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Review: Volume 36 - English Literature

Review: Volume 36 - English Literature


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An entirely new kind of biography, Oscar’s Books explores the personality of Oscar Wilde through his reading. For Wilde, as for many people, reading could be as powerful and transformative an experience as falling in love. He referred to the volumes that radically altered his vision of the world as his ‘golden books’; he gave books as gifts – often as part of his seduction campaigns of young men; and sometimes he literally ate books, tearing off corners of paper and chewing them as he read. Wilde’s beloved book collection was sold at the time of his trials to pay creditors and legal costs. Thomas Wright, in the course of his intensive researches, has hunted down many of the missing volumes which contain revealing markings and personal annotations, never previously examined.

In this unique book, Keith Armstrong assesses the life and work of Newcastle born writer Jack Common, in the light of the massive social, economic and cultural changes which have affected the North East of England and wider society, through the period of Common's life and afterwards. He seeks to point out the relevance of Common to the present day in terms of his ideas about class, community and the individual and in the light of Common's sense of rebelliousness influenced by a process of grass roots education and self improvement.


The Oxford History of Classical Reception in English Literature: Volume 2: 1558-1660

This hefty second volume of the OHCREL, a massive project under the general editorship of David Hopkins and Charles Martindale, follows publication of volume 3 in 2012, and comes in close company with Volumes 1 and 4, all published in 2015-16. Cheney and Hardie’s remit is the English Renaissance, respecting a conventional periodicity as do all in the series: Volume 1 treats canonical mediaeval England (800-1558), while Volumes 3 and 4 cover respectively the long Eighteenth Century (1660-1790) and the high Romanticism through Victorianism of 1790-1880. Like the others, this book is full of stimulating material contributed by scholars from English Studies and Classics, the former outnumbering the latter. In a few instances inexperience on the classical side is evident, and there are, as would almost have to be the case, weaker as well as stronger contributions. But by far the majority of these chapters are substantial and enlightening no one remotely interested in the reception of classical literature and ideas in the English Renaissance should be without access to this book.

Yet there are lingering issues. Reception Studies, in its green youth, was an impertinent check on traditional models of classical influence. Post-classical works that somehow involved the words and ideas of Greek and Latin writers and works were not, under the new rubric, “imitating” the classics, laboring in their shadow, or somehow trying to bring them back into currency. The pioneering figures Jauss, Iser, Gadamer et al. turned us who grew up with ‘the Classical Tradition’ all backwards the authority of a Plato or Vergil —directing, influencing, dictating, modeling—was supplanted by the authority of the reader who processed and formulated a text’s meaning. Martindale’s oft-quoted mot that meaning is constituted at the moment of reception emblematized a theory or reading and a way of seeing classical literature through its presence in later writing and art. 1 Reception Studies are now no longer new, however useful its principles and strategies remain, and that does present a problem to scholars involved in a project like this one: how to preserve an element of currency while presenting a broad, historical survey whose anchoring principles are themselves part of that history. To their credit, the editors of this volume face up to the issue and attempt to turn reception into somewhat different ground. Briefly, this has amounted to flipping the prevalent notions of the reception of texts by authors and readers into a reception of generic “ideas,” manners and matters of language, and, conspicuously, authorship itself: the editors see post-classical writers and artists crafting their own self-conception as authors on the perceived authorship models offered by classical antecedents.

The editors do seem to me correct in broadly reiterating the role of classical authority in a period when the classical languages and texts, Latin texts primarily, often in digested, anthologized, and partial form, were central elements of the educational curriculum and features of prestige and popularity. The general idea of imitated classical authorship does, however, seem to restore very familiar ideas about the classical literary legacy. First, that legacy is explicitly meant (real reception here!) to be literary: this volume treats almost exclusively canonical works, largely held quite separate from sub-literary and non-literary contexts—this is so even in the “Contexts” section of this volume. Secondly, textual authority is restored to classical writers, and we are back to observing how post-classical writers “imitate” their classical “models,” a point emphasized by the editors. Some will find this a healthy reworking of the older bearings of the classical tradition—and a few contributors to this volume have made imitation, usually revisionary mimesis, a point of productive analysis (see particularly Colin Burrow’s “Shakespeare,” Ch. 27). But the earlier dispensation looms large, with the result that, despite the energetic drum-beating of the introduction, there is little that is conceptually or methodologically new here: apart from Cheney’s essay on literary careers (Chapter 8a), intermittent mentions of Spenser’s imitation of Vergil’s progress from pastoral to something vaguely like epic, and Martindale’s critical interrogation of Cheney’s argument for Marlowe’s “Ovidian trajectory” in Chapter 26, there is infrequent mention of authorship imitation in the book’s many chapters, whose authors, as is indicated in a saving footnote “have written on the topic as they see fit” (22). In fact, the value of most of the contributions lies in their demonstrating how mediated via Continental and Christianizing reception Renaissance English reception was, how spotty (despite Peter Mack’s statement that “virtually all the classical texts were available to English readers”(51)) ready access was to entire texts in their original languages, and how “plural and unresolved” in Burrow’s words (617) classical presences can be in later writers. This is conventionally understood reception. But it might be observed that conceptual novelty is precisely not what is wanted in a “history” of reception. Under the guidance of the series editors, the tenor of these volumes has been consistently measured, deliberate, and responsible, within carefully defined “literary” parameters. This volume is very much of that cloth, and its generally acute scholarship makes this as good as any in the series. 2

Minor bumps, few in a collection so big, generally originate in sweeping statements that override nuance or lead to false impressions: for instance, that Twentieth-century criticism “tended to treat Virgil as the poet of empire, supporter of an authoritarian regime” or that peripeteia and anagnorisis were traditional features of epic. There are others as well, and a typo or two, but as is the case with these churlishly selected examples, usually in the company of much else that is very good.

On a broader scale, the volume’s organization might be queried. Three large sections reflect the editors’ programmatic intentions (“Institutions and Contexts,” “Genres,” “Authors,” the last of these covering ten major classical and early modern authors). Yet one might reasonably wonder how some of the essays (Cora Fox on “Sexuality and Desire,” Ch. 8b, Cheney on “Literary Careers,” Ch. 8c, and Hardie on “Fame and Immortality,” Ch. 8d) really belong in the subheading “cultural contexts.” Or indeed, how Gavin Alexander’s “The Classics and Literary Criticism” (Ch.5) belongs in “Institutions and Contexts.”

The first, broad rubric, as it works out, treats a great many authors and, aside from other consequent issues, there is considerable overlap in these essays. Different perspectives can be useful when not merely repetitive, but, for example, by the time one gets to Richard McCabe’s brilliant Spenser chapter on page 557, one may feel already a little Spenser-sated. Indeed, Spenser can be hard to love the chivalric allegorizing of Christian virtue(s) in the Faerie Queene, for instance, can accord all too closely (rather than hypocritically conflict) with the brutal, colonialist bigotry of A View of the Present State of Ireland. McCabe gets there, while at the same time demonstrating why Spenser is such a necessary figure in any discussion of English reception. His careful unpacking of Spenser’s densely subtle negotiation of classical precedent and Christian authority and his own self-positioning (political and otherwise) through his generic turnabouts, the ventriloquism of his persona Colin and ‘E.K.’’s paratext in The Shepheardes Calender, and the deployment of allusion and classical reference, adumbrates an artistry that in the end transcends its component elements.

It is impossible to discuss all 32 chapters of this volume (followed by a weighty, though not comprehensive, annotated bibliography put together by Craig Kallendorf, a real service). Selective comments, then. The opening “Contexts” section is a grab bag containing primarily informational chapters there is little that is groundbreaking here and certainly not all of it is compelling reading, but no history of reception in this period could do without (most of) the information and perspective these chapters convey. Their foundational orientations serve as solid preamble to the meatier chapters of the “Genres” section where the volume takes flight. Helen Cooper in an exemplary chapter (Ch. 9), “Pastoral and Georgic,” tracks those genres from Spenser on through to Milton and, though the representative examples are unsurprising, Cooper brings to light their evolving political engagement (more to less) and how far from “narrow imitation” of Vergil Elizabethan poets were, how mediated and altered by Christianizing, European and contemporary English influences the genres would become. Her “Prose Romance” (Ch. 13) features classical and early modern generic interplays that render easy mapping of new to old difficult: “the classicism of most early modern English romance, therefore, is much more likely to be diffuse and allusive than it is to be an act of considered imitation…(295).”

Among other good reads in this section, Hardie (Ch. 10) surveys epic reception admirably, as one might expect, without too much treading on the toes of the epic-author essays later. William Fitzgerald, after dutifully surveying classical and early modern epistolary territory, turns attention engagingly to uses of the Ciceronian trope “epistula non erubescit”) picked up in the Renaissance and the tenor of familiaritas seen in Donne and others via Cicero and Seneca’s “si rem nullam habebis, quod in buccam venerit scribito”. Roland Greene’s “Elegy, Hymn, Epithalamium, Ode” (Ch. 14) refreshingly tracks an idea rather than surveys instances his theme might stand for several of the contributions: “… the adaptation of classical models into the vernacular entails a process of reinterpretation, which is masked by a common nomenclature…. each term [elegy, hymn…] is not only a register of received meanings but a metonymy of the negotiation between past and present” (311). Susanna Braund (“Complaint, Epigram, Satire,” Ch. 15) similarly elucidates reinterpretations, in this case of the satirists. It’s an essential piece, for no account of Elizabethan reception could overlook the scrappy infighting of Marston, Hall, & co. (Herrick’s happy formulation, “snaky Persius” (345) is from “pinge duos anguis, Sat. 1.113, but maybe those satirical hissy fits too), on the edge between high and low literary registers, or the later, normalizing permutations in Donne and Jonson. Here, as Braund correctly points out, “we have an intriguing chance to see English poetry at work self-consciously inventing itself” (345). Gordon Braden (“Tragedy,” Ch. 16), Bruce Smith (“Comedy,” Ch. 17), and Tanya Pollard (“Tragicomedy,” Ch. 18) trace these major genres’ interactions with classical authorities—Seneca, Aristotle, Donatus—and the immediate pressures of politics, taste, innovation, and invention. Or one can read the receptive lens differently, so that one might track, as Bart Van Es has (“Historiography and Biography,” Ch. 19), how shifting interests in different Roman historians, quite processed and assimilated, map onto shifting political landscapes and affiliations. Finally, Reid Barbour and Claire Preston (“Discursive and Speculative Writing,” Ch. 20), despite not dirtying their hands in the Latin or Greek of specific sources, take us on a stimulating, whirlwind tour of expository prose to some literary places and names new to me, and maybe you too.

A closing “Authors” group features several fine chapters: Jessica Wolfe on Homer (Ch. 21), Elizabeth Jane Bellamy on Plato (Ch. 22), Maggie Kilgour on Vergil and Ovid (Ch. 23), Victoria Moule on Horace (Ch. 24), McCabe on Spenser (Ch. 25), and Burrow on Shakespeare (Ch. 27) stand out, as I read them. But mine is but one reception of this many-minded reception that can be taken lots of ways and in other directions. Readers will find startling, contentious, irritating, insightful and otherwise remarkable things in chapters I’ve not commented on as well. What cannot be argued, I think, is the considerable extent to which these classically receptive readings crack open Renaissance English literature to enlightening view.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction, Patrick Cheney and Philip Hardie
Part I: Institutions and Contexts
2. The Classics in Humanism, Education, and Scholarship, Peter Mack
3. The Availability of the Classics: Readers, Writers, Translation, Performance, Stuart Gillespie
4. Classical Rhetoric in English, Peter Mack
5. The Classics in Literary Criticism, Gavin Alexander
6. Classics and Christianity, Mark Vessey
7. Women Writers and the Classics, Jane Stevenson
8. Cultural Contexts
a) Politics and Nationalism, Curtis Perry
b) Sexuality and Desire, Cora Fox
c) Literary Careers, Patrick Cheney
d) Fame and Immortality, Philip Hardie

Part II: Genres
9. Pastoral and Georgic, Helen Cooper
10. Epic Poetry, Philip Hardie
11. Elizabethan Minor Epic, Lynn Enterline
12. The Epistolary Tradition, William Fitzgerald
13. Prose Romance, Helen Moore
14. Elegy, Hymn, Epithalamium, Ode: Some Renaissance Reinterpretations, Roland Greene
15. Complaint, Epigram, and Satire, Susanna Braund
16. Tragedy, Gordone Braden
17. Comedy, Bruce Smith
18. Tragicomedy, Tanya Pollard
19. Historiography and Biography, Bart Vanes
20. Discursive and Speculative Writing, Reid Barbour and Claire Preston

Part III: Authors
21. Homer, Jessica Wolfe
22. Plato, Elizabeth Jane Bellamy
23. Virgil and Ovid, Maggie Kilgour
24. Horace, Victoria Moul (with a contribution by Charles Martindale)
25. Spenser, Richard McCabe
26. Marlowe, Charles Martindale
27. Shakespeare, Colin Burrow
28. Jonson, Sean Keilen
29. Early Milton, Thomas Luxon
Classical Reception in English Literature, 1558-1660: An Annotated Bibliography, Craig Kallendorf
Index

1. Redeeming the Text: Latin Poetry and the Hermeneutics of Reception (Cambridge: CUP, 1993), p. 3.


A Brief History of English Literature

The Old English language or Anglo-Saxon is the earliest form of English. The period is a long one and it is generally considered that Old English was spoken from about A.D. 600 to about 1100. Many of the poems of the period are pagan, in particular Widsith and Beowulf.

