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Avoyel- AT-150 - History

Avoyel- AT-150 - History


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Avoyel

An Indian tribe native to the state of Louisiana.

(AT-150: dp. 1,675; 1. 205'; b. b. 38'6"; dr. 15'4"; s. 16.5 k. - cpl. 85; a. 13", 2 40mm., 2 20mm., 2 dct.; cl. Navajo)

Avoyel (AT-150) was laid down on 25 March 1944 at Charleston S.C., by the Charleston Shipbuilding & Drydock Co.; launched on 9 August 1944; sponsored by Mrs. George E. Goodman; and commissioned at Charleston on 8 January 1945, Lt. Comdr. William R. Brown in command.

Following shakedown training in the Chesapeake Bay, the tug then reported to the Norfolk Navy Yard, Portsmouth, Va., for post-shakedown availability. Upon completion of the yard period, the tug was ordered to proceed to the Hudson River which had frozen to a depth of two to three feet. Avoyel cleared a path to Iona Island so that ammunition barges could be moved down the river. When this assignment was finished, the vessel returned to Norfolk.

In early March, the tug sailed for New Orleans where she picked up a tow and pulled it to Gulfport, Miss., for loading. Avoyel departed the gulf coast on 20 March, bound for the Pacific. She transited the Panama Canal and continued on to the South Pacific. The ship paused at Bora Bora, Society Islands, to refuel before reaching Seeadler Harbor, Manus Island, on 13 May. Upon her arrival there, the tug reported to Commander, Service Force 10, for duty. On 15 May, the tug was redesignated ATF-150.

During the remaining months of World War 11, Avoyel carried out various towing operations among the Philippine Islands; Hollandia, New Guinea; Ulithi, Caroline Islands; Guam, Mariana Islands; Okinawa; and Eniwetok, Marshall Islands. Following the Japanese capitulation on 15 August, the tug got underway with Task Group 95.4 to clear mines from the waters of the Yellow Sea, off the coast of Korea. Avoyel sank several mines with rifle fire; and, on 7 September, Allied occupation forces began steaming through the cleared area toward the Korean mainland.

The tug anchored at Sasebo, Japan, on 16 September and Sasebo area for the next three months, performed making resupply and refueling runs. On 8 1 got underway to return to the United States. in route at Saipan, Eniwetok, and Guam. She then sailed, via Pearl Harbor, for the Canal Zone. The vessel retransited the Panama Canal on 12 July and reached New Orleans on the 28th. The ship then underwent a preinactivation overhaul.

On 17 October, Avoyel proceeded to Orange, Tex., and was placed out of commission, in reserve, there on 11 January 1947 On 9 July 1956, the ship was loaned to the United States Coast Guard and assigned to duty at Eureka, Calif. On 1 June 1969, her name was struck from the Navy Est, and the ship was permanently transferred to the Coast Guard on that same day. The vessel was decommissioned by the Coast Guard on 30 September 1969, sold, and placed in commercial service.


USS Avoyel -->

USS Avoyel (ATF-150) was an Achomawi-class fleet ocean tug built for the United States Navy during World War II. She was the only U.S. Naval vessel to bear the name.

Avoyel was laid down 25 March 1944 by the Charleston Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company of Charleston, South Carolina launched on 9 August 1944 sponsored by Mrs. George E. Goodman and commissioned at Charleston Navy Yard on 8 January 1945, Lieutenant Commander William R. Brown in command.


What is WCU planning to acknowledge this milestone?

  • Recognition of the original charter for the institution in March 2021.
  • Publication of a book commemorating WCU’s first 150 years.
  • Anniversary merchandise.
  • Social media fun.
  • Celebratory videos released in chapters on the sesquicentennial website.
  • Campus events including a 150th anniversary celebration in fall 2021.

Visit the University’s sesquicentennial website often for updates, including specific event information, regular postings of photos and stories, and memories and mementos from alumni and retirees.


