on struts. This type is called a “parasol wing.” The airplane is 6.88 meters (22.57 feet) long with a wingspan of 11.20 meters (36.75 feet) long and height of 3.93 meters (12.89 feet). Its empty weight is 393 kilograms (866 pounds) and gross weight is 677.5 kilograms (1,494 pounds).

The Type L was powered by a 10.91 liter (665.79 cubic inch) Société des Moteurs Le Rhône 9C nine-cylinder rotary engine which produced 83 horsepower at 1,285 r.p.m.

The Morane Salunier Type L had a maximum speed of 125 kilometers per hour (78 miles per hour). It could be armed with one .303-caliber Lewis light machine gun on a flexible mount.

Kurt Hermann Fritz Karl Wintgens was born 1 August 1894 at Neustadt in Oberschlesien, Prussia. He was the son of Lieutenant Paul Wingens, a cavlary officer, and Martha gb. Bohlmann.

Wintgens entered a military academy as an officer cadet in 1913, but with the outbreak of World War I, he was appointed a lieutenant and sent to the Eastern Front. He earned the Iron Cross.

Leutnant Wintgens was transferred to the Luftstreitkräfte as an observer, but then trained as a pilot.

Wintgens was officially credited with 19 aerial victories, with three more unconfirmed. After his eighth victory he was awarded “the Blue Max,” (Pour le Mérite).

Kurt Wintgens was shot down near Viller-Carbonnel, Somme, France, 25 September 1916. He was killed in the crash.


Operational history

In December 1914, renowned French aviator Roland Garros, then serving with Escadrille 23, worked with Raymond Saulnier to mount a machine gun on his Type L. Saulnier had experimented with a mechanical interrupter gear but reverted to the simpler solution of using armoured propeller blades. Garros' mechanic further improved the system by fitting deflector wedges to the blades in line with the barrel of the gun. Garros took his Type L fighter into combat in March 1915 and achieved immediate success, shooting down three German aircraft in April, a noteworthy feat at the time. On 18 April 1915 , Garros' Type L was forced down behind German lines and was captured before Garros could burn it. This motivated the Germans to develop their own fighter, which materialised at the end of May as the Fokker E.I, fitted with a true synchronizer system.

Ironically, one of the two seat Morane Type Ls, of Escadrille M.S.48, was the victim of the first true fighter victory on July 1 , 1915 , when Leutnant Kurt Wintgens, while flying his Fokker M.5K/MG pre-production Fokker Eindecker prototype aircraft no. E.5/15, fitted out with a very early example of the Fokker "Stangensteuerung" gun synchronizer system, downed one over Luneville.

About 50 Type Ls were delivered to Britain's Royal Flying Corps, which used them as reconnaissance aircraft during 1915, with a further 25 being operated by the Royal Naval Air Service. On 7 June 1915 one of these aircraft, flown by Flight Sub-Lieutenant Reginald Alexander John Warneford of 1 Squadron RNAS intercepted Zeppelin LZ.37, destroying it, the first Zeppelin to be destroyed in the air. Warneford received the Victoria Cross for this achievement.

Three Pfalz AII's were utilized by the Ottoman Empire in an attempt to combat the growing threat of the Arab Revolt


Morane-Saulnier L 2017-09-22

The Morane-Saulnier L, also known as the Morane-Saulnier Type L was a French parasol wing one or two-seat scout aeroplane of the First World War. The Type L became one of the first successful fighter aircraft when it was fitted with a single machine gun that fired through the arc of the propeller, which was protected by armoured deflector wedges. Its immediate effectiveness in this role launched an arms race in fighter development, and the Type L was swiftly rendered obsolete. The original Type L used wing warping for lateral control, but a later version designated Type LA was fitted with ailerons.

Built by Morane-Saulnier, large numbers of the Type L were ordered by the French Aviation Militaire at the outbreak of the war, being designated the MS.3. In total about 600 Type Ls were built and, in addition to the French air force, they served with the Royal Flying Corps, Royal Naval Air Service and the Imperial Russian Air Service.

The file contains the unit and pcx files. Model is not my own creation. Wyrmshadow helped with the animation files. I merely put the pieces together and cleaned up the model for CivIII and added some what if pieces. A big thanks to everyone that helped out!


Rare Morane-Saulnier Type L Project Heading to Oshkosh [Video]

A rare, French reproduction of the Morane-Saulnier Type L under construction by the Association Héritage Avions Morane-Saulnier is reportedly being readied for a trip to Oshkosh.

As previously reported, the team considers the machine to be a special part of aviation history, being one of Morane-Saulnier’s initial designs (1913) and the type used by Roland Garros when he became the first to successfully down an enemy aircraft by firing a gun through a spinning propeller arc, fitting deflector wedges to the back of the blades. To date, over 10,000 hours have been invested in the machine, which retains the type’s original wooden structure, wing warping and all-flying rudder and stabilator. However, as it is being built to an airworthy standard, several modern upgrades have been incorporated, including the substitution of a 110 hp Rotec radial engine in place of the original Le Rhone rotary.