The greatest English poem, Beowulf is the first English epic. The author of Beowulf is anonymous. It is a story of a brave young man Beowulf in 3182 lines. In this epic poem, Beowulf sails to Denmark with a band of warriors to save the King of Denmark, Hrothgar. Beowulf saves Danish King Hrothgar from a terrible monster called Grendel. The mother of Grendel who sought vengeance for the death of her son was also killed by Beowulf. Beowulf was rewarded and became King. After a prosperous reign of some forty years, Beowulf slays a dragon but in the fight he himself receives a mortal wound and dies. The poem concludes with the funeral ceremonies in honour of the dead hero. Though the poem Beowulf is little interesting to contemporary readers, it is a very important poem in the Old English period because it gives an interesting picture of the life and practices of old days.

The difficulty encountered in reading Old English Literature lies in the fact that the language is very different from that of today. There was no rhyme in Old English poems. Instead they used alliteration.

Besides Beowulf, there are many other Old English poems. Widsith, Genesis A, Genesis B, Exodus, The Wanderer, The Seafarer, Wife’s Lament, Husband’s Message, Christ and Satan, Daniel, Andreas, Guthlac, The Dream of the Rood, The Battle of Maldon etc. are some of the examples.

Two important figures in Old English poetry are Cynewulf and Caedmon. Cynewulf wrote religious poems and the four poems, Juliana, The Fates of the Apostles, Christ and Elene are always credited with him. Caedmon is famous for his Hymn.

Alfred enriched Old English prose with his translations especially Bede’s Ecclesiastical History. Aelfric is another important prose writer during Old English period. He is famous for his Grammar, Homilies and Lives of the Saints. Aelfric’s prose is natural and easy and is very often alliterative.

CHAPTER 2

Middle English Literature

Geoffrey Chaucer
Poet Geoffrey Chaucer was born circa 1340 in London, England. In 1357 he became a public servant to Countess Elizabeth of Ulster and continued in that capacity with the British court throughout his lifetime. The Canterbury Tales became his best known and most acclaimed work. He died in 1400 and was the first to be buried in Westminster Abbey’s Poet’s Corner.

Chaucer’s first major work was ‘The Book of the Duchess’, an elegy for the first wife of his patron John of Gaunt. Other works include ‘Parlement of Foules’, ‘The Legend of Good Women’ and ‘Troilus and Criseyde’. In 1387, he began his most famous work, ‘The Canterbury Tales’, in which a diverse group of people recount stories to pass the time on a pilgrimage to Canterbury.

William Langland, (born c. 1330—died c. 1400), presumed author of one of the greatest examples of Middle English alliterative poetry, generally known as Piers Plowman, an allegorical work with a complex variety of religious themes. One of the major achievements of Piers Plowman is that it translates the language and conceptions of the cloister into symbols and images that could be understood by the layman. In general, the language of the poem is simple and colloquial, but some of the author’s imagery is powerful and direct.

PERIODS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DRAMA

In Europe, as in Greece, the drama had a distinctly religious origin. The first characters were drawn from the New Testament, and the object of the first plays was to make the church service more impressive, or to emphasize moral lessons by showing the reward of the good and the punishment of the evil doer. In the latter days of the Roman Empire the Church found the stage possessed by frightful plays, which debased the morals of a people already fallen too low. Reform seemed impossible the corrupt drama was driven from the stage, and plays of every kind were forbidden. But mankind loves a spectacle, and soon the Church itself provided a substitute for the forbidden plays in the famous Mysteries and Miracles.

MIRACLE AND MYSTERY PLAYS

In France the name miracle was given to any play representing the lives of the saints, while the mystère represented scenes from the life of Christ or stories from the Old Testament associated with the coming of Messiah. In England this distinction was almost unknown the name Miracle was used indiscriminately for all plays having their origin in the Bible or in the lives of the saints and the name Mystery, to distinguish a certain class of plays, was not used until long after the religious drama had passed away.

The earliest Miracle of which we have any record in England is the Ludus de Sancta Katharina, which was performed in Dunstable about the year 1110. It is not known who wrote the original play of St. Catherine, but our first version was prepared by Geoffrey of St. Albans, a French schoolteacher of Dunstable. Whether or not the play was given in English is not known, but it was customary in the earliest plays for the chief actors to speak in Latin or French, to show their importance, while minor and comic parts of the same play were given in English.

For four centuries after this first recorded play the Miracles increased steadily in number and popularity in England. They were given first very simply and impressively in the churches then, as the actors increased in number and the plays in liveliness, they overflowed to the churchyards but when fun and hilarity began to predominate even in the most sacred representations, the scandalized priests forbade plays altogether on church grounds. By the year 1300 the Miracles were out of ecclesiastical hands and adopted eagerly by the town guilds and in the following two centuries we find the Church preaching against the abuse of the religious drama which it had itself introduced, and which at first had served a purely religious purpose. But by this time the Miracles had taken strong hold upon the English people, and they continued to be immensely popular until, in the sixteenth century, they were replaced by the Elizabethan drama.

The early Miracle plays of England were divided into two classes: the first, given at Christmas, included all plays connected with the birth of Christ the second, at Easter, included the plays relating to his death and triumph. By the beginning of the fourteenth century all these plays were, in various localities, united in single cycles beginning with the Creation and ending with the Final Judgment. The complete cycle was presented every spring, beginning on Corpus Christi day and as the presentation of so many plays meant a continuous outdoor festival of a week or more, this day was looked forward to as the happiest of the whole year.

Probably every important town in England had its own cycle of plays for its own guilds to perform, but nearly all have been lost. At the present day only four cycles exist (except in the most fragmentary condition), and these, though they furnish an interesting commentary on the times, add very little to our literature. The four cycles are the Chester and York plays, so called from the towns in which they were given the Towneley or Wakefield plays, named for the Towneley family, which for a long time owned the manuscript and the Coventry plays, which on doubtful evidence have been associated with the Grey Friars (Franciscans) of Coventry. The Chester cycle has 25 plays, the Wakefield 30, the Coventry 42, and the York 48. It is impossible to fix either the date or the authorship of any of these plays we only know certainly that they were in great favor from the twelfth to the sixteenth century. The York plays are generally considered to be the best but those of Wakefield show more humor and variety, and better workmanship. The former cycle especially shows a certain unity resulting from its aim to represent the whole of man’s life from birth to death. The same thing is noticeable in Cursor Mundi, which, with the York and Wakefield cycles, belongs to the fourteenth century.

After these plays were written according to the general outline of the Bible stories, no change was tolerated, the audience insisting, like children at “Punch and Judy,” upon seeing the same things year after year. No originality in plot or treatment was possible, therefore the only variety was in new songs and jokes, and in the pranks of the devil. Childish as such plays seem to us, they are part of the religious development of all uneducated people. Even now the Persian play of the “Martyrdom of Ali” is celebrated yearly, and the famous “Passion Play,” a true Miracle, is given every ten years at Oberammergau.

THE MORAL PERIOD OF THE DRAMA

The second or moral period of the drama is shown by the increasing prevalence of the Morality plays. In these the characters were allegorical personages,–Life, Death, Repentance, Goodness, Love, Greed, and other virtues and vices. The Moralities may be regarded, therefore, as the dramatic counterpart of the once popular allegorical poetry exemplified by the Romance of the Rose. It did not occur to our first, unknown dramatists to portray men and women as they are until they had first made characters of abstract human qualities. Nevertheless, the Morality marks a distinct advance over the Miracle in that it gave free scope to the imagination for new plots and incidents. In Spain and Portugal these plays, under the name auto, were wonderfully developed by the genius of Calderon and Gil Vicente but in England the Morality was a dreary kind of performance, like the allegorical poetry which preceded it.

To enliven the audience the devil of the Miracle plays was introduced and another lively personage called the Vice was the predecessor of our modern clown and jester. His business was to torment the “virtues” by mischievous pranks, and especially to make the devil’s life a burden by beating him with a bladder or a wooden sword at every opportunity. The Morality generally ended in the triumph of virtue, the devil leaping into hell-mouth with Vice on his back.

The best known of the Moralities is “Everyman,” which has recently been revived in England and America. The subject of the play is the summoning of every man by Death and the moral is that nothing can take away the terror of the inevitable summons but an honest life and the comforts of religion. In its dramatic unity it suggests the pure Greek drama there is no change of time or scene, and the stage is never empty from the beginning to the end of the performance. Other well-known Moralities are the “Pride of Life,” “Hyckescorner,” and “Castell of Perseverance.” In the latter, man is represented as shut up in a castle garrisoned by the virtues and besieged by the vices.

Like the Miracle plays, most of the old Moralities are of unknown date and origin. Of the known authors of Moralities, two of the best are John Skelton, who wrote “Magnificence,” and probably also “The Necromancer” and Sir David Lindsay (1490-1555), “the poet of the Scotch Reformation,” whose religious business it was to make rulers uncomfortable by telling them unpleasant truths in the form of poetry. With these men a new element enters into the Moralities. They satirize or denounce abuses of Church and State, and introduce living personages thinly disguised as allegories so that the stage first becomes a power in shaping events and correcting abuses.

THE INTERLUDES

It is impossible to draw any accurate line of distinction between the Moralities and Interludes. In general we may think of the latter as dramatic scenes, sometimes given by themselves (usually with music and singing) at banquets and entertainments where a little fun was wanted and again slipped into a Miracle play to enliven the audience after a solemn scene. Thus on the margin of a page of one of the old Chester plays we read, “The boye and pigge when the kinges are gone.” Certainly this was no part of the original scene between Herod and the three kings. So also the quarrel between Noah and his wife is probably a late addition to an old play. The Interludes originated, undoubtedly, in a sense of humor and to John Heywood (1497?-1580?), a favorite retainer and jester at the court of Mary, is due the credit for raising the Interlude to the distinct dramatic form known as comedy.

Heywood’s Interludes were written between 1520 and 1540. His most famous is “The Four P’s,” a contest of wit between a “Pardoner, a Palmer, a Pedlar and a Poticary.” The characters here strongly suggest those of Chaucer. Another interesting Interlude is called “The Play of the Weather.” In this Jupiter and the gods assemble to listen to complaints about the weather and to reform abuses. Naturally everybody wants his own kind of weather. The climax is reached by a boy who announces that a boy’s pleasure consists in two things, catching birds and throwing snowballs, and begs for the weather to be such that he can always do both. Jupiter decides that he will do just as he pleases about the weather, and everybody goes home satisfied.

All these early plays were written, for the most part, in a mingling of prose and wretched doggerel, and add nothing to our literature. Their great work was to train actors, to keep alive the dramatic spirit, and to prepare the way for the true drama.

CHAPTER 3

ELIZABEHAN POETRY AND PROSE

After the death of Geoffrey Chaucer in 1400, a century has gone without great literary outputs. This period is known as Barren Age of literature.

Even though there are many differences in their work, Sir Thomas Wyatt and the Earl of Surrey are often mentioned together. Sir Thomas Wyatt introduced the Sonnet in England whereas Surrey wrote the first blank verse in English.

Thomas Wyatt followed the Italian poet Petrarch to compose sonnets. In this form, the 14 lines rhyme abbaabba (8) + 2 or 3 rhymes in the last six lines.

The Earl of Surrey’s blank verse is remarkable. Christopher Marlow, Shakespeare, Milton and many other writers made use of it.

Tottel’s Songs and Sonnets (1557) is the first printed anthology of English poetry. It contained 40 poems by Surrey and 96 by Wyatt. There were 135 by other authors. Some of these poems were fine, some childish.

In 1609, a collection of Shakespeare’s 154 sonnets was printed. These sonnets were addressed to one “Mr. W.H.”. The most probable explanation of the identity of “W.H.” is that he was William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke.

Other people mentioned in the sonnets are a girl, a rival poet, and a dark-eyed beauty. Shakespeare’s two long poems, Venus and Adonis, The Rape of Lucrece are notable.

One of the most important poets of Elizabethan period is Edmund Spenser (1552-1599). He has been addressed “the poets’ poet”. His pastoral poem, The Shepeard’s Calendar (1579) is in 12 books, one for each month of the year. Spenser’s Amoretti, 88 Petrarchan sonnets clebrates his progress of love. The joy of his marriage with Elizabeth Boyle is expressed in his ode Epithalamion. His Prothalamion is written in honour of the double marriage of the daughters of the Earl of Worester. Spenser’s allegorical poem, The Faerie Queene is his greatest achievement. Spenser invented a special metre for The Faerie Queene. The verse has nine lines and the rhyme plan is ababbcbcc. This verse is known as the ‘Spenserian Stanza’.

Sir Philip Sidney is remembered for his prose romance, Arcadia. His critical essay Apology for Poetry, sonnet collection Astrophel and Stella are elegant.

Michael Drayton and Sir Walter Raleigh are other important poets of Elizabethan England. Famous Elizabethan dramatist Ben Jonson produced fine poems also.

The University Wits John Lyly, Thomas Kyd, George Peele, Thomas Lodge, Robert Green, Christopher Marlow, and Thomas Nash also wrote good number of poems. John Lyly is most widely known as the author of prose romance entitled Euphues. The style Lyly used in his Euphues is known as Euphuism. The sentences are long and complicated. It is filled with tricks and alliteration. Large number of similes are brought in.

John Donne’s works add the beauty of Elizabethan literature. He was the chief figure of Metaphysical Poetry. Donne’s poems are noted for its originality and striking images and conceits. Satires, Songs and Sonnets, Elegies, The Flea, A Valediction: forbidding mourning, A Valediction: of weeping etc. are his famous works.