The National Weather Service at 150: A Brief History

Editor’s Note: The National Weather Service celebrates its 150th Birthday on February 9, 2020 -- an ideal time to recognize the many accomplishments of the agency. Most of the following content first appeared in National Weather Service Snapshots: Portraits of a Rich Heritage by Gary K. Grice, published in 1991. It has been edited and updated by the NWS Heritage Projects Team to include events and information occurring since.

On February 2, 1870, the United States Congress passed a resolution requiring the Secretary of War “to provide for taking meteorological observations at the military stations in the interior of the continent and at other points in the States and Territories. and for giving notice on the northern (Great) lakes and on the seacoast by magnetic telegraph and marine signals, of the approach and force of storms.” The Resolution was signed into law on February 9, 1870 by President Ulysses S. Grant, and the precursor to the Weather Bureau and National Weather Service was born.

The new agency, called the Division of Telegrams and Reports for the Benefit of Commerce, was formed under the U.S. Army Signal Service. The new weather agency was placed under the War Department because “military discipline would probably secure the greatest promptness, regularity, and accuracy in the required observations.” Because of the long name, the agency frequently referred to it as the national weather service or general weather service of the United States.

Signal Service

The new weather agency operated under the Signal Service from 1870 to 1891. During that time, the main office was located in Washington, D.C., with field offices concentrated mainly east of the Rockies. Most forecasts originated in the main office in Washington with observations provided by field offices.

During the Signal Service years, little meteorological science was used to make weather forecasts. Instead, weather which occurred at one location was assumed to move into the next area downstream. The weather forecasts were simple and general in content -- usually containing basic weather parameters such as cloud and precipitation.

The Division of Telegrams and Reports for the Benefit of Commerce remained under the Signal Service until 1891. On October 1, 1890, Congress voted to transfer it to the Department of Agriculture and renamed the Weather Bureau. The actual transfer occurred July 1, 1891, and at that time, organized civilian weather services within the Federal Government began in the United States.

Agriculture Department

The Weather Bureau was part of the Department of Agriculture for 50 years from 1891 to 1940. During that time, considerable improvements were made in Weather Bureau operations, and the science of meteorology mda significant advances.

Weather forecasters in the Signal Service and early Weather Bureau years primarily used information from surface weather observations. The early meteorologists were aware that conditions in the upper-atmosphere controlled surface weather conditions, but technology had not advanced to the point of taking upper atmospheric observations.

Early Technology

Around 1900, the Weather Bureau began to experiment with kites to measure temperature, relative humidity, and winds in the upper atmosphere. Kite observations were taken intermittently from about 1900 to about 1920 with a kite network of stations established during the 1920s and early 1930s. These pioneers were the first to observe classical meteorological features which significantly impacted weather over the United States. By the early 1930s, kites were becoming a hazard to airplanes in flight, causing kite observations to give way to airplane observations.

In 1931, the Weather Bureau began to replace kite stations with airplane stations. The use of the airplane as an upper-air observational tool continued to expand during the 1930s. Airplanes were an expensive and dangerous way to obtain upper-air data. Also, it frequently was impossible to use airplanes during bad weather the time when observations were most important. The disadvantages of the airplane as a sounding platform, coupled with the advent of sounding balloons carrying meteorological instruments and radio transmitters (radiosondes), resulted in airplane observations being discontinued prior to World War II.

The development of the radiosonde was a benchmark to operational meteorology. With the relatively inexpensive instrument, the upper atmosphere could be sampled routinely and simultaneously in both bad and good weather. The radiosonde was one catalyst which increased meteorologists’ understanding of the weather. Following the implementation of the radiosonde, the science of weather forecasting began to improve substantially and steadily.

One of the more important advances for the Weather Bureau while in the Department of Agriculture was the advent of the teletype system. The forerunner of the teletype, the telegraph, served the early needs of the agency, but it was readily apparent that this system was labor intensive and not reliable. The system contained many vulnerable areas, any of which could result in an important warning not being received or a critical observation not transmitted.

