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Macdonough III DD- 351 - History

Macdonough III DD- 351 - History


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Macdonough III
(DD-351: cpl. 1,395; 1. 341'3"; b. 34'3"; dr. 15'6", B. 36.6 k.; cpl. l6O; n. 6 6", 4 .30 cal mg., 8 21" tt.; cl. Farragut. )

The third Macdonough (DD-351) was laid down 15 May 1933 by the Boston Navy Yard; launched 22 August 1934; sponsored by Miss Rose Shaler Macdonough, granddaughter of' Commodore Thomas Macdonough; and commissioned 15 March 1935, Comdr. Charles S. Alden in command.

Following an extensive shakedown cruise to Europe and western South A merica, Macdonough Joined the Pacific Fleet and operated out of San Diego until 12 October 1939. She then sailed to a new home port, Pearl Harbor as part of Destroyer Squadron 1. In port 7 December 1941, Macdonough splashed one of the Japanese attack planes before heading out to sea to Join others in the search for the enemy task force. For the next 3 months, the destroyer performed scouting assignments southwest of Oahu. Before returning to Pearl Harbor to escort convoys to and from west coast ports, she steamed as far as New Guinea, lending support to airstrikes on Bougainville, Salamaua, and Lae.

Macdonough returned to the western Pacific to prepare for the Guadalcanal invasion Operating with Saratoga, she provided cover for the landings on Guadalcanal and Tulagi, 7 August 1942. She remained in the area, taking part in the Battle of Savo Island and fighting enemy aircraft and shipping during the landing of reinforcements on the island. At the end of September, she commenced escort work, plying between New Guinea, Espiritu Santo, and Pearl Harbor until reporting to Mare Island, 22 December, for overhaul.

Macdonough next steamed north for the assault and occupation of Attu I 31and in the Aleutians. Arriving at Adak, Alaska, 16 April 1943. the destroyer patrolled northeast of Attu until the assault. On 10 May, while maneuvering in heavy weather to guard the attack transports, she collided with Sicard. And was forced to retire under tow The ship remained in the repairs dock at Mare Island until 23 September, when she prepared to get underway for the Gilbert Islands. Arriving for the invasion of Makin Island, 20 November, she acted as control vessel for the landing craft and,following the completion of that phase of the operation, entered the lagoon to bombard Japanese installations. On 23 November Makin was declared secure and Macdonough returned to Pearl Harbor.

In January 1944, she joined the Northern Attack Force staging for the assault on the Marshalls. As the primary fighter director ship for the initial transport group, Macdonough at first operated off KwaJalein Atoll. On 29 January, she proceeded to WotJe Atoll and participated in the shore bombardment there until returning to KwaJalein on the 31st for the occupation of Roi and Namur Islands. The indispensable destroyer then took up radar picket duties until proceeding on to Eniwetok Atoll.

On 21 and 22 February, Macdonough accurately shelled enemy positions on Parry Island at the deep entrance to Eniwetok lagoon. A month later, she was a reference and rendezvous ship for carrier TF 68, then striking the Palau Islands. Continuing her varied pace, she was at Hollandia, New Guinea. by 21 April, providing fire support for the landings there. Then, at the end of the month she steamed eastward to take up radar picket duty south of Truk. During this assignment, Macdonough, with Monterry and Stephen Potter, sank Japanese submarine RO-45, 30 April

On 4 May, the destroyer arrived at Majuro to Join the forces gathering for the inv,asion of' the Marianas Departing the Marshalls 6 June, Macdonough operated with the fast carrier force during the Saipan invasion. She performed screening and picket duties and was part of' the bombardment group firing on Japanese installations on the west side of the island. She next took part in the Battle of the Philippine Sea, 19 to 20 June, firing at the few enemy planes which got through the combat air patrol At,ter the victory, Macdonough returned to the Marianas. Ordered to (Guam, she covered underwater demolition teams reconnoitering the beaches and provided harassing fire to prevent repairs to beach defenses on the island. On 21 July, the destroyer patrolled the waters off Guam to protect the assault craft from enemy submarines, continuing that role until departing for Hawaii 10 August.

After a brief stay at Pearl Harbor, Macdonough departed for the Admiralty Island she arrived at Manus 15 September and commenced escort duties. On 14 October, she accompanied troop transports to Leyte and remained to protect her charges through the battle for Leyte Gulf. 24 to 25 October. She then steamed back to Manus for another convoy to Leyte, 3 November, and upon her return to Philippine waters patrolled Leyte Gulf and the southern Surigao Strait area. The next month, Macdonough resumed escort duty. Operating out of Ulithi, she guarded fleet oilers on their refueling runs in the Philippine, Formosa, and South China Sea areas. In January 1946, the destroyer sailed for Puget Sound and a 3 month overhaul period. Returning to Ulithi, she was assigned to radar picket station off that island until 5 July, when she resumed screening convoys. For the remainder of the war she protected Allied shipping between Ulithi and Okinawa.