Sir Francis Bacon is a versatile genius of Elizabethan England. He is considered as the father of English essays. His Essays first appeared in 1597, the second edition in 1612 and the third edition in 1625. Besides essays, he wrote The Advancement of Learning, New Atlantis and History of Henry VII.

Bacon’s popular essays are Of Truth, Of Friendship, Of Love, Of Travel, Of Parents and Children, Of Marriage and Single Life, Of Anger, Of Revenge, Of Death, etc.

Ben Jonson’s essays are compiled in The Timber or Discoveries. His essays are aphoristic like those of Bacon. Jonson is considered as the father of English literary criticism.

Many attempts were carried out to translate Bible into English. After the death of John Wycliff, William Tyndale tried on this project. Coverdale carried on the work of Tyndale. The Authorized Version of Bible was published in 1611.

CHAPTER 4

ELIZABETHAN DRAMA

The English dramas have gone through great transformation in Elizabethan period. The chief literary glory of the Elizabethan age was its drama. The first regular English comedy was Ralph Roister Doister written by Nicholas Udall. Another comedy Gammar Gurton’s Needle is about the loss and the finding of a needle with which the old woman Gammar Gurton mends clothes.

The first English tragedy was Gorboduc, in blank verse. The first three acts of Gorboduc writtern by Thomas Norton and the other two by Thomas Sackville.

The University Wits contributed hugely for the growth of Elizabethan drama. The University Wits were young men associated with Oxford and Cambridge. They were fond of heroic themes. The most notable figures are Christopher Marlow, Thomas Kyd, Thomas Nash, Thomas Lodge, Robert Greene, and George Peele.

Christopher Marlow was the greatest of pre-Shakespearean dramatist. Marlow wrote only tragedies. His most famous works are Edward II, Tamburlaine the Great, The Jew of Malta, The Massacre at Paris, and Doctor Faustus. Marlow popularized the blank verse. Ben Jonson called it “the mighty line of Marlow”.

Thomas Kyd’s The Spanish Tragedy is a Senecan play. It resembles Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Its horrific plot gave the play a great and lasting popularity.

The greatest literary figure of English, William Shakespeare was born at Stratford-on-Avon on April 26, 1564. He did odd jobs and left to London for a career. In London, he wrote plays for Lord Chamberlain’s company. Shakespeare’s plays can be classified as the following

1.The Early Comedies: in these immature plays the plots are not original. The characters are less finished and the style lacks the genius of Shakespeare. They are full of wit and word play. Of this type are The Comedy of Errors, Love’s Labour’s Lost, and The Two Gentlemen of Verona.

2.The English Histories: These plays show a rapid maturing of Shakespeare’s technique. His characterization has improved. The plays in this group are Richard II, Henry IV and Henry V.

3. The Mature Comedies: The jovial good humour of Sir Toby Belch in Twelfth Night, the urban worldywise comedy of Touchstone in As You Like It, and the comic scenes in The Merchant of Venice, Much Ado About Nothing etc. are full of vitality. They contain many comic situations.

4.The Sombre Plays: In this group are All’s Well that Ends Well, Measure for Measure, and Trolius and Cressida. These plays show a cynical attitude to life and are realistic in plot.

5. The Great Tragedies: Hamlet, Othello, Macbeth, and King Lear are the climax of Shakespeare’s art. These plays stand supreme in intensity of emotion, depth of psychological insight, and power of style.

6. The Roman Plays: Julius Caesar, Antony and Cleopatra, Coriolanus etc. follow the great tragic period. Unlike Marlow, Shakespeare is relaxed in the intensity of tragedy.

7. The Last Plays: The notable last plays of Shakespeare are Cymbeline, The Winter’s Tale, and The Tempest.

The immense power and variety of Shakespeare’s work have led to the idea that one man cannot have written it all yet it must be true that one man did. Thus Shakespeare remains as the greatest English dramatist even after four centuries of his death.

Other dramatist who flourished during the Elizabethan period is Ben Jonson. He introduced the “comedy of humours’’, which portrays the individual as dominated by one marked characteristic. He is best known for his Every Man in his Humour. Other important plays of Jonson are Every Man out of his Humour, Volpone or the Fox, and The Alchemist,

John Webster’s The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi are important Elizabethan dramas. Thomas Dekker, Thomas Middleton, Thomas Heywood, Beaumont and Fletcher etc. are other noted Elizabethan playwrights.

CHAPTER 5

John Milton and His Time

John Milton (1608- 1674) was born in London and educated at Christ’s College, Cambridge. After leaving university, he studied at home. Milton was a great poet, polemic, pamphleteer, theologian, and parliamentarian. In 1643, Milton married a woman much younger than himself. She left Milton and did not return for two years. This unfortunate incident led Milton to write two strong pamphlets on divorce. The greatest of all his political writings is Areopagitica, a notable and impassioned plea for the liberty of the press.

Milton’s early poems include On Shakespeare, and On Arriving at the Age of Twenty-three. L’Allegro(the happy man and Il Penseroso (the sad man) two long narrative poems. Comus is a masque written by Milton when he was at Cambridge.

His pastoral elegy Lycidas is on his friend, Edward King who drowned to death on a voyage to Ireland. Milton’s one of the sonnets deals with the theme of his blindness.

Milton is remembered for his greatest epic poem Paradise Lost. Paradise Lost contained twelve books and published in 1677. Milton composed it in blank verse. Paradise Lost covers the rebellion of Satan(Lucifer) in heaven and his expulsion. Paradise Lost contains hundreds of remarkable lines. Milton coined many words in this poem.

Paradise Regained and Samson Agonistes are other two major poems of Milton.

Milton occupies a central position in English literature. He was a great Puritan and supported Oliver Cromwell in the Civil War. He wrote many pamphlet in support of parliament.

LYRIC POETS DURING MILTON’S PERIOD (THE CAVALIER POETS)

Milton’s period produced immense lyric poetry. These lyrical poets dealt chiefly with love and war.

Richard Lovelace’s Lucasta contains the best of his shorter pieces. His best known lyrics, such as To Althea, from Prison and To Lucasta, going in the Wars, are simple and sincere.

Sir John Suckling was a famous wit at court. His poems are generous and witty. His famous poem is Ballad upon a Wedding.

Robert Herrick wrote some fresh and passionate lyrics. Among his best known shorter poems are To Althea, To Julia, and Cherry Ripe.

Philip Massinger and John Ford produced some notable in this period.

Many prose writers flourished during Milton’s age. Sir Thomas Browne is the best prose writer of the period. His ReligioMedici is a curious mixture of religious faith and scientific skepticism. Pseudodoxia Epidemica, or Vulgar Errors is another important work.

Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan, Thomas Fuller’s The History of the Holy War are other important prose works during this period. Izaac Walton’s biography of John Donne is a very famous work of Milton’s period. His Compleat Angler discusses the art of river fishing.

CHAPTER 6

RESTORATION DRAMA AND PROSE

The Restoration of Charles II (1660) brought about a revolution in English literature. With the collapse of the Puritan Government there sprang up activities that had been so long suppressed. The Restoration encouraged levity in rules that often resulted in immoral and indecent plays.

John Dryden (1631-1700)

Dryden is the greatest literary figure of the Restoration. In his works, we have an excellent reflection of both the good and the bad tendencies of the age in which he lived. Before the Restoration, Dryden supported Oliver Cromwell. At the Restoration, Dryden changed his views and became loyal to Charles II. His poem Astrea Redux (1660) celebrated Charles II’s return.

Dryden’s Annus Mirabilis(Miracle Year) describes the terrors of Great Fire in London in 1666. Dryden appeared as the chief literary champion of the monarchy in his famous satirical allegory, Abasalom and Achitophel. John Dryden is now remembered for his greatest mock-heroic poem, Mac Flecknoe. Mac Flecknoe is a personal attack on his rival poet Thomas Shadwell.

Dryden’s other important poems are Religio Laici, and The Hind and the Panther.

John Dryden popularized heroic couplets in his dramas. Aurengaxebe, The Rival Ladies, The Conquest of Granada, Don Sebastian etc. are some of his famous plays.

His dramatic masterpiece is All for Love. Dryden polished the plot of Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra in his All for Love.

As a prose writer, Dryden’s work, An Essay on Dramatic Poesie is worth mentioning.

John Bunyan’s greatest allegory, The Pilgrim’s Progress, The Holy War,

Comedy of Manners

Restoration period produced a brilliant group of dramatists who made this age immortal in the history of English literature. These plays are hard and witty, comic and immoral. It was George Etheredge who introduced Comedy of Manners. His famous plays are She Would if She Could, The Man of Mode and Love in a Tub.

William Congreve is the greatest of Restoration comedy writers. His Love for Love, The Old Bachelor, The Way of the World and The Double Dealer are very popular.

William Wycherley is another important Restoration comedy playwright. His Country Wife, and Love in a Wood are notable plays.

Sir John Vanbrugh’s best three comedies are The Provoked Wife, The Relapse and The Confederacy.

CHAPTER 7

ENGLISH POETS, 1660-1798

ALEXANDER POPE (1688-1744)

Alexander Pope was the undisputed master of both prose and verse. Pope wrote many poems and mock-epics attacking his rival poets and social condition of England. His Dunciad is an attack on dullness. He wrote An Essay on Criticism (1711) in heroic couplets. In 1712, Pope pubished The Rape of the Lock, one of the most brilliant poems in English language. It is a mock-heroic poem dealing with the fight of two noble families.

An Essay on Man, Of the Characters of Women, and the translation of Illiad and Odyssey are his other major works.

Oliver Goldsmith wrote two popular poems in heroic couplets. They are The Traveller and The Deserted Village.

James Thompson is remembered for his long series of descriptive passages dealing with natural scenes in his poem The Seasons. He wrote another important poem The Castle of Indolence.

Edward Young produced a large amount of literary work of variable quality. The Last Day, The Love of Fame, and The Force of Religion are some of them.

Robert Blair’s fame is chiefly dependent on his poem The Grave. It is a long blank verse poem of meditation on man’s morality.

Thomas Gray (1716-1771) is one of the greatest poets of English literature. His first poem was the Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College. Then after years of revision, he published his famous Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard. Its popularity had been maintained to the present day. Other important poems of Thomas Gray are Ode on a Favourite Cat, The Bard and The Progress of Poesy.

William Blake (1757-1827) is both a great poet and artist. His two collections of short lyrics are Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience. His finest lyric is The Tiger.

Robert Burns is known as the national poet of Scotland. A Winter Night, O My Love is like a Red Red Rose, The Holy Fair etc. are some of his major poems.

William Cowper, William Collins, and William Shenstone are other notable poets before the Romanticism.

CHAPTER 8

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY PROSE

DANIEL DEFOE (1659-1731)

Daniel Defoe wrote in bulk. His greatest work is the novel Robinson Crusoe. It is based on an actual event which took place during his time. Robinson Crusoe is considered to be one of the most popular novels in English language. He started a journal named The Review. His A Journal of the Plague Year deals with the Plague in London in 1665.

Sir Richard Steele and Joseph Addison worked together for many years. Richard Steele started the periodicals The Tatler, The Spectator, The Guardian, The English Man, and The Reader. Joseph Addison contributed in these periodicals and wrote columns. The imaginary character of Sir Roger de Coverley was very popular during the eighteenth century.

Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) is one of the greatest satirists of English literature. His first noteworthy book was The Battle of the Books. A Tale of a Tub is a religious allegory like Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress. His longest and most famous work is Gulliver’s Travels. Another important work of Jonathan Swift is A Modest Proposal.

Dr. Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) is very much famous for his Dictionary (1755). The Vanity of Human Wishes is a longish poem by him. Johnson started a paper named The Rambler. His The Lives of the Poets introduces fifty-two poets including Donne, Dryden, Pope, Milton, and Gray. Most of the information about Johnson is taken from his friend James Boswell’s biography Life of Samuel Johnson.

Edward Gibbon is famous for the great historical work, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. His Autobiography contains valuable material concerning his life.

Edmund Burke is one of the masters of English prose. He was a great orator also. His speech On American Taxation is very famous. Revolution in France and A Letter to a Noble Lord are his notable pamphlets.

The letters of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Earl of Chesterfield, Thomas Gray and Cowper are good prose works in Eighteenth century literature.

The Birth of English Novel

The English novel proper was born about the middle of the eighteenth century. Samuel Richardson (1689-1761) is considered as the father of English novel. He published his first novel Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded in 1740. This novel is written in the form of letters. Thus Pamela is an ‘epistolary novel’. The character Pamela is a poor and virtuous woman who marries a wicked man and afterwards reforms her husband. Richardson’s next novel Clarissa Harlowe was also constructed in the form of letters. Many critics consider Clarissa as Richardson’s masterpiece. Clarissa is the beautiful daughter of a severe father who wants her to marry against her will. Clarissa is a very long novel.

Henry Fielding (1707-1754) is another important novelist. He published Joseph Andrews in 1742. Joseph Andrews laughs at Samuel Richardson’s Pamela. His greatest novel is Tom Jones. Henry Fielding’s last novel is Amelia.

Tobias Smollett wrote a ‘picaresque novel’ titled The Adventures of Roderick Random. His other novels are The Adventures of Ferdinand and Humphry Clinker.

Laurence Sterne is now remembered for his masterpiece Tristram Shandy which was published in 1760. Another important work of Laurence Sterne is A Sentimental journey through France and Italy. These novels are unique in English literature. Sterne blends humour and pathos in his works.

Horace Walpole is famous both as a letter writer and novelist. His one and only novel The Castle of Otranto deals with the horrific and supernatural theme.