The teletype was introduced in the Weather Bureau in 1928 and its use spread rapidly. Within two years, teletype circuits covered 8,000 miles, mainly in the eastern part of the country, and by the mid-1930s, teletype circuits covered over 32,000 miles.

Department of Commerce

While under the Department of Agriculture, aviation weather services of the Weather Bureau expanded rapidly. Initiation of air mail flights and the increase of aviation activity following World War I placed a large demand on the Weather Bureau for forecasts of flying weather. In 1919, daily flying weather forecasts were started primarily for the Post Office and military aviation, but the most significant advances occurred with the passage of the Air Commerce Act of 1926 which made the Weather Bureau responsible for weather services to civilian aviation. The Air Commerce Act increased aviation weather services by the Weather Bureau, but more importantly, the law provided funds to establish a network of stations across the United States to take surface and upper-air weather observations.

As the Weather Bureau became more associated with the aviation community, it became apparent that the agency belonged in the Department of Commerce. On June 30, 1940, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt transferred the Weather Bureau to the Department of Commerce where it remains today.

The early association of the Weather Bureau with the Department of Commerce was dominated by World War II. Although most Weather Bureau meteorologists were deferred from military duty, many elected to serve their country. As with other sectors of the American workforce, women stepped in to perform the job.

World War II Spurred Growth

During the war years, meteorological services by the Weather Bureau increased significantly. Following the war, reductions to peace time were required. One exception was in the area of weather support to the aviation community. During World War II, aviation made major strides--improvements which carried over to the post war years. Consequently, Weather Bureau support to aviation also increased.

During the late 1940s and 1950s, the main contribution to Weather Bureau operations was in the area of radar meteorology and computer models of the atmosphere. During the late 1940s, the military gave the Weather Bureau 25 surplus radars which subsequently were renovated to detect weather echoes. Information gained from the operation of these radars eventually led to the formation of a network of weather surveillance radars still in use today.

With the development of computer technology during the 1950s the way was paved for the formulation of complex mathematical weather models to aid meteorologists in forecasting. The first operational use of these computer models during the 1950s resulted in a significant increase in forecast accuracy.

First Weather Satellite: 1960

The Weather Bureau entered the satellite age in the 1960s. The first weather photographs from space in the 1950s actually were by-products of films made to record the attitude of rocket nose cones. However, following the launch of Explorer in 1958, the importance of satellites to observing the world’s weather soon became apparent.

Most early weather satellites were low orbit versions which viewed small and different sections of the earth’s surface. In the 1970s, geostationary weather satellites were launched which provided meteorologists with continuous observations over much of the western hemisphere.

The National Weather Service: 1970

In July 1970, the name of the Weather Bureau was changed to the National Weather Service. At the same time, the National Weather Service was placed under the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) within the Department of Commerce where it remains.

The 1970s saw considerable expansion of technology and automation throughout the agency, led by the development of the Automated Field Operations and Services system, or AFOS. AFOS was designed to bring the NWS into the modern era, using alphanumeric and digital displays to view weather maps and compose forecasts and warnings.

In addition, radar technology and capability continued to expand. The NWS deployed new WSR-74S/C radar across the nation, while the National Severe Storms Laboratory in Norman, Oklahoma, experimented with Doppler radar technology. The Next Generation Radar Program, commonly known as NEXRAD, would revolutionize the NWS’ ability to forecast several weather.

Modernization and Associated Restructuring

A super-outbreak of tornadoes in April 1974 was a turning point for the agency, spurring what became the most ambitious and successful transformation in the agency’s history: the Modernization and Associated Restructuring, or MAR. Planned in the 1980s and implemented in the 90s, the MAR modernized the agency’s observational infrastructure. NEXRAD, a new generation of environmental satellites, the Automated Surface Observation System (ASOS), and a new Advance Weather Information Processing System (AWIPS) to replace ASOS, were centerpiece technologies. In addition, the NWS radically changed its field structure and approach. Degreed meteorologists and hydrologists trained in new techniques and systems ensured better, more rapid detection of storms to deliver timely forecasts and warnings to the public.