At Guam when hostilities ended, Macdonough soon received orders to return to the United States. She arrived at San Diego 3 September, continuing on the next week to the New York Navy Yard, where she decommissioned 22 October 1945. On 20 December 1946, she was sold to George H. Nutman of Brooklyn, N.Y.

Macdonough received 13 battle stars for World War II service.


U.S.S. HULL

USS Hull received its name in honor of Commodore Isaac Hull, noted Navy commander during the War of 1812. The Navy brought her into service upon her commission in January 1935. After shakedown in Atlantic waters, she reported to the Pacific in October of that year. She participated in various operations along the west coast for the next few years. In October 1939, the Navy reassigned her homeport to Pearl Harbor. She was in port when the Japanese attacked on December 7, 1941.

For the first few months of the War, USS Hull escorted the carrier Lexington in the South Pacific. In August 1942, she was part of the group that helped take Guadalcanal and Tulagi. For the next few months, she provided escort for battleships in the South Pacific. In April 1943, she shifted north to help with the recovery of Kiska, in the Aleutian chain. She shifted back south and, in November of that year, helped with the Gilbert campaign. The Marshall Islands followed in early 1944. She was there for raids at the Carolines, Saipan, and Guam. After a minor overhaul, she steamed back to the Pacific in October 1944. On December 18, 1944, a typhoon caught USS Hull and sunk her. More than two hundred men lost their lives.


Macdonough III DD- 351 - History

Following a shakedown cruise, which took her to the Azores, Portugal, and the British Isles, Hull arrived at San Diego via the Panama Canal 19 October 1935. She began her operations with the Pacific Fleet off San Diego, engaging in tactical exercises and training. During the summer of 1936, she cruised to Alaska and in April 1937 took part in fleet exercises in Hawaiian waters. During this increasingly tense pre-war period, Hull often acted as plane guard to the Navy&rsquos Pacific carriers during the perfection of tactics, which would be a central factor in America&rsquos victory in World War II. She continued these operations until the outbreak of the war, moving to her new home port, Pearl Harbor, 12 October 1939.

The pattern of fleet problems, plane guard duty and patrolling was rudely interrupted 7 December 1941 when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. Hull was alongside tender Dobbin undergoing repairs, but quickly put her anti-aircraft batteries into operation and assisted in downing several planes. As the main object of the raid was battleships, the destroyer suffered no hits and departed next day to join carrier Enterprise and escort her into Pearl Harbor. During the next critical months of the war, Hull operated with Admiral Wilson Brown&rsquos Task Force 11, screening Lexington in important strikes on Japanese bases in the Solomons. She returned to Pearl Harbor 26 March, and for 3 months sailed on convoy duty between San Francisco and Pearl Harbor. Hull was soon back in the thick of combat, however, as she sailed 7 December for Suvu, Fiji Islands, to prepare for America&rsquos first offensive land thrust, the amphibious assault on Guadalcanal. She departed 26 July for the Solomons and on the day of the landings, 7 August 1942, screened cruisers during shore bombardment and then took up station as antisubmarine protection for the transports. Next day, she helped repel strong enemy bombing attacks, shooting down several of the attackers, and that evening performed the sad duty of sinking transport George F. Elliott, burning beyond control. On 9 August, the destroyer sank a small schooner off Guadalcanal departing that evening for Espiritu Santo. During the next difficult weeks on Guadalcanal, Hull made three voyages with transports and warships in support of the troops, undergoing air attacks 3 and 14 September.

The ship returned to Pearl Harbor 20 October, and spent the remainder of the year with battleship Colorado in the New Hebrides. She sailed 29 January from Pearl Harbor bound for repairs at San Francisco, arriving 7 February 1943. Upon completion, she moved to the bleak Aleutians, arriving Adak 16 April, and began a series of training maneuvers with battleships and cruisers in the northern waters. As the Navy moved in to retake Attu in May, Hull continued her patrol duties, and during July and early August, she took part in numerous bombardments of Kiska Island. The ship also took part in the landings on Kiska 15 August, only to find that the Japanese had evacuated their last foothold in the Aleutian chain.

Hull returned to the Central Pacific after the Kiska operation, arriving Pearl Harbor 26 September 1943. She departed with the fleet three days later for strikes on Wake Island, and operated with escort carriers during diversionary strikes designed to mask the Navy&rsquos real objective the Gilberts. Hull bombarded Makin during this assault 20 November, and with the invasion well underway arrived in convoy at Pearl Harbor 7 December 1943. From there she returned to Oakland 21 December for amphibious exercises.