According to translated reports, the aircraft is currently based the Daher factory in Tarbes and will soon be dismantled and crated for shipment to the US. The EAA’s 2017 AirVenture Fly-In at Wittman Regional Airport is scheduled for July 24-30.

Click below to check out photos and a recent video of the project.

Après des semaines de travail de mise au point, en route pour Oshkosh….
Première étape : Remontage complet du Type L à l'usine Daher de Tarbes avant de le démonter et de le mettre en container direction les US.
La pression monte, mais l'apparition du Type L de plus en plus proche du final booste tout le monde !!

Posted by La construction de la réplique du Morane-Saulnier Type L on Friday, May 5, 2017


Morane-Saulnier L Russian Imperial Air Force 2017-09-22

The Morane-Saulnier L, also known as the Morane-Saulnier Type L was a French parasol wing one or two-seat scout aeroplane of the First World War. The Type L became one of the first successful fighter aircraft when it was fitted with a single machine gun that fired through the arc of the propeller, which was protected by armoured deflector wedges. Its immediate effectiveness in this role launched an arms race in fighter development, and the Type L was swiftly rendered obsolete. The original Type L used wing warping for lateral control, but a later version designated Type LA was fitted with ailerons.

Built by Morane-Saulnier, large numbers of the Type L were ordered by the French Aviation Militaire at the outbreak of the war, being designated the MS.3. In total about 600 Type Ls were built and, in addition to the French air force, they served with the Royal Flying Corps, Royal Naval Air Service and the Imperial Russian Air Service.

The file contains the unit and pcx files. Model is not my own creation. Wyrmshadow helped with the animation files. I merely put the pieces together and cleaned up the model for CivIII and added some what if pieces. A big thanks to everyone that helped out!


Daher-Sponsored Morane-Saulnier Type L Aeroplane Replica Comes to EAA Aviation Museum Collection

Donation honors 100 years of the French-American aviation relationship.

Oshkosh, Wisconsin, USA, August 31, 2017 — In a donation honoring 100 years of the French-American aviation relationship, a full-sized Morane-Saulnier Type L “Parasol” aeroplane replica will join the prestigious Experimental Aircraft Association’s EAA Aviation Museum collection in Oshkosh, Wisconsin.

This hand-crafted reproduction of the World War I-era Parasol – an ancestor of Daher’s TBM very fast turboprop aircraft family – was brought by Daher to the U.S. for an appearance at last month’s EAA AirVenture Oshkosh fly-in. During the week-long event, the aeroplane was a major draw, attracting a steady flow of visitors.

While the Type L originally was planned for a return to France, it was decided to honor the EAA’s request that the replica be permanently exhibited at the EAA Aviation Museum. It is to be situated near the facility’s entrance, between the historic reproductions of the Wright brothers’ Wright Flyer and Charles Lindbergh’s Spirit of St. Louis. The six-year construction effort for the Type L Parasol replica was managed by the Association Héritage Avions Morane-Saulnier, whose volunteers – both retired and current workers of Daher and predecessor companies (including some Morane-Saulnier veterans in their mid-80s) – contributed their skills, energy and passion. Daher supported the Type L replica project from the start, providing workspace, tooling and expertise.

The flightworthy replica retains the Type L Parasol’s original wooden structure configuration, along with its wing-warping system and the aircraft’s all-flying rudder and stabilator controls.

“The response to the Type L’s presence from EAA AirVenture Oshkosh attendees, including members of our global TBM community, was very impressive,” said Nicolas Chabbert, senior Vice President of Daher Airplane Business Unit. “When the opportunity came to include this element of aviation history in the EAA Aviation Museum, we were pleased that the Association Héritage Avions Morane-Saulnier agreed – and Daher fully supports the decision.”

As a result of the donation, Daher has offered to sponsor the construction of a second flightworthy Type L replica, which will be produced and based in France.

Our team of dedicated volunteers are extremely proud to have the Parasol included in the EAA Aviation Museum, which is recognized worldwide for the quality and range of its collection,” commented Daniel Bacou, President of the Association Héritage Avions Morane-Saulnier. “Of course, it was difficult to part ways with the aircraft after six years of hard work, but we thank Daher for the very generous offer that enables us to embark on a new exciting project for the second reproduction.

The Parasol was an extremely important aircraft to the Allied powers of World War I and an important symbol of the friendship between France and the United States during the war,” said Bob Campbell, Director of the EAA Aviation Museum. “We are most honored and proud to accept this replica in the same spirit shared between our two great nations during that conflict.
To read more please click here!