The MAR was completed in 2000, and forecast capabilities continued to improve through the beginning of the 21s Century. However, another super outbreak of tornadoes in 2011 -- eerily similar to the 1974 outbreak in both scope and lives lost -- was a stark reminder that even timely warnings are only as good as the action people take in response to them.

Building a Weather-Ready Nation

From the “Critical Conversations” that followed between NWS and its partners in government, the private sector and academia, the concept of Building a Weather-Ready Nation was born and a refocusing of forecasting efforts toward “the Last Mile” with Impact-based Decision Support Services. The key to creating a prepared, resilient nation is connecting forecasts to the life-saving decisions that allow communities to withstand them. IDSS is all about delivering forecasts to emergency managers and public safety officials to ensure these decision-makers make informed decisions and understand the impending situation based on expected impacts. IDSS is also rooted in the integration of the social and physical sciences. While forecasts had previously been focused primarily on physical occurrences, IDSS recognizes that the consideration of human and societal factors must be considered in issuing and communicating forecasts and warnings.

The Weather Research and Forecasting and Innovation Act of 2017 codified the IDSS approach into law, authorizing the NWS to provide IDSS across federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial levels of government for the purposes of public safety and disaster management. As the NWS begins its next 150 years, the agency and its employees remain focused on one enduring mission that has remained consistent throughout its history: protecting lives and property and enhancing the national economy.


Who are the Avoyel?

This parish was named after a small Native American tribe who lived here when Europeans first explored this area.

The Avoyel Tribe has not officially existed since the late 1700’s, but four unrecognized organizations have claimed to be the descendants of this “extinct” tribe.

Two of those -- the Avogel Nation and the Avoyel-Kaskaskia -- have apparently become dormant, with no members actively proclaiming their claim as the descendants of the original Avoyelleans. Two organizations loudly proclaim their heirship rights.

The conflicting claims of the Avogel Okla Tasannuk Tribe and the Avoyel-Taensa Tribe is cited as a possible reason why neither one has gained state or federal recognition as a Native American tribe. The federally recognized Tunica-Biloxi Tribe claims to have absorbed the remnants of the Avoyel Tribe generations ago, thus giving it a claim to be the modern-day representative of the parish’s namesake.

The last historical mention of the Avoyels was by U.S. Indian Agent John Sibley in 1805, when he noted the tribe had been reduced to only three Avoyel women being held as captives in
another tribe.

The French estimated the Avoyel tribe’s population at 280 in 1698. Shortly after that, the tribe was struck with diseases carried by the Europeans and its population declined rapidly.

One online source says the last person with known lineage to the Avoyels died in 1932 “among the Tunica” in Marksville.

However, there are many in this parish and elsewhere who disagree.

Perhaps the strongest opponent of that viewpoint is John “Sitting Bear” Mayeux -- who has written a history of the tribe and is presently compiling a dictionary of the Avoyel, or Avogel, language.

Mayeux, a native of the Simmesport-Moreauville area, lives in Duson and teaches foreign language at Scott Middle School. He is the chief of the Bear Clan of the Avogel (Okla Tasannuk) Tribe organization. The tribe of about 250 members has three “clans” -- Bear, Eagle and Deer.

He served as the head chief for over 20 years. He and wife Janice “Morning Sun” Mayeux are artisans at the Vermilionville Living History Museum & Folklife Park in Lafayette.

Mayeux said most online resources and books that mention the parish’s namesake tribe were written by non-Indians who relied on inaccurate information and have continued to pass on those errors. He said he worked on his book for 10 years and printed it primarily to prove that the tribe is not extinct.

The tribe’s name is of French origin, but there are different versions of what it means and how it became attached to the tribe.