Other ‘terror novelists’ include William Beckford and Mrs Ann Radcliffe.

CHAPTER 9

EARLY NINTEENTH CENTURY POETS (THE ROMANTICS)

The main stream of poetry in the eighteenth century had been orderly and polished, without much feeling for nature. The publication of the first edition of the Lyrical Ballads in 1798 came as a shock. The publication of Lyrical Ballads by William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge was the beginning of the romantic age. They together with Southey are known as the Lake Poets, because they liked the Lake district in England and lived in it.

William Wordsworth ((1770-1850) was the poet of nature. In the preface to the second edition of the Lyrical Ballads, Wordsworth set out his theory of poetry. He defined poetry as “the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings and emotions”. His views on poetical style are the most revolutionary.

In his early career as a poet, Wordsworth wrote poems like An Evening Walk and Descriptive Sketches. The Prelude is the record of his development as a poet. It is a philosophical poem. He wrote some of the best lyric poems in the English language like The Solitary Reaper, I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud, Ode on the Itimations of Immorality, Resolution and Independence etc. Tintern Abbey is one of the greatest poems of Wordsworth.

Samuel Tylor Coleridge (1772-1814) wrote four poems for The Lyrical Ballads. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner is the most noteworthy. Kubla Khan, Christabel, Dejection an Ode, Frost at Midnight etc. are other important poems. Biographia Literaria is his most valuable prose work. Coleridge’s lectures on Shakespeare are equally important.

Lord Byron’s Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage was based on his travels. Don Juan ranks as one of the greatest of satirical poems. The Vision of Judgment is a fine political satire in English.

PB Shelley (1792-1822) was a revolutionary figure of Romantic period. When Shelley was studying at Oxford, he wrote the pamphlet The Necessity of Atheism which caused his expulsion from the university. Queen Mab, The Revolt of Islam and Alastor are his early poems. Prometheus Unbound is a combination of the lyric and the drama. Shelley wrote some of the sweetest English lyrics like To a Skylark, The Cloud, To Night etc. Of his many odes, the most remarkable is Ode to the West Wind. Adonais is an elegy on the death of John Keats.

John Keats (1795-1821) is another great Romantic poet who wrote some excellent poems in his short period of life. His Isabella deals with the murder of a lady’s lover by her two wicked brothers. The unfinished epic poem Hyperion is modelled on Milton’s Paradise Lost. The Eve of St Agnes is regarded as his finest narrative poem. The story of Lamia is taken from Burton’s Anatomy of Melancholy. Endymion, Ode to a Nightingale, Ode on a Grecian Urn, Ode to Psyche, Ode on Melancholy and Ode to Autumn are very famous. His Letters give give a clear insight into his mind and artistic development.

Robert Southey is a minor Romantic poet. His poems, which are of great bulk, include Joan of Arc, Thalaba, and The Holly-tree. 4

CHAPTER 10

LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY POETS (Victorian Poets)

Alfred Lord Tennyson (1809-92) is a chief figure of later nineteenth century poetry. His volume of Poems contain notable poems like The Lady of Shalott, The Lotos-Eaters, Ulysses, Morte d’ Arthur.The story ofMorte d’ Arthur is based on Thomas Malory’s poemMorte d’ Arthur. In Memoriam(1850) caused a great stir when it first appeared. It is a very long series of meditations upon the death of Arthur Henry Hallam, Tennyson’s college friend, who died at Vienna in 1833. In Memoriam is the most deeply emotional, and probably the greatest poetry he ever produced. Maud and Other Poems was received with amazement by the public. Idylls of the King, Enoch Arden, Haroldetc. are his other works.

Robert Browning (1812-89) is an English poet and playwright whose mastery of dramatic monologues made him one of the foremost Victorian poets. He popularized ‘dramatic monologue’. The Ring and the Book is an epic-length poem in which he justifies the ways of God to humanity Browning is popularly known by his shorter poems, such as Porphyria’s Lover, Rabbi Ben Ezra, How They Brought the Good News from Ghent to Aix, and The Pied Piper of Hamelin. He married Elizabeth Barrett, another famous poet during the Victorian period. Fra Lippo Lippi Andrea Del Sarto and My Last Duchess are famous dramatic monologues.

Matthew Arnold (1822-1888) was an English poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools. He was the son of Thomas Arnold, the famed headmaster of Rugby School. Arnold is sometimes called the third great Victorian poet, along with Alfred Lord Tennyson and Robert Browning.
Arnold valued natural scenery for its peace and permanence in contrast with the ceaseless change of human things. His descriptions are often picturesque, and marked by striking similes. Thyrsis, Dover Beach and The Scholar Gipsy are his notable poems.

Dante Gabriel Rossetti was an English poet, illustrator, painter and translator in the late nineteenth century England. Rossotti’s poems were criticized as belonging to the ‘Fleshy School’ of poetry. Rossetti wrote about nature with his eyes on it.

Elizabeth Barrett Browning, wife of Robert Browning wrote some excellent poems in her volume of Sonnets from the Portuguese.

AC Swinburne followed the style of Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Swinburne’s famous poems works are Poems and Ballads and tristram of Lyonesse.

Edward Fitzgerald translated the Rubaiyat of the Persian poet Omar Khayyam. Fitzgerald’s translation is loose and did not stick too closely to the original.

Rudyard Kipling and Francis Thompson also wrote some good poems during the later nineteenth century.

Chapter 11

Nineteenth Century Novelists (Victorian Novelists)

Jane Austen 1775-1817 is one of the greatest novelists of nineteenth century English literature. Her first novel Pride and Prejudice (1813) deals with the life of middle class people. The style is smooth and charming. Her second novel Sense and Sensibility followed the same general lines of Pride and Prejudice. Northanger Abbey, Emma, Mansfield Park, and Persuasion are some of the other famous works. Jane Austen’s plots are skillfully constructed. Her characters are developed with minuteness and accuracy.

Charles Dickens (1812-1870) is considered as one of the greatest English novelists. Dickens has contributed some evergreen characters to English literature. He was a busy successful novelist during his lifetime. The Pickwick Papers and Sketches by Boz are two early novels. Oliver Twist, Nicholas Nickleby , David Copperfield, Hard Times, A Tale of Two Cities and Great Expectations are some of the most famous novels of Charles Dickens. No English novelists excel Dickens in the multiplicity of his characters and situations. He creates a whole world people for the readers. He sketched both lower and middle class people in London.

William Makepeace Thackeray was born in Calcutta and sent to England for education. William Thackeray is now chiefly remembered for his novel The Vanity Fair. While Dickens was in full tide of his success, Thackeray was struggling through neglect and contempt to recognition. Thackeray’s genius blossomed slowly. Thackeray’s characters are fearless and rough. He protested against the feeble characters of his time. The Rose and the Ring, Rebecca and Rowena, and The Four Georges are some of his works.

The Brontës
Charlotte, Emily, and Anne were the daughters of an Irish clergy man Patrick Brontë, who held a living in Yorkshire. Charlotte Brontës first novel, The Professor failed to find a publisher and only appeared after her death. Jane Eyre is her greatest novel. the plot is weak and melodramatic. This was followed by Shirley and Villette. Her plots are overcharged and she is largely restricted to her own experiments.

Emily Brontë wrote less than Charlottë. Her one and only novel Wuthering Heights (1847) is unique in English literature. It is the passionate love story of Heathcliff and Catherine.

Anne Bronte’s two novels, Agnes Grey and The Tenant of Wildfell Hall are much inferior to those of her sisters, for she lacks nearly all their power and intensity.

George Eliot (1819-1880) is the pen-name of Mary Ann Evans. Adam Bede was her first novel. Her next novel, The Mill on the Floss is partly autobiographical. Silas Marner is a shorter novel which gives excellent pictures of village life. Romola, Middle March and Daniel Deronda are other works of George Eliot.

Thomas Hardy (1840-1928) published his first work Desperate Remedies anonymously. Under the Greenwood Tree, one of the lightest and most appealing of his novels established him as a writer. It was set in the rural area he was soon to make famous as Wessex. Far From the Madding Crowd is a tragi-comedy set in Wessex. The rural background of the story is an integral part of the novel, which reveals the emotional depths which underlie rustic life. The novel, The Return of the Native is a study of man’s helplessness before the mighty Fate. The Mayor of Casterbridge also deals with the theme of Man versus Destiny. Tess of the D’Urbervilles and Jude the Obscure aroused the hostility of conventional readers due to their frank handling of sex and religion. At the beginning Tess of the D’Urbervilles was rejected by the publishers. The outcry with the publication of Jude the Obscure led Hardy in disgust to abandon novel writing. Thomas Hardy’s characters are mostly men and women living close to the soil.

Mary Shelley, the wife of Romantic poet PB Shelley is now remembered as a writer of her famous novel of terror, Frankestein. Frankestein can be regarded as the first attempt at science fiction. The Last Man is Mary Shelley’s another work.

Edgar Allan Poe was a master of Mystery stories. Poe’s powerful description of astonishing and unusual events has the attraction of terrible things. Some of his major works are The Mystery of Marie Roget, The Murders in the Rue Morgue, The Fall of the House of Usher and The Mystery of Red Death.

Besides poetry collections like The Lady of the Last Ministrel, Marmion, The Lady of the Lake, and The Lord of the Isles, Sir Walter Scott produced enormous number of novels. Waverly, Old Mortality, The Black Dwarf, The Pirate, and Kenilworth are some of them. He was too haste in writing novels and this led to the careless, imperfect stories. He has a great place in the field of historical novels.

Frederick Marryat’s sea novels were popular in the nineteenth century. His earliest novel was The Naval Officer. All his best books deal with the sea. Marryat has a considerable gift for plain narrative and his humour is entertaining. Peter Simple, Jacob Faithful and Japhet in Search of His Father are some of his famous works.

R.L. Stevenson’s The Treasure Island, George Meredith’s The Egoist, Edward Lytton’s The Last Days of Pompeii, Charles Reade’s Mask and Faces, Anthony Trollope’s The Warden, Wilkie Collins’s The Moonstone, Joseph Conard’s Lord Jim, Nathaniel Hawthrone’s The Scarlet Letter etc. are some of other famous works of nineteenth century English literature.

Chapter 12

Other Nineteenth Century Prose

Charles Lamb is one of the greatest essayists of nineteenth century. Lamb started his career as a poet but is now remembered for his well-known Essays of Elia. His essays are unequal in English. He is so sensitive and so strong. Besides Essays of Elia, other famous essays are Dream Children and Tales from Shakespeare. His sister, Mary Lamb also wrote some significant essays.

William Hazlitt’s reputation chiefly rests on his lectures and essays on literary and general subjects. His lectures, Characters of Shakespeare’s Plays, The English Poets and The English Comic Writers are important.

Thomas De Quincey’s famous work is Confessions of an English Opium Eater. It is written in the manner of dreams. His Reminiscences of the English Lake Poets contain some good chapters on Wordsworth and Coleridge.

Thomas Carlyle is another prose writer of nineteenth century. His works consisted of translations, essays, and biographies. Of these the best are his translation of Goethe’s Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship, his The Life of Schiller, and his essays on Robert Burns and Walter Scott.

Thomas Macaulay (Lord Macaulay) wrote extensively. He contributed for The Encyclopedia of Britannica and The Edinburgh Review. His History of England is filled with numerous and picturesque details.

Charles Darwin is one of the greatest names in modern science. He devoted almost wholly to biological and allied studies. His chief works are The Voyage of the Beagle, Origin of Species, and The Descent of Man.

John Ruskin’s works are of immense volume and complexity. His longest book is Modern Painters. The Seven Lamps of Architecture, and The Stones of Venice expound his views on artistic matters. Unto this Last is a series of articles on political economy.

Samuel Butler, the grandson of Dr. Samuel Butler was inspired by the Darwinian theory of evolution. Evolution Old and New, Unconcious Memory, Essays on Life, Art and Science, The Way of All Flesh etc. rank him as one of the greatest prose writers of ninteenth century. He was an acute and original thinker. He exposed all kinds of reliogious, political, and social shams and hypocrisies of his period.

Besides being a great poet, Mathew Arnold also excelled as an essayist. His prose works are large in bulk and wide in range. Of them all his critical essays are probably of the greatest value. Essays in Criticism, Culture and Anarchy, and Literature and Dogma have permanent value.

Lewis Carroll, another prose writer of ninteenth century is now remembered for her immortal work, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Ever since its publication, this novel continues to be popular among both the children and adult readers.

Chapter 13 Twentieth-century novels and other prose

The long reign of Queen Victoria ended in 1901. There was a sweeping social reform and unprecedented progress. The reawakening of a social conscience was found its expression in the literature produced during this period.

Rudyard Kipling was born in Bombay but soon moved to Lahore. He worked as a news reporter in Lahore. Kipling was a prolific and versatile writer. His insistent proclamation of the superiority of the white races, his support for colonization, his belief in the progress and the value of the machine etc. found an echo on the hearts of many of his readers. His best-known prose works include Kim, Life’s Handicap, Debits and Credits, and Rewards and Fairies. He is now chiefly remembered for his greatest work, The Jungle Book.

E.M Forster wrote five novels in his life time. Where Angels Fear to Tread has well-drawn characters. Other novels are The Longest Journey, A Room with a View, Howards End, and A Passage to India. A Passage to India is unequal in English in its presentation of the complex problems which were to be found in the relationship between English and native people in India. E.M Forster portrayed the Indian scene in all its magic and all its wretchedness.