Operační nasazení [ editovat | editovat zdroj ]

Francouzské armádní letectvo zpočátku neprojevilo o typ zájem, a svolilo k výrobě typu na export do Osmanské říše. Po vypuknutí války v roce 1914 byla dodávka pozastavena a vyrobené stroje zařazeny do výzbroje francouzských armádních vzdušných sil, pro které byla také zahájena výroba dalších kusů. Na frontě byly letouny zpočátku nasazovány jako pozorovací a průzkumné, a později i jako bombardovací. Pozorovatel byl často ozbrojen, zpočátku karabinou, později pak pohyblivě lafetovaným lehkým kulometem, a již v průběhu roku 1914 byl typ často označován jako „stíhací Morane“ (francouzsky Morane de chasse ). ΐ] Α] :s.3

V prosinci 1914 Roland Garros, tehdy příslušník letky MS 26, a původně zkušební pilot firmy Morane-Saulnier, ve spolupráci se svým mechanikem Julesem Hue, jím pilotovaný exemplář opatřil kulometem (pravděpodobně typu Hotchkiss M1914) pevně namontovaným před kokpitem v ose letounu a střílejícím okruhem vrtule, kterou proti poškození chránily ocelové odrazné klíny. Α] :s.3 Vznikl tak jeden z prvních stíhacích letounů vůbec, a první stíhací letoun s tažným motorem a výzbrojí pevně instalovanou v ose trupu. ΐ] Α] :s.3 Garros na něm 1. dubna 1915 dosáhl svého prvního vzdušného vítězství. Α] :s.3 Takto upravený stroj začali užívat i někteří další francouzští letci, například Eugène Gilbert, Georges Guynemer a Adolphe Pégoud, pozdější první letecké eso války. Počátkem roku 1915 pak typ proslul především působením ve stíhací roli, ale již během léta téhož roku začal být nahrazován novějšími typy vhodnějšími k této úloze, například Morane-Saulnier N a Nieuport 10, a od počátku roku 1916 již byl využíván převážně v druholiniových rolích.

Letoun byl užíván i britskými vzdušnými silami, armádním Royal Flying Corps a námořní Royal Naval Air Service, příslušník jejíž 1. peruti Flight Sub-Lieutenant Reginald Warneford 7. června 1915 nedaleko Ostende za použití typu L zničil německou vzducholoď LZ 37, Α] :s.4 první zeppelin zničený ve vzdušném boji.

Typ byl dodáván i armádním leteckým silám carského Ruska, kde byl také v licenci sériově vyráběn.

Několik kusů Morane-Saulnier L sloužilo i v leteckých silách některých dalších zemí, včetně států nově vzniklých po skončení první světové války.


Pin (Znachok), Morane Saulnier L (Dux)

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Pin (Znachok), Morane Saulnier L (Dux)

Commemorative (znachok) pin a raised brass front three-quarter starboard side profile view of a Morane Saulnier L (Dux) depicted on a black enamel background brass letter text "MORANE SAULNIER HISTORY OF AVIATION USSR 1917" in Russian Cyrillic.

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There are restrictions for re-using this media. For more information, visit the Smithsonian's Terms of Use page.

IIIF provides researchers rich metadata and image viewing options for comparison of works across cultural heritage collections. More - https://iiif.si.edu

Pin (Znachok), Morane Saulnier L (Dux)

Commemorative (znachok) pin a raised brass front three-quarter starboard side profile view of a Morane Saulnier L (Dux) depicted on a black enamel background brass letter text "MORANE SAULNIER HISTORY OF AVIATION USSR 1917" in Russian Cyrillic.

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Commemorative (znachok) pin a raised brass front three-quarter starboard side profile view of a Morane Saulnier L (Dux) depicted on a black enamel background brass letter text "MORANE SAULNIER HISTORY OF AVIATION USSR 1917" in Russian Cyrillic.


Sverige [ redigera | redigera wikitext ]

Enoch Thulin köpte en Morane-Saulnier 3L i Frankrike 1914. Tillsammans med vännen och medarbetaren Otto Ask som passagerare flög Thulin den 23 april 1914 från Paris hem till Landskrona. Den totala flygtiden var 14 timmar och 20 minuter, och efter sex mellanlandningar landade slutligen Thulin och Ask i Landskrona den 29 april.

I samband med besöket i Frankrike hade Thulin även passat på att teckna licenskontrakt på tillverkning av Morane-Saulnier 3L. När Thulin senare startade tillverkning av sin kopia av Morane-Saulnier 3L, fick den beteckningen Thulin Typ B. När första världskriget bröt ut, sålde Thulin sin originalmaskin till det svenska arméflyget. Flygplanet flögs ofta av Nils Kindberg. Under Södertörnsmanövern i början av september 1914 flög Thulin Morane-planet. Under dessa övningar kappotterade flygplanet, dock utan allvarligare skador. I samband med reparation och översyn fick flygplanet 1917 originalmotorn utbytt mot en 90 hk Thulin A-motor. Flygplanet fanns i aktiv tjänst fram till 1918, då det slutligen avskrevs.


Watch the video: Morane-Saulnier Type L (May 2022).