Mayeux said the name Avogel is a combination of two words in the tribe’s language.

“Avo means ‘flint’ and Gel (“g” as in “go”) means ‘people,’” Mayeux said. It is pronounced AH-vo-GEL.

“The French did not like the hard ‘g’ sound in our language, so they pronounced it ‘Avoyel,’ to sound more French,” Mayeux said.

He said the “trade language” of the Southeast tribes called the Avogel the “Okla Tassannuk,” which literally means “People of the Flint (Rock).” That is why his organization uses that designation in its name.

The Choctaw referred to the Avoyels as the Tassenogoula -- which means “Flint People” or “People of the Rock.”

The Tunica had the same idea, but called the tribe the Shi’xhaltini, which means “Stone Arrowpoint People.”

The name refers to the tribe’s role in working with and serving as a middleman in trading flint and flint tools from northern tribes for goods available from stone-poor southern tribes.

“Avoyel” is not a French word for flint, so it is not a French term for “Flint People,” as has sometimes been stated.

Another theory is that it came from a French word, avoie, that meant “Little Vipers,” but that is also generally considered to be incorrect.

A document of the Avoyel-Taensa organization says the Biloxi gave the tribe the name of Avoyel and that the tribe called itself the Tasanuk.

The four unrecognized tribes claiming to be the descendants of the Avoyel have all sent a “letter of intent to petition” the U.S. government for federal recognition.

Those organizations, listed in order of the date of their “letter of intent” are the Avogel Nation (2000), Avogel (Okla Tassanuk) Tribe (2001), Avoyel-Taensa (2003) and Avoyel-Kaskaskia (2005).

Establishing a tribal identity of a small Native American tribe is difficult. It took the Tunica-Biloxi decades of effort to finally achieve federal recognition even with a documented history of a recognized Indian community and social structure in Marksville.

When there are parties who claim they, and they alone, are the true descendants of the tribe and the others are false claimants -- and some claiming to have research that shows the tribe ceased to exist as a tribe generations ago -- that effort is even harder.

Although there are still four Avoyels groups in lists of unrecognized tribes, the debate over the “true heir” to the tribe’s name now seems to be between the Avoyel-Taensa and Avogel Okla Tasannuk.

The Avogel Nation has been silent since its leader, Terryl Francisco, passed away in 2014.

The Avoyel-Kaskaskia organization “has pretty much dissolved,” Allen Holmes said.

Holmes helped the organization with research for its letter of intent in 2005, but was not a member of the organization.

“They decided they did not want to go through the process,” Holmes said.

The Avoyel-Taensa Tribe came the closest to gaining state recognition when a bill seeking that status was introduced in the Legislature by Sen. Don Hines and Rep. Charles Riddle.

Riddle’s House Concurrent Resolution 2 was defeated 36 to 60. Hines’ Senate Concurrent Resolution 41 was approved by the Senate 23-11. It was sent to the House, after Riddle’s bill had been shot down, and was rejected with 46 “yes” and 53 “no” votes.

The Avoyel-Taensa has an office on Cottage Street in Marksville.

Chief Romas Antoine said the tribe is still working to gather all of the information necessary to complete their application for federal recognition. He estimates about 700-800 members, scattered across the nation with most in Louisiana, Texas, Illinois, Michigan, California, Oklahoma and Colorado.

“I imagine there are a lot more,” he said. “We are trying to register all of the members.”

The organization asserts that the Avoyel and Taensa tribes merged many generations ago. That merger is disputed by the Avogel Tribe’s Mayeux.

The Taensa were located to the north, probably around what is now the Tensas Parish area. The Avoyel Tribe was mistakenly called the “Little Taensa” by French explorer Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville in 1699.

Today the Avoyel-Taensa are associated with the First People’s Conservation Council in Terrebonne Parish and meet quarterly to discuss Native American issues and efforts to gain recognition or economic development for the tribal groups.