H.G Wells began his career as a journalist. He started his scientific romances with the publication of The Time Machine. The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds, The First Men in the Moon and The Food of the Gods are some of his important science romances. Ann Veronica, Kipps and The History of Mr Polly are numbered among his sociological novels.

D.H Lawrence was a striking figure in the twentieth century literary world. He produced over forty volumes of fiction during his period. The White Peacock is his earliest novel. The largely autobiographical and extremely powerful novel was Sons and Lovers. It studies with great insight the relationship between a son and mother. By many, it is considered the best of all his works. Then came The Rainbow, suppressed as obscene, which treats again the conflict between man and woman. Women in Love is another important work. Lady Chatterley’s Lover is a novel in which sexual experience is handled with a wealth of physical detail and uninhibited language. Lawrence also excelled both as a poet and short story writer.

James Joyce is a serious novelist, whose concern is chiefly with human relationships- man in relation to himself, to society, and to the whole race. He was born in Dublin, Ireland. His first work, Dubliners, is followed by a largely autobiographical novel A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. It is an intense account of a developing writer. The protagonist of the story, Stephen Dedalus is James Joyce himself. The character Stephen Dedalus appears again in his highly complex novel, Ulysses published in 1922. Joyce’s mastery of language, his integrity, brilliance, and power is noticeable in his novel titled Finnefan’s Wake.

Virginia Woolf famed both as a literary critic and novelist. Her first novel, The Voyage Out is told in the conventional narrative manner. A deeper study of characters can be found in her later works such as Night and Day, Jacob’s Room, To the Lighthouse, Mrs. Dalloway and Orlando. In addition to her novels, Virginia Woolf wrote a number of essays on cultural subjects. Woolf rejected the conventional concepts of novel. She replaced emphasis on incident, external description, and straight forward narration by using the technique “Stream of Consciousness”. James Joyce and Virginia Woolf popularized this writing technique.

George Orwell became a figure of outstanding importance because of Animal Farm. It is a political allegory on the degeneration of communist ideals into dictatorship. Utterly different was Nineteen Eighty-Four on the surveillance of state over its citizen. Burmese Days and The Road to Wigan Pier are other works.

William Golding deals with man’s instinct to destroy what is good, whether it is material or spiritual. His best known novel is Lord of the Flies. The Scorpion God, The Inheritors and Free Fall are other notable works.

Somerset Maugham was a realist who sketched the cosmopolitan life through his characters. The Moon and Sixpence, Mrs. Craddock and The Painted Veil are some of his novels. His best novel is Of Human Bondage. It is a study in frustration, which had a strong autobiographical element.

Kingsly Amis’s Lucky Jim, Take a Girl like You, One Fat Englishman, and Girl are notable works in the twentieth century.

Chapter 14

Twentieth Century Drama

After a hundred years of insignificance, drama again appeared as an important form in the twentieth century. Like the novelists in the 20 th century, most of the important dramatists were chiefly concerned with the contemporary social scene. Many playwrights experimented in the theatres. There were revolutionary changes in both the theme and presentation.

John Galsworthy was a social reformer who showed both sides of the problems in his plays. He had a warm sympathy for the victims of social injustice. Of his best-known plays The Silver Box deals with the inequality of justice, Strife with the struggle between Capital and Labour, Justice with the meaninglessness of judiciary system.

George Bernard Shaw is one of the greatest dramatists of 20 th century. The first Shavian play is considered to be Arms and the Man. It is an excellent and amusing stage piece which pokes fun at the romantic conception of the soldier. The Devil’s Disciple, Caesar and Cleopatra, and The Man of Destiny are also noteworthy. Man and Superman is Shaw’s most important play which deals the theme half seriously and half comically. Religion and social problems are again the main topics in Major Barbara. The Doctor’s Dilemma is an amusing satire. Social conventions and social weaknesses were treated again in Pygmalion, a witty and highly entertaining study of the class distinction. St Joan deals with the problems in Christianity. The Apple Cart, Geneva, The Millionaire, Too True to be Good and On the Rocks are Shaw’s minor plays.

J M Synge was the greatest dramatist in the rebirth of the Irish theatre. His plays are few in number but they are of a stature to place him among the greatest playwrights in the English language. Synge was inspired by the beauty of his surroundings, the humour, tragedy, and poetry of the life of the simple fisher-folk in the Isles of Aran. The Shadow of the Glen is a comedy based on an old folktale, which gives a good romantic picture of Irish peasant life. It was followed by Riders to the Sea, a powerful, deeply moving tragedy which deals with the toll taken by the sea in the lives of the fisher-folk of the Ireland. The Winker’s Wedding and The Well of the Saints are other notable works.

Samuel Beckett, the greatest proponent of Absurd Theatre is most famous for his play, Waiting for Godot. It is a static representation without structure or development, using only meandering, seemingly incoherent dialogue to suggest despair of a society in the post-World War period. Another famous play by Beckett is Endgame.

Harold Pinter was influenced by Samuel Beckett. His plays are quite short and set in an enclosed space. His characters are always in doubt about their function, and in fear of something or someone ‘outside’. The Birthday Party, The Dumb Waiter, A Night Out, The Homecoming and Silence are his most notable plays.

James Osborne’s Look Back in Anger gave the strongest tonic to the concept of Angry Young Man. Watch it Come Down, A Portrait of Me, Inadmissible Evidence etc. are his other major works.

T.S Eliot wrote seven dramas. They are Sweeney Agonistes, The Rock, Murder in the Cathedral, The Family Reunion, The Cocktail Party, The Confidential Clerk and The Elder Statesman.

Juno and the Paycock, The Plough and the Stars, and The Silver Tassie marked Sean O’Casey out as the greatest new figure in the inter-War years. His own experience enabled him to study the life of the Dublin slums with the warm understanding.

Another leading playwright of 20 th century was Arnold Wesker. Wesker narrated the lives of working class people in his plays. Roots, Chicken Soup with Barley and I’m Talking about Jerusalem are his famous works.

Bertolt Brecht, J.B Priestley, Somerset Maugham, Christopher Fry, Peter Usinov, Tom Stoppard, Bernard Kops, Henry Livings, Alan Bennett et al are other important playwrights of twentieth century English literature.

Chapter 15 Twentieth Century Poetry

The greatest figure in the poetry of the early part of the Twentieth century was the Irish poet William Butler Yeats. Like so many of his contemporaries, Yeats was acutely conscious of the spiritual barrenness of his age. W.B Yeats sought to escape into the land of ‘faery’ and looked for his themes in Irish legend. He is one of the most difficult of modern poets. His trust was in the imagination and intuition of man rather than in scientific reasoning. Yeats believed in fairies, magic, and other forms of superstition. He studied Indian philosophy and Vedas. An Irish Seaman Foresees His Death, The Tower, The Green Helmet etc. are his major poems.

With possible excepion of Yeats, no twentieth century poet has been held in such esteem by his fellow-poets as T.S Eliot. Eliot’s first volume of verse, Prufrock and Other Observations portrays the boredom, emptiness, and pessimism of its days. His much discussed poem The Waste Land(1922) made a tremendous impact on the post-War generation, and it is considered one of the important documents of its age. The poem is difficult to understand in detail, but its general aim is clear. The poem is built round the symbols of drought and flood, representing death and rebirth. The poem progresses in five movements, “The Burial of the Dead”, “The Game of the Chess”, “The Fire Sermon”, “Death by Water”, and “What the Thunder Said”. Eliot’s poem Ash Wednesday is probably his most difficult. Obscure images and symbols and the lack of a clear, logical structure make the poem difficult.

W.H Auden was an artist of great virtuosity, a ceaseless experimenter in verse form, with a fine ear for the rhythm and music of words. He was modern in tone and selection of themes. Auden’s later poems revealed a new note of mysticism in his approach to human problems. He was outspokingly anti-Romantic and stressed the objective attitude.

Thomas Hardy began his career as a poet. Though he was not able to find a publisher, he continued to write poetry. Hardy’s verses consist of short lyrics describing nature and natural beauty. Like his novels, the poems reveal concern with man’s unequal struggle against the mighty fate. Wessex Poems, Winter Words, and Collected Poems are his major poetry works.

G.M Hopkins is a unique figure in the history of English poetry. No modern poet has been the centre of more controversy or the cause of more misunderstanding. He was very unconventional in writing technique. He used Sprung-rhythm, counterpoint rhythm, internal rhythms, alliteration, assonance, and coinages in his poems.

Dylan Thomas was an enemy of intellectualism in verse. He drew upon the human body, sex, and the Old Testament for much of his imagery and complex word-play. His verses are splendidly colourful and musical. Appreciation of landscape, religious and mystical association, sadness and quietness were very often selected as themes for his verses.

Sylvia Plath and her husband Ted Hughes composed some brilliant poems in the 20 th century. Plath’s mental imbalance which brought her to suicide can be seen in her poetry collections titled Ariel, The Colossus, and Crossing the Water. Ted Hughes was a poet of animal and nature. His major collection of poetry are The Hawk in the Rain, Woodwo, Crow, Crow Wakes and Eat Crow.

R.S Thomas, Philip Larkin, Kingsley Amis, Peter Porter, Seamus Heaney et al are also added the beauty of 20 th century English poetry.

War Poets

The First World War brought to public notice many poets, particularly among the young men of armed forces, while it provided a new source of inspiration for writers of established reputation. Rupert Brooke, Slegfried Sassoon, and Wilfred Owen are the major War poets. Rupert Brooke’s famous sonnet “If I should die, think only this of me” has appeared in so many anthologies of twentieth century verse. Brooke turned to nature and simple pleasures for inspiration. Sassoon wrote violent and embittered poems. Sassoon painted the horrors of life and death in the trenches and hospitals. Wilfred Owen was the greatest of the war poets. In the beginning of his literary career, Owen wrote in the romantic tradition of John Keats and Lord Tennyson. Owen was a gifted artist with a fine feeling for words. He greatly experimented in verse techniques.


The Public Voice of Women

I want to start very near the beginning of the tradition of Western literature, and its first recorded example of a man telling a woman to &lsquoshut up&rsquo telling her that her voice was not to be heard in public. I&rsquom thinking of a moment immortalised at the start of the Odyssey. We tend now to think of the Odyssey as the story of Odysseus and the adventures and scrapes he had returning home after the Trojan War &ndash while for decades Penelope loyally waited for him, fending off the suitors who were pressing for her hand. 1 But the Odyssey is just as much the story of Telemachus, the son of Odysseus and Penelope the story of his growing up how over the course of the poem he matures from boy to man. The process starts in the first book with Penelope coming down from her private quarters into the great hall, to find a bard performing to throngs of her suitors he&rsquos singing about the difficulties the Greek heroes are having in reaching home. She isn&rsquot amused, and in front of everyone she asks him to choose another, happier number. At which point young Telemachus intervenes: &lsquoMother,&rsquo he says, &lsquogo back up into your quarters, and take up your own work, the loom and the distaff &hellip speech will be the business of men, all men, and of me most of all for mine is the power in this household.&rsquo And off she goes, back upstairs. 2

There is something faintly ridiculous about this wet-behind-the-ears lad shutting up the savvy, middle-aged Penelope. But it&rsquos a nice demonstration that right where written evidence for Western culture starts, women&rsquos voices are not being heard in the public sphere more than that, as Homer has it, an integral part of growing up, as a man, is learning to take control of public utterance and to silence the female of the species. The actual words Telemachus uses are significant too. When he says &lsquospeech&rsquo is &lsquomen&rsquos business&rsquo, the word is muthos &ndash not in the sense that it has come down to us of &lsquomyth&rsquo. In Homeric Greek it signals authoritative public speech (not the kind of chatting, prattling or gossip that anyone &ndash women included, or especially women &ndash could do).

What interests me is the relationship between that classic Homeric moment of silencing a woman and some of the ways women&rsquos voices are not publicly heard in our own contemporary culture, and in our own politics from the front bench to the shop floor. It&rsquos a well-known deafness that&rsquos nicely parodied in the old Punch cartoon: &lsquoThat&rsquos an excellent suggestion, Miss Triggs. Perhaps one of the men here would like to make it.&rsquo 3 I want to look too at how it might relate to the abuse that many women who do speak out are subjected to even now, and one of the questions at the back of my mind is the connection between publicly speaking out in support of a female logo on a banknote, Twitter threats of rape and decapitation, and Telemachus&rsquo put-down of Penelope.

My aim here &ndash and I acknowledge the irony of my being given the space to address the subject &ndash is to take a long view, a very long view, on the culturally awkward relationship between the voice of women and the public sphere of speech-making, debate and comment: politics in its widest sense, from office committees to the floor of the House. I&rsquom hoping that the long view will help us get beyond the simple diagnosis of &lsquomisogyny&rsquo that we tend a bit lazily to fall back on. To be sure, &lsquomisogyny&rsquo is one way of describing of what&rsquos going on. (If you go on a television discussion programme and then receive a load of tweets comparing your genitalia to a variety of unpleasantly rotting vegetables, it&rsquos hard to find a more apt word.) But if we want to understand &ndash and do something about &ndash the fact that women, even when they are not silenced, still have to pay a very high price for being heard, we have to recognise that it is a bit more complicated and that there&rsquos a long back-story.