Next on the island road to Japan was the Marshall Islands, and Hull sailed with Task Force 53 from San Diego 13 January 1944. She arrived 31 January off Kwajalein, screening transports in the reserve area, and through February carried out screening and patrol duties off Eniwetok and Majuro. Joining a battleship and carrier group, the ship moved to Mille Atoll 18 March, and took part in a devastating bombardment. Hull also took part in the bombardment of Wotje 22 March.

The veteran ship next participated in the devastating raid on the great Japanese base at Truk 29&ndash30 April after which she arrived Majuro 4 May 1944. There she joined Admiral Lee&rsquos battleships for the next major invasion, the assault on the Marianas. Hull bombarded Saipan 13 June, covered minesweeping operations with gunfire and patrolled during the initial landing 15 June. Two days later Hull and other ships steamed out to join Admiral Mitscher&rsquos carrier task force as the Japanese made preparations to close the Marianas for a decisive naval battle. The great fleets approached each other 19 June for the biggest carrier engagement of the war, and as four large air raids hit the American dispositions fighter cover from the carriers of Hull&rsquos Task Group 68.2 and surface fire decimated the Japanese planes. With an able assist from American submarines, Mitscher succeeded in sinking two Japanese carriers in addition to inflicting fatal losses on the Japanese naval air arm during &ldquoThe Great Marianas Turkey Shoot&rdquo 19 June, Hull assisting in several of these brilliant antiaircraft engagements.

During July, the destroyer operated with carrier groups off Guam, and after the assault 21 July patrolled off the island. In August, she returned to Seattle, arriving the 26th, and underwent repairs, which kept her in the States until 23 October, when she anchored at Pearl Harbor. Hull joined a Third Fleet refueling group, departing 20 November 1944 to rendezvous with fast carrier striking forces in the Philippine Sea. Fueling began 17 December, but increasingly heavy seas forced cancellation later that day. The fueling group became engulfed in an approaching typhoon next day, with barometers falling to very low levels and winds increasing above 90 knots. At about 1100 on 18 December, Hull became locked &ldquoin irons,&rdquo in the trough of the mountainous sea and unable to steer. All hands worked feverishly to maintain integrity and keep the ship afloat during the heavy rolls, but finally, in the words of her commander: &ldquoThe ship remained over on her side at an angle of 80 degrees or more as the water flooded into her upper structures. I remained on the port wing of the bridge until the water flooded up to me, then I stepped off into the water as the ship rolled over on her way down.&rdquo

The typhoon swallowed many of the survivors, but valiant rescue work by Tabberer, Brown and other ships of the fleet in the days that followed saved the lives of 7 officers and 55 enlisted men.


1971 in the Vietnam War

Project Copper was an unsuccessful operation to use three Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-trained Cambodian irregular force battalions to interdict the Sihanouk Trail. One battalion deserted, one mutinied during training and the third suffered extensive casualties and had to be withdrawn to assist in the defense of Phnom Penh. [4] : 282–4

The United States Congress adopted the revised Cooper-Church Amendment which prohibited the introduction of U.S. ground troops or advisers into Cambodia and declared that U.S. aid to Cambodia should not be considered a commitment to the defense of Cambodia. [5]

Operation Silver Buckle was a Royal Lao Army (RLA) offensive staged in Military Region 4 of Laos and was the deepest RLA penetration to date of the Ho Chi Minh Trail. Reaching the Trailside village of Moung Nong, the forward two companies attacked the rear of the 50,000 man People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) garrison on 8 February 1971, just as Operation Lam Son 719 was launched by the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) and diverted at least six PAVN battalions away from the ARVN assault. [4] : 286–90

The ARVN launched Operation Toàn Thắng TT02 which culminated in the Battle of Snuol against PAVN and Viet Cong (VC) forces in the Snuol District of Cambodia. The PAVN/VC lost 1,043 killed while the ARVN lost 37 killed, 74 missing and more than 300 captured. The operation rendered the ARVN 5th Division combat ineffective. [6] : 338–9

United States Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird said that the "Vietnamization" of the war was running ahead of schedule and that the combat mission of the U.S. troops would end in summer 1971. [7]

The last herbicide spraying by the United States to defoliate forests in South Vietnam and kill crops used to feed communist soldiers and supporters was carried out in Ninh Thuan province. Operation Ranch Hand was finished. [8]

The 1st Battalion 1st Marines conducted Operation Upshur Stream, continuous reconnaissance and infantry patrolling and concentrated air and artillery attacks in an effort to prevent the PAVN/VC from using the Charlie Ridge base area for attacks against Da Nang. [9] : 215

300 ARVN paratroopers with U.S. air support and advisers raided a suspected camp holding American prisoners of war in Cambodia. No POWs were in the camp, but 30 PAVN soldiers were captured. [10] : 275