The tribe used to have an annual event in Avoyelles Parish, but ceased a few years ago. It is planning an event at Yellow Bayou Park in Simmesport on Nov. 3-4.

Antoine said he does not dispute the Avogel members’ claim to be descendants of the Avoyels. He also noted that Terryl Francisco -- who led the Avogel Nation group -- was his cousin.

“We are all related in some way or another by marriage,” he said.

Antoine was refused membership in the Tunica-Bilox Tribe, even though he has records showing one of his ancestors was Mary Pierite, who was also related to the tribe’s last traditional chief Joseph Alcide Pierite Sr. and the tribe’s first modern chairman, Joseph Alcide Pierite Jr.

“Earl Barbry Sr. said, 'Our roles are closed,’ and that none of us would be allowed to join the Tunica-Biloxi,” Antoine said.

As noted earlier, the Tunica-Biloxi claim the Avoyel as one of their member tribes, considering that the tribe was absorbed into the Tunica-Biloxi many generations ago.

`”I have no animosity against the Tunica or any other tribe,” Antoine said. “My only concern is for the welfare of my people in the Avoyels Tribe.”

Another issue of interest to the Avoyel-Taensa is the restoration of the state’s Prehistoric Indian Park. Antoine said he would like the park to be a place where Native Americans could meet. He said he considers the site to be a sacred burial ground of this area’s first inhabitants.

If the tribe ever gains federal recognition, he and the Tribal Board would like to have the state turn it over to the tribe.

Antoine said the tribe’s members left this area for the same reason so many Avoyelleans leave -- to find employment and a better way of life.

He said he worked for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for 28 years before he retired. His three children went to college and are now working elsewhere, on e in business, one as a librarian and one as a teacher.

Because lack of economic opportunity is responsible for the dispersal of the tribe, a primary goal of the Avoyel-Taensa is to create jobs through various economic developments. However, that goal is also dependent on obtaining federal recognition that would provide funding for the tribe to undertake those endeavors.

The Avogel Okla Tassanuk Tribe -- often shortened to Avogel Tribe -- has offered to take over management, maintenance and operation of the state park and museum. It sees the site as sacred to the original inhabitants of Avoyelles Parish, which they say were the ancestors of the Avogel/Avoyel) tribe.

The tribe’s principal chief is Mickey Baptiste of Mansura.

Baptiste said the tribe has two major goals for the near future.

One is to gain state recognition as a Native American tribe. Federal recognition could be achieved before or after that.

The second is to convince the state to let the tribe operate, manage and maintain the Marksville State Historic Site -- commonly called the Prehistoric Indian Park or Marksville Mounds.

“I have been in touch with the U.S. BIA many times and with the state many times,” Baptiste said. “I don’t know how long it will take to gain recognition of our tribe, but that is something we will continue to seek.”

Mayeux is an outspoken leader of the organization, as well as the organization’s historian.

In addition to his writing and teaching duties, he conducts presentations on Native American culture at Vermilionville museum and park in Lafayette.

Mayeux’s "The Avogel Tribe of Louisiana" focuses on the myth, history and future of the tribe. All proceeds from the book go to benefit the tribe, he said.

Mayeux estimates the organization’s membership at about 238.

“We have been in hiding for a long time due to the excesses that have been visited on the indigenous people of the Americas,” Mayeux said. “We are coming out of hiding at this time because we feel that it may be safe enough to let others know of our presence.”

Mayeux said the Avogel Tribe tried to help the state decide on how to recognize Native American tribes.

“We gave them guidelines that followed the federal guidelines,” he said.

Mayeux is disappointed in the state’s attitude toward the tribe and would prefer the Avogel “not mess with the state, but go forward with seeking federal recognition. If the federal government recognizes a tribe, the state has to recognize it.”

Mayeux said the tribe is seeking federal recognition, but is taking it slowly and cautiously because it does not fully trust the federal government.

The tribe is excited about its project to create a dictionary and its efforts to save and restore the tribe’s language.