Telemachus&rsquo outburst was just the first example in a long line of largely successful attempts stretching throughout Greek and Roman antiquity, not only to exclude women from public speech but also to parade that exclusion. In the early fourth century BC Aristophanes devoted a whole comedy to the &lsquohilarious&rsquo fantasy that women might take over running the state. Part of the joke was that women couldn&rsquot speak properly in public &ndash or rather, they couldn&rsquot adapt their private speech (which in this case was largely fixated on sex) to the lofty idiom of male politics. In the Roman world, Ovid&rsquos Metamorphoses &ndash that extraordinary mythological epic about people changing shape (and probably the most influential work of literature on Western art after the Bible) &ndash repeatedly returns to the idea of the silencing of women in the process of their transformation. Poor Io is turned into a cow by Jupiter, so she cannot talk but only moo 4 while the chatty nymph Echo is punished so that her voice is never hers, merely an instrument for repeating the words of others. (In Waterhouse&rsquos famous painting she gazes at her desired Narcissus but cannot initiate a conversation with him, while he has fallen in love with his own image in the pool. 5 ) One earnest Roman anthologist of the first century AD was able to rake up just three examples of &lsquowomen whose natural condition did not manage to keep them silent in the forum&rsquo. His descriptions are revealing. The first, a woman called Maesia, successfully defended herself in the courts and &lsquobecause she really had a man&rsquos nature behind the appearance of a woman was called the &ldquoandrogyne&rdquo&rsquo. The second, Afrania, used to initiate legal cases herself and was &lsquoimpudent&rsquo enough to plead in person, so that everyone became tired out with her &lsquobarking&rsquo or &lsquoyapping&rsquo (she still isn&rsquot allowed human &lsquospeech&rsquo). We are told that she died in 48 BC, because &lsquowith unnatural freaks like this it&rsquos more important to record when they died than when they were born.&rsquo

There are only two main exceptions in the classical world to this abomination of women&rsquos public speaking. First, women are allowed to speak out as victims and as martyrs &ndash usually to preface their own death. Early Christian women were represented loudly upholding their faith as they went to the lions and, in a well-known story from the early history of Rome, the virtuous Lucretia, raped by a brutal prince of the ruling monarchy, was given a speaking part solely to denounce the rapist and announce her own suicide (or so Roman writers presented it: what really happened, we haven&rsquot a clue 6 ). But even this rather bitter opportunity to speak could itself be removed. One story in the Metamorphoses tells of the rape of the young princess Philomela. In order to prevent any Lucretia-style denunciation, the rapist quite simply cuts her tongue out. 7 It&rsquos a notion that&rsquos picked up in Titus Andronicus, where the tongue of the raped Lavinia is also ripped out. 8

The second exception is more familiar. Occasionally women could legitimately rise up to speak &ndash to defend their homes, their children, their husbands or the interests of other women. So in the third of the three examples of female oratory discussed by that Roman anthologist, the woman &ndash Hortensia by name &ndash gets away with it because she is acting explicitly as the spokesperson for the women of Rome, after they have been subject to a special wealth tax to fund a dubious war effort. 9 Women, in other words, may in extreme circumstances publicly defend their own sectional interests, but not speak for men or the community as a whole. In general, as one second-century AD guru put it, &lsquoa woman should as modestly guard against exposing her voice to outsiders as she would guard against stripping off her clothes.&rsquo

There is more to all this than meets the eye, however. This &lsquomuteness&rsquo is not just a reflection of women&rsquos general disempowerment throughout the classical world: no voting rights, limited legal and economic independence and so on. Ancient women were obviously not likely to raise their voices in a political sphere in which they had no formal stake. But we&rsquore dealing with a much more active and loaded exclusion of women from public speech than that &ndash and, importantly, it&rsquos one with a much greater impact than we usually acknowledge on our own traditions, conventions and assumptions about the voice of women. What I mean is that public speaking and oratory were not merely things that ancient women didn&rsquot do: they were exclusive practices and skills that defined masculinity as a gender. As we saw with Telemachus, to become a man &ndash and we&rsquore talking elite man &ndash was to claim the right to speak. Public speech was a &ndash if not the &ndash defining attribute of maleness. A woman speaking in public was, in most circumstances, by definition not a woman. We find repeated stress throughout ancient literature on the authority of the deep male voice. As one ancient scientific treatise explicitly put it, a low-pitched voice indicated manly courage, a high-pitched voice female cowardice. Or as other classical writers insisted, the tone and timbre of women&rsquos speech always threatened to subvert not just the voice of the male orator, but also the social and political stability, the health, of the whole state. So another second-century lecturer and guru, Dio Chrysostom, whose name, significantly, means Dio &lsquothe Golden Mouth&rsquo, asked his audience to imagine a situation where &lsquoan entire community was struck by the following strange affliction: all the men suddenly got female voices, and no male &ndash child or adult &ndash could say anything in a manly way. Would not that seem terrible and harder to bear than any plague? I&rsquom sure they would send off to a sanctuary to consult the gods and try to propitiate the divine power with many gifts.&rsquo He wasn&rsquot joking.

What I want to underline here is that this is not the peculiar ideology of some distant culture. Distant in time it may be. But this is the tradition of gendered speaking &ndash and the theorising of gendered speaking &ndash of which we are still, directly or more often indirectly, the heirs. I don&rsquot want to overstate the case. Western culture doesn&rsquot owe everything to the Greeks and Romans, in speaking or in anything else (thank heavens it doesn&rsquot none of us would fancy living in a Greco-Roman world). There are all kinds of variant and competing influences on us, and our political system has happily overthrown many of the gendered certainties of antiquity. Yet it remains the fact that our own traditions of debate and public speaking, their conventions and rules, still lie very much in the shadow of the classical world. The modern techniques of rhetoric and persuasion formulated in the Renaissance were drawn explicitly from ancient speeches and handbooks. Our own terms of rhetorical analysis go back directly to Aristotle and Cicero (it&rsquos common to point out that Barack Obama, or his speech writers, have learned their best tricks from Cicero). And so far as the House of Commons is concerned, those 19th-century gentlemen who devised, or enshrined, most of the parliamentary rules and procedures that we are now familiar with were brought up on exactly those classical theories, slogans and prejudices that I&rsquove been quoting. Again, we&rsquore not simply the victims or dupes of our classical inheritance, but classical traditions have provided us with a powerful template for thinking about public speech, and for deciding what counts as good oratory or bad, persuasive or not, and whose speech is to be given space to be heard. And gender is obviously an important part of that mix.

I t takes ​ only a casual glance at the modern Western traditions of speech-making &ndash at least up to the 20th century &ndash to see that many of the classical themes I&rsquove been highlighting emerge time and time again. Women who claim a public voice get treated as freakish androgynes, like Maesia who defended herself in the Forum. The obvious case is Elizabeth I&rsquos belligerent address to the troops at Tilbury in 1588 in the face of the Spanish Armada. 10 In the words many of us learned at school, she seems positively to avow her own androgyny: &lsquoI know I have the body of a weak, feeble woman but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a king of England too&rsquo &ndash an odd slogan to get young girls to learn. 11 In fact, it is quite likely that she never said anything of the sort. There is no script from her hand or that of her speech-writer, no eye-witness account, and the canonical version comes from the letter of an unreliable commentator, with his own axe to grind, written almost forty years later. But for my purpose the probable fictionality of the speech makes it even better: the nice twist is that the male letter-writer puts the boast (or confession) of androgyny into Elizabeth&rsquos own mouth.

Looking at modern traditions of oratory more generally, we also find that same single area of licence for women to talk publicly, in support of their own sectional interests, or to parade their victimhood. If you search out the women&rsquos contributions included in those curious compendia, called &lsquoone hundred great speeches of history&rsquo and the like, you&rsquoll find that most of the female highlights from Emmeline Pankhurst to Hillary Clinton&rsquos address to the UN conference on women in Beijing are about the lot of women. So too is probably the most popularly anthologised example of female oratory of all, the 1851 &lsquoAin&rsquot I a Woman?&rsquo speech of Sojourner Truth, ex-slave, abolitionist and American campaigner for women&rsquos rights. &lsquoAnd ain&rsquot I a woman?&rsquo she is supposed to have said. &lsquoI have borne 13 chilern, and seen &rsquoem mos&rsquo all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother&rsquos grief, none but Jesus heard me! And ain&rsquot I a woman &hellip&rsquo 12 I should say that influential as these words have been, they are only slightly less mythical than Elizabeth&rsquos at Tilbury. The authorised version was written up a decade or so after Sojourner Truth said whatever she said &ndash and that is when the now famous refrain, which she certainly did not say, was inserted, while at the same time her words as a whole were translated into a Southern drawl, to match the abolitionist message, even though she came from the North and had been brought up speaking Dutch. I&rsquom not saying that women&rsquos voices raised in support of women&rsquos causes weren&rsquot important, but it remains the case that women&rsquos public speech has for centuries been &lsquoniched&rsquo into that area. Here, I suppose I should flag up &ndash before someone else does &ndash my own topic this evening. No one forced it on me. But it can hardly be a coincidence that I chose to talk on the &lsquopublic voice of women&rsquo rather than about, say, migration or the war in Syria. I probably have to confess to being in the niche too.

The truth is that even that area of licence has not always or consistently been available to women. There are countless examples of attempts to write women out of public discourse, Telemachus-style. Anyone who has read Henry James&rsquos Bostonians, published in the 1880s, will remember that one main theme in the book is the silencing of Verena Tarrant, a young feminist campaigner and speaker. As she draws closer to her suitor Basil Ransom (a man endowed, as James stresses, with a rich deep voice), she finds herself increasingly unable to speak, as she once did, in public. Ransom effectively re-privatises her voice, insisting that she speak only to him: &lsquoKeep your soothing words for me,&rsquo he says. In the novel James&rsquos own standpoint is hard to pin down &ndash certainly readers have not warmed to Ransom &ndash but in his essays James makes it clear where he stood for he wrote about the polluting, contagious and socially destructive effect of women&rsquos voices, in words that could easily have come from the pen of some second-century AD Roman (and were almost certainly in part derived from classical sources). Under American women&rsquos influence, he insisted, language risks becoming a &lsquogeneralised mumble or jumble, a tongueless slobber or snarl or whine&rsquo it will sound like &lsquothe moo of the cow, the bray of the ass, and the bark of the dog&rsquo. (Note the echo of the tongueless Philomela, the moo of Io, and the barking of the female orator in the Roman Forum.) James was one among many. In what amounted to a crusade at the time for proper standards in American speech, other prominent contemporaries praised the sweet domestic singing of the female voice, while entirely opposing its use in the wider world. And there was plenty of thundering about the &lsquothin nasal tones&rsquo of women&rsquos public speech, about their &lsquotwangs, whiffles, snuffles, whines and whinnies&rsquo. &lsquoIn the names of our homes, our children, of our future, our national honour,&rsquo James said again, &lsquodon&rsquot let us have women like that!&rsquo

Of course, we don&rsquot talk in those bald terms now. Or not quite? For it seems to me that many aspects of this traditional package of views about the unsuitability of women for public speaking in general &ndash a package going back in its essentials over two millennia &ndash still underlies some of our own assumptions about, and awkwardness with, the female voice in public. Take the language we still use to describe the sound of women&rsquos speech, which isn&rsquot all that far from James or our pontificating Romans. In making a public case, in fighting their corner, in speaking out, what are women said to be? &lsquoStrident&rsquo they &lsquowhinge&rsquo and they &lsquowhine&rsquo. When, after one particular vile bout of internet comments on my genitalia, I tweeted (rather pluckily, I thought) that it was all a bit &lsquogob-smacking&rsquo, this was reported by one commentator in a mainstream British magazine in these terms: &lsquoThe misogyny is truly &ldquogob-smacking&rdquo, she whined.&rsquo (So far as I can see from a quick Google trawl, the only other group in this country said to &lsquowhine&rsquo as much as women are unpopular Premiership football managers on a losing streak.)

Do those words matter? Of course they do, because they underpin an idiom that acts to remove the authority, the force, even the humour from what women have to say. It&rsquos an idiom that effectively repositions women back into the domestic sphere (people &lsquowhinge&rsquo over things like the washing up) it trivialises their words, or it &lsquore-privatises&rsquo them. Contrast the &lsquodeep-voiced&rsquo man with all the connotations of profundity that the simple word &lsquodeep&rsquo brings. It is still the case that when listeners hear a female voice, they don&rsquot hear a voice that connotes authority or rather they have not learned how to hear authority in it they don&rsquot hear muthos. And it isn&rsquot just voice: you can add in the craggy or wrinkled faces that signal mature wisdom in the case of a bloke, but &lsquopast-my-use-by-date&rsquo in the case of a woman.

They don&rsquot tend to hear a voice of expertise either at least, not outside the traditional spheres of women&rsquos sectional interests. For a female MP to be minister of women (or of education or health) is a very different thing from being chancellor of the exchequer (a post which no woman has ever filled). And, across the board, we still see tremendous resistance to female encroachment onto traditional male discursive territory, whether it&rsquos the abuse hurled at Jacqui Oatley for having the nerve to stray from the netball court to become the first woman commentator on Match of the Day, or what can be meted out to women who appear on Question Time, where the range of topics discussed is usually fairly mainstream &lsquomale political&rsquo. It may not be a surprise that the same commentator who accused me of &lsquowhining&rsquo claims to run a &lsquosmall light-hearted&rsquo competition for the &lsquomost stupid woman to appear on Question Time&rsquo. More interesting is another cultural connection this reveals: that unpopular, controversial or just plain different views when voiced by a woman are taken as indications of her stupidity. It&rsquos not that you disagree, it&rsquos that she&rsquos stupid. &lsquoSorry, love, you just don&rsquot understand.&rsquo I&rsquove lost count of the number of times I&rsquove been called &lsquoan ignorant moron&rsquo.