“If you have the language, you have the connection with the past,” he said.

Mayeux said many so-called Indian tribal groups decided to seek recognition as a tribe “so they could open a casino. That is not our reason. Our people have voted three times against seeking a casino once we are recognized.”

The question of whether the Avoyel Tribe is extinct or exists in the membership of one or more organizations claiming that heritage may never be answered.

Dedicated members in at least two of those organizations are working to prove their case to the Bureau of Indian Affairs -- but dedication and passion for a cause may not be enough.

Until they are bestowed that sought-offer designation as a “recognized tribe,” they will continue much as any non-profit membership organization, working on projects to benefit their membership and the communities in which they live.

Whether or not they ever receive the federal and/or state approval of their claim does not detract from the work they have done and do to improve the public’s understanding and knowledge about Avoyelles’ first inhabitants.

Baptiste said it is unlikely the Avogel and the Avoyel-Taensa will ever resolve their differences over which organization is the rightful remnant of the historic Avoyel that first greeted Europeans here. That makes it unlikely the two groups would ever merge to provide a united voice in favor of federal or state recognition, he said, “but you can never tell.”


Lee Chapel at 150: A History

In September 1865, five months after his surrender at Appomattox that effectively ended the Civil War, Robert E. Lee came to Lexington, Virginia, to begin a new life, to rebuild Washington College that had called him as its president, and to restore what peace and prosperity he could to a nation devastated by the most brutal conflict in its history. After one year, he had succeeded so well on his first two goals that, regarding the second, the college quickly outgrew its facilities. Lee called for a new chapel large enough to allow the growing faculty and student body to meet together for religious and academic gatherings. By June 1868, it was finished.

Two years later, Lee died. He was interred in that building. At the same time, the college renamed itself Washington and Lee University.

Over the 150 years of its existence, the association between Lee and the structure he was responsible for creating made it more than another college building. It has been used for many purposes: a place for celebrations, lectures, and academic assemblies a mausoleum, shrine, museum, and even a place of pilgrimage. For some, it is the “heart” of the university.


Avoyel- AT-150 - History

Louisiana was inhabited by Native Americans when European explorers arrived in the 17th century. Settlement and colonization began in the 18th century. Some current place names, including Atchafalaya, Natchitouches (now spelled Natchitoches), Caddo, Houma, Tangipahoa, and Avoyel (Avoyelles), are from Native American dialects.

Several native tribes inhabited the region (using current parish boundaries to describe approximate locations):

The Atakapa in southwestern Louisiana in Vermilion, Cameron, Lafayette, Acadia, Jefferson Davis, and Calcasieu parishes. The Atakapa also inhabited St. Landry Parish. Some were buried in the Catholic Church in Grand Coteau, LA according to Father Hebert's books.

The Chitimacha in the southeastern parishes of Iberia, Assumption, St Mary, lower St. Martin, Terrebonne, Lafourche, St. James, St. John the Baptist, St. Charles, Jefferson, Orleans, St. Bernard, and Plaquemines.

The Bayougoula, part of the Choctaw nation, in areas directly north of the Chitimachas in the parishes of St. Helena, Tangipahoa, Washington, East Baton Rouge, West Baton Rouge, Livingston, and St. Tammany.

The Houma in East and West Feliciana, and Pointe Coupee parishes (about 100 miles (160 km) north of the town named for them).

The Avoyel, part of the Natchez nation, in parts of Avoyelles and Concordia parishes along the Mississippi River.

The Tunica in northeastern parishes of Tensas, Madison, East Carroll and West Carroll.

The remainder of central and north Louisiana was home to a substantial portion of the Caddo nation.


Other Indian tribes driven into Louisiana after Europeans arrived included:

The Alabama tribe
The Biloxi tribe
The Koasati (Coushatta) tribe
The Ofo tribe

The four federally recognized tribes living in Louisiana today are:

Chitimacha Tribe of LA
PO Box 661
Charenton, LA 70523

Coushatta Tribe of LA
PO Box 818
Elton, LA 70532

Jena Band of Choctaw Indians
PO Box 14
Jena, LA 71342

Tunica-Biloxi Indian Tribe of LA
PO Box 331
Marksville, LA 71351

In addition to the above tribes, is:
Houma Indian Tribe
20986 Hwy 1
Golden Meadow, LA 70357


To mark the 150th anniversary of Goldman Sachs, documentary filmmaker Ric Burns chronicles the firm’s history from its founding after the Civil War up until today. Through in-depth interviews with leaders of the firm past and present, the films explore the evolution of Goldman Sachs and the global economy across a century and a half of growth, change and innovation.

Goldman Sachs was built through strong, enduring relationships and transformative business transactions. Learn about the clients, significant acquisitions and strategic pivot points from our early beginnings to today.

The Goldman Sachs culture values teamwork, client service and giving back to the communities we serve. It has been described as the foundation of the firm’s success.

The story of Goldman Sachs is a tale of global growth, entering new markets and advancing economic opportunities for clients and communities around the world.

Creativity and innovation have become hallmarks of Goldman Sachs – from creating the first price-to-earnings ratio, to initiating the investment banking business, to the technological reinvention of the modern IPO and beyond.

The importance of principled leadership – from our senior partners and CEOs to our role as drivers of our industry to the thought leadership we champion – is a key to understanding Goldman Sachs.

The people of Goldman Sachs have long valued their opportunity to give back through public service and volunteerism, humanitarian efforts and programs that foster economic progress in communities around the world.


Avoyel Indians

Avoyel Tribe: The name signifies probably “people of the rocks,” referring to flint and very likely applied because they were middlemen in supplying the Gulf coast tribes with flint. Also called:

  • Little Taensa, so-called from their relationship to the Taensa.
  • Tassenocogoula, name in the Mobilian trade language, meaning “flint people.”

Avoyel Connections. The testimony of early writers and circumstantial evidence render it almost certain that the Avoyel spoke a dialect of the Natchez group of the Muskhogean linguistic family.

Avoyel Location. In the neighborhood of the present Marksville, La.

Avoyel History. The Avoyel are mentioned first by Iberville in the account of his first expedition to Louisiana in 1699, where they appear under the Mobilian form of their name, Tassenocogoula. He did not meet any of the people, however, until the year following when he calls them “Little Taensas.” They were encountered by La Harpe in 1714, and Le Page du Pratz (1758) gives a short notice of them from which it appears that they acted as middlemen in disposing to the French of horses and cattle plundered from Spanish settlements. In 1764 they took part in an attack upon a British regiment ascending the Mississippi (see Ofo Indians), and they are mentioned by some later writers, but Sibley (1832) says they were extinct in 1805 except for two or three women “who did live among the French inhabitants of Washita.” In 1930 one of the Tunica Indians still claimed descent from this tribe.

Avoyel Population. I have estimated an Avoyel population of about 280 in 1698. Iberville and Bienville state that they had about 40 warriors shortly after this period. (See Taensa Indians)

Connection in which they have become noted. The name of the Avoyel is perpetuated in that of Avoyelles Parish, La.


Hayley Williams, Paramore

‘Pinch me’ moment … Paramore in 2017. Photograph: Christie Goodwin/Redferns

I’ve always thought of Paramore’s long game. I never cared how many miles we racked up in our van or how hard we worked: it’s my lifeblood. But being able to play the Royal Albert Hall with your best friends is one of the “pinch me” moments you dream about.

We played it in 2017, having spent the night before parked outside the venue in our bus, talking and having drinks and staring at the building until the wee hours of the morning. I wore sparkly heeled boots and we covered Fleetwood Mac’s Everywhere. When we stood out on the stage, I felt like for the first time in our career, we were introducing ourselves to the UK as grown-ass adults.


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