These attitudes, assumptions and prejudices are hard-wired into us: not into our brains (there is no neurological reason for us to hear low-pitched voices as more authoritative than high-pitched ones) but into our culture, our language and millennia of our history. And when we are thinking about the under-representation of women in national politics, their relative muteness in the public sphere, we have to think beyond what the prime minister and his chums got up to in the Bullingdon Club, beyond the bad behaviour and blokeish culture of Westminster, beyond even family-friendly hours and childcare provision (important as those are). We have to focus on the even more fundamental issues of how we have learned to hear the contributions of women or &ndash going back to the cartoon for a moment &ndash on what I&rsquod like to call the &lsquoMiss Triggs question&rsquo. Not just, how does she get a word in edgeways? But how can we make ourselves more aware about the processes and prejudices that make us not listen to her.

S ome ​ of these same issues of voice and gender have to do with internet trolls, death-threats and abuse. We have to be careful about generalising too confidently about the nastier sides of the internet: they appear in many different forms (it&rsquos not quite the same on Twitter, for example, as it is under the line in a newspaper comment section), and criminal death threats are a different kettle of fish from merely &lsquounpleasant&rsquo sexist abuse. Many different people are the targets, from grieving parents of dead teenagers to &lsquocelebrities&rsquo of all kinds. What is clear is that many more men than women are the perpetrators of this stuff, and they attack women far more than they attack men (one academic study put the ratio at something like 30 to 1, female to male targets). For what it&rsquos worth (and I haven&rsquot suffered anything like as much as some women), I receive something we might euphemistically call an &lsquoinappropriately hostile&rsquo response (that&rsquos to say, more than fair criticism or even fair anger) every time I speak on radio or television.

It&rsquos driven, I&rsquom sure, by many different things. Some of it&rsquos from kids acting up some from people who&rsquove had far too much to drink some from people who for a moment have lost their inner inhibitors (and can be very apologetic later). More are sad than are villainous. When I&rsquom feeling charitable I think quite a lot comes from people who feel let down by the false promises of democratisation blazoned by, for example, Twitter. It was supposed to put us directly in touch with those in power, and open up a new democratic kind of conversation. It does nothing of the sort: if we tweet the prime minister or the pope, they no more read it than if we send them a letter &ndash and for the most part, the prime minister doesn&rsquot even write the tweets that appear under his name. How could he? (I&rsquom not so sure about the Pope.) Some of the abuse, I suspect, is a squeal of frustration at those false promises, taking aim at a convenient traditional target (&lsquoa gobby woman&rsquo). Women are not the only ones who may feel themselves &lsquovoiceless&rsquo.

But the more I have looked at the threats and insults that women have received, the more I have found that they fit into the old patterns I&rsquove been talking about. For a start it doesn&rsquot much matter what line you take as a woman, if you venture into traditional male territory, the abuse comes anyway. It&rsquos not what you say that prompts it, it&rsquos the fact you&rsquore saying it. And that matches the detail of the threats themselves. They include a fairly predictable menu of rape, bombing, murder and so forth (I may sound very relaxed about it now that doesn&rsquot mean it&rsquos not scary when it comes late at night). But a significant subsection is directed at silencing the woman &ndash &lsquoShut up you bitch&rsquo is a fairly common refrain. Or it promises to remove the capacity of the woman to speak. &lsquoI&rsquom going to cut off your head and rape it&rsquo was one tweet I got. &lsquoHeadlessfemalepig&rsquo was the Twitter name chosen by someone threatening an American journalist. &lsquoYou should have your tongue ripped out&rsquo was tweeted to another journalist. In its crude, aggressive way, this is about keeping, or getting, women out of man&rsquos talk. It&rsquos hard not to see some faint connection between these mad Twitter outbursts &ndash most of them are just that &ndash and the men in the House of Commons heckling women MPs so loudly that you simply can&rsquot hear what they&rsquore saying (in the Afghan parliament, apparently, they disconnect the mics when they don&rsquot want to hear the women speak). Ironically the well-meaning solution often recommended when women are on the receiving end of this stuff turns out to bring about the very result the abusers want: namely, their silence. &lsquoDon&rsquot call the abusers out. Don&rsquot give them any attention that&rsquos what they want. Just keep mum,&rsquo you&rsquore told, which amounts to leaving the bullies in unchallenged occupation of the playground.

So much for the diagnosis: what&rsquos the practical remedy? Like most women, I wish I knew. There can&rsquot be a group of female friends or colleagues anywhere in this country (maybe the world) which hasn&rsquot regularly discussed the day-to-day aspects of the &lsquoMiss Triggs question&rsquo, whether in the office, or a committee room, council chamber, seminar or the House of Commons. How do I get my point heard? How do I get it noticed? How do I get to belong in the discussion? I&rsquom sure it&rsquos something some men feel too but if there&rsquos one thing that we know bonds women of all backgrounds, of all political colours, in all kinds of business and profession, it&rsquos the classic experience of the failed intervention you&rsquore at a meeting, you make a point, then a short silence follows, and after a few awkward seconds some man picks up where he had just left off: &lsquoWhat I was saying was &hellip&rsquo You might as well never have opened your mouth, and you end up blaming both yourself and the men whose exclusive club the discussion appears to be.

Those who do manage successfully to get their voice across very often adopt some version of the &lsquoandrogyne&rsquo route, like Maesia in the Forum or &lsquoElizabeth&rsquo at Tilbury &ndash consciously aping aspects of male rhetoric. That was what Margaret Thatcher did when she took voice training specifically to lower her voice, to add the tone of authority that her advisers thought her high pitch lacked. And that&rsquos fine, in a way, if it works, but all tactics of that type tend to leave women still feeling on the outside, impersonators of rhetorical roles that they don&rsquot feel they own. Putting it bluntly, having women pretend to be men may be a quick fix, but it doesn&rsquot get to the heart of the problem.

We need to think more fundamentally about the rules of our rhetorical operations. I don&rsquot mean the old stand-by of &lsquomen and women talk different languages, after all&rsquo (if they do, it&rsquos surely because they&rsquove been taught different languages). And I certainly don&rsquot mean to suggest that we go down the &lsquoMen are from Mars, Women are from Venus&rsquo route. My hunch is that if we&rsquore going to make real progress with the &lsquoMiss Triggs question&rsquo, we need to go back to some first principles about the nature of spoken authority, about what constitutes it, and how we have learned to hear authority where we do. And rather than push women into voice training classes to get a nice, deep, husky and entirely artificial tone, we should be thinking more about the faultlines and fractures that underlie dominant male discourse.

Here again we can usefully look to the Greeks and Romans. For, while it is true that classical culture is partly responsible for our starkly gendered assumptions about public speech, male muthos and female silence, it is also the case that some ancient writers were much more reflective than we are about those assumptions: they were subversively aware of what was at stake in them, they were troubled by their simplicity, and they hinted at resistance. Ovid may have emphatically silenced his women in their transformation or mutilation, but he also suggested that communication could transcend the human voice, and that women were not that easily silenced. Philomela lost her tongue, but she still managed to denounce her rapist by weaving the story into a tapestry (which is why Shakespeare&rsquos Lavinia has her hands, as well as her tongue, removed). The smartest ancient rhetorical theorists were prepared to acknowledge that the best male techniques of oratorical persuasion were uncomfortably close to the techniques (as they saw it) of female seduction. Was oratory then really so safely masculine, they worried.

One particularly bloody anecdote vividly exposes the unresolved gender wars that lay just below the surface of ancient public life and speaking. In the course of the Roman civil wars that followed the assassination of Julius Caesar, Marcus Tullius Cicero &ndash the most powerful public speaker and debater in the Roman world, ever &ndash was lynched. The hit-squad that took him out triumphantly brought his head and hands to Rome, and pinned them up, for all to see, on the speaker&rsquos platform in the Forum. It was then, so the story went, that Fulvia, the wife of Mark Antony, who had been the victim of some of Cicero&rsquos most devastating polemics, went along to have a look. And when she saw those bits of him, she removed the pins from her hair and repeatedly stabbed them into the dead man&rsquos tongue. It&rsquos a disconcerting image of one of the defining articles of female adornment, the hairpin, used as a weapon against the very site of the production of male speech &ndash a kind of reverse Philomela. 13

What I&rsquom pointing to here is a critically self-aware ancient tradition: not one that directly challenges the basic template I&rsquove been outlining, but one that is determined to reveal its conflicts and paradoxes, and to raise bigger questions about the nature and purpose of speech, male or female. We should perhaps take our cue from this, and try to bring to the surface the kinds of question we tend to shelve about how we speak in public, why and whose voice fits. What we need is some old fashioned consciousness-raising about what we mean by the voice of authority and how we&rsquove come to construct it. We need to work that out before we figure out how we modern Penelopes might answer back to our own Telemachuses &ndash or for that matter just decide to lend Miss Triggs some hairpins.


The English Journal

The English Journal is a journal of ideas for English language arts teachers in junior and senior high schools and middle schools. EJ presents information on the teaching of writing and reading, literature, and language. Each issue examines the relationship of theory and research to classroom practice, and reviews current materials of interest to English teachers, including books and electronic media. The journal is published bimonthly in September, November, January, March, May, and July.

The "moving wall" represents the time period between the last issue available in JSTOR and the most recently published issue of a journal. Moving walls are generally represented in years. In rare instances, a publisher has elected to have a "zero" moving wall, so their current issues are available in JSTOR shortly after publication.
Note: In calculating the moving wall, the current year is not counted.
For example, if the current year is 2008 and a journal has a 5 year moving wall, articles from the year 2002 are available.

Terms Related to the Moving Wall Fixed walls: Journals with no new volumes being added to the archive. Absorbed: Journals that are combined with another title. Complete: Journals that are no longer published or that have been combined with another title.


10 Best Books to Study History of English Literature

Studying the history of English literature is certainly fun, amazing and also benefiting. Not only the students of literature but anybody who is enthusiastic about studying and knowing more about the authors, poets and literary personalities can go through the best history of English literature books and enhance his or her comprehension. However, selecting the best books which can make your studies or just venturing into the world of literature isn’t that easy. You can, though, find many articles on the web and some videos on YouTube which will make promises to offer you the best books. However, you can decide for yourself whether they are telling you about the books or selling you the books directly. On English Literature Education, however, we only list the books which we have gone through in person and studied ins and outs. We will list the recommended books carefully so that you can smoothly start reading them without worrying about your choices. In this article, Alok Mishra lists his personal choices – the best books for studying history of English literature.

(i) English Social History by G M Trevelyan: Before studying English literature, it is my personal advice to the students of advanced standards (even the undergraduate students can try) to go through the English social history. This will give them an idea of England and then, understanding the idea of English literature will definitively become easier as well as broader. After all, as we say, literature is the mirror of society! This book covers the social history of England from Chaucer to the Victorian period. You will certainly find this book useful, helpful and interesting as well.

(ii) History of English Literature by Edward Albert: This is a compact, polished and short history of English literature that offers not only a clear picture of the literature produced by the English but also offers a very useful timeline at the beginning of each of the chapters. This timeline will help the students track all the important literary figures’ progress. The commentary is balanced, factual and sharply drawn. It does not protract itself beyond the required length of a book. For the beginners, this is a very good book.

(iii) A Critical History of English Literature by David Daiches: Who does not know this book or the author? A very popular book which is widely read and appreciated by the students as well as the scholars of English literature – David Daiches’ book (in two volumes) is the best in the class, if I may say that. It offers facts it offers the obvious reasons for those findings to become facts it offers the things which are essential for a student of English literature it helps you score well in the UGC NET examination, English literature. What else do you want? GET THIS BOOK!

(iv) A History of English Literature by Michael Alexander: It feels more like a school textbook it works like a charm! The compact columns which deal with the heavyweights of English literature are always wonderful to read in this book. Moreover, this book also offers an abundance of information in various forms – tables, lists or bulleted points. You can get at a glance the major happenings during the period of a writer, you can get the timeline of major books published in an age and so on. It covers wide it expresses precisely. Michael Alexander’s book is certainly a good possession for any student of English literature. This is one of those books which make learning the history of English literature an amazing experience! I love this one!

(v) History of English Literature by Legouis & Cazamian: Wonderful, detailed and, certainly, for the readers who have gone through David Daiches’ book thoroughly, at least once! If you haven’t read any book of the history of English literature before, please don’t consider going through this book. Before you read it, you need to have a comprehension of the British literary history, in detail. Then only you can use this book to the maximum! This should be your second book, never your first! Scholarly, intellectual, broad, and, to a certain extent, an eye-opener history of English literature has been presented in this book by both the writers!

(vi) The Short Oxford History of English Literature by Andrew Sanders: This is a balanced book – I will say this on the camera as well as off it. Andrew Sanders has taken the middle-path and has minimised his ‘indulgence’. He talks he discusses he seldom opines. You can understand, by reading this book, various critical insights into various literary halts in the history of English literature. This book will not bore you this book will not teach you more than what is required.

(vii) The Cambridge History of English Literature by George Sampson: George Sampson takes the idea of Andre Sanders a step further and he calculates, comments, organises and details the things a little better and in a broader way. I will suggest this book for the first time readers of history of English literature – the graduate students as well as the students who would like to start their academic journey in this field. Advanced students can also study this book for a change of taste.

(viii) The Pelican Guide to English Literature by Boris Ford: The books in this series come in various volumes and each of those covers particular periods. The language in this book has been taken to a farther level and so is the depth of the arguments. Boris Ford has picked the scholars very carefully and they haven’t disappointed the readers. I will recommend this series, if anyone is lucky enough to find it, to the students of post-graduation level and above that.

(ix) A Short History of English Literature by IforEvans: Well, this book is meant to be read by those who have passed the elementary stages in the history of English literature and are ready for the new notional challenges and clever enough to understand the hints. Sir IforEvans has used extremely polished (otherwise) language in his book and he has kept his worlds limited and descriptions precise. If you are ready to read something interesting and sometimes informative too, do get this one and accept the challenge!

(x) Studying Literature: The Essential Companion by various writers: This is the last book on this list. However, I will suggest this book be read before anyone reads anything related to English literature. Prepared by three outstanding authors, Paul Goring, Jeremy Hawthorn, and Domhnall Mitchell, this book does very best to introduce the newcomers to the study of history of English literature. It has wonderful guides on how to prepare for the literature exam, how to begin studying literature, how to approach various genres, how to understand the literary theory and so on… so, in my limited opinion, like the very first book on this list, this is also a must-have for the students of English literature.

You can also watch a video version of this article featuring Alok Mishra:


Educational Research Review

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  • CiteScore: 14.5CiteScore:
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    CiteScore measures the average citations received per peer-reviewed document published in this title. CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a range of four years (e.g. 2017-20) to peer-reviewed documents (articles, reviews, conference papers, data papers and book chapters) published in the same four calendar years, divided by the number of these documents in these same four years (e.g. 2017 – 20): Scopus source data, 2021
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Educational Research Review is an international journal addressed to researchers and various agencies interested in the review of studies and theoretical papers in education at any level. The journal accepts high quality articles that are solving educational research problems by using a review approach.

Educational Research Review is an international journal addressed to researchers and various agencies interested in the review of studies and theoretical papers in education at any level. The journal accepts high quality articles that are solving educational research problems by using a review approach. This may include thematic or methodological reviews, or meta-analyses. The journal does not limit its scope to any age range. The journal invites articles on the broad range of settings in which people learn and are educated (school settings, corporate training, formal or informal settings, etc.).

Empirical studies or theoretical contributions that do not include a critical review analysis are not accepted.


The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Vol. A: Middle Ages

One of the essentials for English literature students. history and literature packed together. I feel thaf whatever I say is a cruel underestimation of this books worth so I&aposd rather keep silent in appreciation and awe.

**First reading review**
there&aposll be more times. One of the essentials for English literature students. history and literature packed together. I feel thaf whatever I say is a cruel underestimation of this books worth so I'd rather keep silent in appreciation and awe.

**First reading review**
there'll be more times. . more

I love the Norton Anthologies of Literature. I have been a Norton fan since my undergrad days when we used them in my survey classes, and now that I&aposm teaching lit surveys I&aposm passing these wonderful collections along to my students (by which I mean forcing my students to buy them).

The Norton editors are really good about providing background for such a wide variety of texts, including general introductory material about the medieval period--social organization, religious developments, changes i I love the Norton Anthologies of Literature. I have been a Norton fan since my undergrad days when we used them in my survey classes, and now that I'm teaching lit surveys I'm passing these wonderful collections along to my students (by which I mean forcing my students to buy them).

The Norton editors are really good about providing background for such a wide variety of texts, including general introductory material about the medieval period--social organization, religious developments, changes in the English language from Anglo-Saxon Old English, through Norman French to Middle English, and into Early Modern English. The editors also provide more specific background for the individual texts, giving some history of the author (when it's known) and the significance of the text in the overall picture of English literature.

For my British Literature I survey, I selected a variety of texts, including "Cuchullain's Boyhood Deeds," the opening section of Beowulf, pieces of Chaucer's "General Prologue" and "Wife of Bath's Prologue," the "York Play of the Crucifixion," and a couple of pieces from Margery Kempe. As this list suggests, the Norton has a wide range of texts (and I didn't even cast as wide a net as I initially intended to), dealing with a multitude of issues that were important to medieval people, including religion, gender roles, chivalry, the shift from Anglo-Saxon/Old English to Norman/Middle English, and so on. . more

This was the first volume in a set of 3.

It is a comprehensive history and survey of English literature up to Middle English.

I personally adore all Norton editions as I find their translations to be the best out there and the footnotes are not insane to read. Some anthologies over due the footnotes and annotations so much that there are more of those than actual text.

In all, this anthology gives a rather good summary and example of what English literature looked like, and includes most, if not This was the first volume in a set of 3.

It is a comprehensive history and survey of English literature up to Middle English.

I personally adore all Norton editions as I find their translations to be the best out there and the footnotes are not insane to read. Some anthologies over due the footnotes and annotations so much that there are more of those than actual text.

In all, this anthology gives a rather good summary and example of what English literature looked like, and includes most, if not all, major works of the time period.

I have begun to read the next in this series and hope it will be the same. . more

A fine collection, admirably edited and smoothly presented with unobtrusive but usable footnotes and helpful introductory essays. I&aposm pleased by the inclusion of Seamus Heaney&aposs rendering of Beowulf, and was delighted by the modern English translation of Sir Gawain and the Green Night.

Someday I&aposm going to pony up the resolve to plow through the Canterbury Tales, I just know it . A fine collection, admirably edited and smoothly presented with unobtrusive but usable footnotes and helpful introductory essays. I'm pleased by the inclusion of Seamus Heaney's rendering of Beowulf, and was delighted by the modern English translation of Sir Gawain and the Green Night.

Someday I'm going to pony up the resolve to plow through the Canterbury Tales, I just know it . . more

The older the story, the less I like it. Ha. I said it. And I&aposm an English major. Sorry dudes.

I will never be a big fan of story in verse--I don&apost think it makes it more concise, I think it just makes it flowery and difficult. Sorry Professor Gambera. The older the story, the less I like it. Ha. I said it. And I'm an English major. Sorry dudes.

I will never be a big fan of story in verse--I don't think it makes it more concise, I think it just makes it flowery and difficult. Sorry Professor Gambera. . more


Running injuries. A review of the epidemiological literature

Running is one of the most popular leisure sports activities. Next to its beneficial health effects, negative side effects in terms of sports injuries should also be recognised. Given the limitations of the studies it appears that for the average recreational runner, who is steadily training and who participates in a long distance run every now and then, the overall yearly incidence rate for running injuries varies between 37 and 56%. Depending on the specificity of the group of runners concerned (competitive athletes average recreational joggers boys and girls) and on different circumstances these rates vary. If incidence is calculated according to exposure of running time the incidence reported in the literature varies from 2.5 to 12.1 injuries per 1000 hours of running. Most running injuries are lower extremity injuries, with a predominance for the knee. About 50 to 75% of all running injuries appear to be overuse injuries due to the constant repetition of the same movement. Recurrence of running injuries is reported in 20 to 70% of the cases. From the epidemiological studies it can be concluded that running injuries lead to a reduction of training or training cessation in about 30 to 90% of all injuries, about 20 to 70% of all injuries lead to medical consultation or medical treatment and 0 to 5% result in absence from work. Aetiological factors associated with running injuries include previous injury, lack of running experience, running to compete and excessive weekly running distance. The association between running injuries and factors such as warm-up and stretching exercises, body height, malalignment, muscular imbalance, restricted range of motion, running frequency, level of performance, stability of running pattern, shoes and inshoe orthoses and running on 1 side of the road remains unclear or is backed by contradicting or scarce research findings. Significantly not associated with running injuries seem age, gender, body mass index, running hills, running on hard surfaces, participation in other sports, time of the year and time of the day. The prevention of sports injuries should focus on changes of behaviour by health education. Health education on running injuries should primarily focus on the importance of complete rehabilitation and the early recognition of symptoms of overuse, and on the provision of training guidelines.


Omnibus 6: Grade 12

In Latin, Omnibus means "all encompassing."

The Omnibus Curriculum from Veritas Press is designed to help enlighten, train, and develop young minds through the study of everything important, long-lasting, and true: the ideas, arguments and expression of the Western Canon as expressed in the Great Books.

Omnibus VI: The Modern World, 2nd Edition is the last in a series of six books that repeat a three year cycle of Ancient, Medieval, and Modern history the first three are at the logic stage, and the latter three at the Rhetoric stage. Omnibus VI is recommended for 12th grade, but parents may wish to preview the material to see whether their student is at a rigorous enough reading and maturity level for the materials covered. The three books in the series may be used in any order for children at that level.

Each volume features lists of both Primary and Secondary books. Primary books are the traditional Great Books, while the Secondary books provide balance in the areas of Theology, History and Literature, such as A Midsummer's Night Dream and The Two Towers. Primary Books to read include: Paradise Lost, Leviathan, Emma, Wealth of Nations, Moby Dick, Huckleberry Finn, Robinson Crusoe, Pensees, the Portable Enlightenment Reader, Origin and Principles of the American Revolution, Democracy in America, Notes from the Underground, Battel Cry of Freedom, Beyond Good and Evil, All Quiet on the Western Front, The Sun Also Rises, Citizen Soldiers, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, The Stranger, I have a Dream & Letter from a Birmingham Jail, and Brave New World . Secondary Books include: On Christian Doctrine, Out of the Silent Planet, Perelandra, Hamlet, Common Sense, John Adams, Red Badge of Courage, Self-Reliance, Civil Disobedience, Leaves of Grass, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, The Picture of Dorian Gray, Interpretation of Dreams, The Guns of August, That Hideous Strength, Heart of Darkness, The Jungle, 50 Great Short Stories, and Poetry of T.S. Eliot.

Each chapter covers a Great Book, examining the author, context, significance, main characters, summary and setting, worldview, and providing an in-depth essay analyzing and teaching the important points of the work. Chapters conclude with five sessions that provide questions to consider, optional activities, reading assignments, cultural analysis, biblical analysis, application, summa questions, recitation comprehension questions, lateral thinking, review questions, and evaluation questions. This book also includes six essays that expose students to other disciplies to consider for courses of study in college or in their careers.

This book is perfect for additional students in a class, co-op, or family the teacher's CD-ROM is not included.

Covering literature, history, and theology from a solidly Reformed perspective, editors Douglas Wilson and G. Tyler Fischer weave their understanding of God's providence and sovereignty throughout history. Emphasizing the importance of understanding presuppositionalism, evaluating worldview, and having a Christo-centric understanding of the world, the authors clearly set out the goal of their work:

"We do not learn logic and rhetoric simply to become more competent than our peers. We do it to take dominion in the name of Jesus Christ."

784 pages, indexed, with timeline, hardcover. Grade 12. 2nd Edition. Classical artwork is included throughout, some of which includes both male and female nudity.

In Latin, Omnibus means "all encompassing."

The Omnibus Curriculum from Veritas Press is designed to help enlighten, train, and develop young minds through the study of everything important, long-lasting, and true: the ideas, arguments and expression of the Western Canon as expressed in the Great Books.

Omnibus VI: The Modern World, 2nd Edition is the last in a series of six books that repeat a three year cycle of Ancient, Medieval, and Modern history the first three are at the logic stage, and the latter three at the Rhetoric stage. Omnibus VI is recommended for 12th grade, but parents may wish to preview the material to see whether their student is at a rigorous enough reading and maturity level for the materials covered. The three books in the series may be used in any order for children at that level.

Each volume features lists of both Primary and Secondary books. Primary books are the traditional Great Books, while the Secondary books provide balance in the areas of Theology, History and Literature, such as A Midsummer's Night Dream and The Two Towers. Primary Books to read include: Paradise Lost, Leviathan, Emma, Wealth of Nations, Moby Dick, Huckleberry Finn, Robinson Crusoe, Pensees, the Portable Enlightenment Reader, Origin and Principles of the American Revolution, Democracy in America, Notes from the Underground, Battel Cry of Freedom, Beyond Good and Evil, All Quiet on the Western Front, The Sun Also Rises, Citizen Soldiers, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, The Stranger, I have a Dream & Letter from a Birmingham Jail, and Brave New World . Secondary Books include: On Christian Doctrine, Out of the Silent Planet, Perelandra, Hamlet, Common Sense, John Adams, Red Badge of Courage, Self-Reliance, Civil Disobedience, Leaves of Grass, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, The Picture of Dorian Gray, Interpretation of Dreams, The Guns of August, That Hideous Strength, Heart of Darkness, The Jungle, 50 Great Short Stories, and Poetry of T.S. Eliot.

Each chapter covers a Great Book, examining the author, context, significance, main characters, summary and setting, worldview, and providing an in-depth essay analyzing and teaching the important points of the work. Chapters conclude with five sessions that provide questions to consider, optional activities, reading assignments, cultural analysis, biblical analysis, application, summa questions, recitation comprehension questions, lateral thinking, review questions, and evaluation questions. This book also includes six essays that expose students to other disciplies to consider for courses of study in college or in their careers.

The included Teacher's Guide CD-ROM duplicates the student text and inserts answers to all questions, provides grading tools, and more.

Covering literature, history, and theology from a solidly Reformed perspective, editors Douglas Wilson and G. Tyler Fischer weave their understanding of God's providence and sovereignty throughout history. Emphasizing the importance of understanding presuppositionalism, evaluating worldview, and having a Christo-centric understanding of the world, the authors clearly set out the goal of their work:

"We do not learn logic and rhetoric simply to become more competent than our peers. We do it to take dominion in the name of Jesus Christ."

784 pages, indexed, with timeline, hardcover. Grade 12. Classical artwork is included throughout, some of which includes both male and female nudity.


Watch the video: Whos afraid of? Ο Δημήτρης Στεφανάκης και η Λογοτεχνία ως Παιχνίδι Ενηλίκων (June 2022).