The ARVN 4th Armor Brigade and 4th Ranger Group and the 2nd Marine Brigade together with Khmer National Armed Forces (FANK) forces launched Operation Cuu Long 44-02 to reopen Route 4 in Cambodia. The operation resulted in 211 PAVN and 16 ARVN killed. [11] : 197–8

PAVN sappers attacked Pochentong Airfield near Phnom Penh and destroyed or damaged 69 Khmer National Aviation (AVNK) aircraft and killed 39 AVNK personnel, effectively destroying the AVNK. [12]

NBC reported that soldiers of the 173rd Airborne Brigade stationed at Landing Zone English were buying heroin from a Vietnamese house on the base and the South Vietnamese then proceeded to demolish the house. [13]

Campaign 74B was a PAVN combined arms operation that recaptured the strategic Plain of Jars and brought the PAVN 316th Division within artillery range of the major RLA base at Long Tieng. The assault was stopped by Thai mercenary forces and U.S. air support and the PAVN withdrew as they exhausted their supplies. [4] : 295–300

In Operation Hoang Dien 103, units of III Marine Amphibious Force, Republic of Korea Marine Corps 2nd Marine Brigade, ARVN 51st Regiment, 146th PF Platoon, 39th RF Company and PSDF combed the Da Nang lowlands and lowland fringes, killing 330 PAVN/VC, while losing 46 killed, including two Americans. [6] : 447

Operation Lam Son 719 (Vietnamese: Chiến dịch Lam Sơn 719 or Chiến dịch đường 9 – Nam Lào) was an invasion by 20,000 soldiers of the armed forces of South Vietnam of southeastern Laos. The objective of the operation was the disruption of the Ho Chi Minh Trail (the Truong Son Road to North Vietnam) which supplied PAVN and VC forces in South Vietnam. Although claiming victory, the ARVN withdrew from Laos in disorder and suffered 9,000 casualties. The U.S. supported the operation and had 253 soldiers killed and many helicopters destroyed. [14] : 70–90

In Operation Lam Son 719, an armoured column of the ARVN reached Ban Dong, 20 kilometers inside Laos and one half the distance to Tchepone, the objective of the invasion. The route, Highway 9, was only barely passable and the advance stalled. The PAVN concentrated their resistance against a number of small bases established in Laos to support the operation. [14] : 75

An RVNAF UH-1 helicopter carrying photojournalists Larry Burrows, Henri Huet, Kent Potter and Keizaburo Shimamoto and seven others was shot down over Laos killing all on board. [15]

Operation Desert Rat was an RLA operation intended to harass the PAVN as they fought off the ARVN in Operation Lam Son 719. The operation resulted in 121 PAVN killed and 39 trucks destroyed. [4] : 290–1

New ARVN I Corps commander Lieutenant General Đỗ Cao Trí dies in a helicopter crash near Bien Hoa Air Base. Photojournalist François Sully leapt 75 feet (23 m) from the burning helicopter but later died of his injuries. [14] : 61

A bomb exploded in the United States Capitol building at 1:32 a.m., injuring nobody but causing $300,000 in damage. The Weather Underground took credit for the bombing which was in protest of the invasion of Laos. [16]

In Operation Lam Son 719, an airborne operation began against Tchepone, Laos, this was the largest airborne assault of the Vietnam War utilizing 120 UH-1 helicopters to transport two battalions. Tchepone was captured without major resistance. [14] : 85

President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu of South Vietnam ordered the withdrawal of South Vietnamese troops from Laos. He ignored the recommendation of U.S. Commander General Creighton Abrams that South Vietnam reinforce its troops in Laos and hold its position. The withdrawal became a rout with South Vietnam suffering heavy casualties. [14] : 86–90

The 198th Light Infantry Brigade launched Operation Finney Hill to secure lines of communication and pacification operations in the coastal area of Quảng Ngãi Province. The operation resulted in 454 PAVN/VC killed and eight captured, U.S. losses were 32 killed. [17] : 29

The 196th Light Infantry Brigade launched Operation Middlesex Peak a security operation to prevent PAVN/VC infiltration into the coastal lowlands of Quảng Tín and Quảng Ngãi Provinces. The operation resulted in 463 PAVN/VC killed and 22 captured and U.S. losses of 50 killed. [17] : 26

PAVN artillery began to shell Khe Sanh Combat Base, the main base supporting Operation Lam Son 719. [14] : 92

National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger admitted to President Richard Nixon that Lam Son 719 "comes out as clearly not a success." The failure of Lam Son 719 was called by one scholar "the military turning point of the war." [18] : 28

A PAVN sapper attack on Khe Sanh Combat Base resulted in three Americans killed and several aircraft and two ammunition dumps destroyed, PAVN losses were 14 killed and one captured. [14] : 96

In Operation Lam Son 719, most South Vietnamese soldiers had crossed the border back into South Vietnam and fighting in Laos ceased. [14] : 90

Several dozen PAVN sappers infiltrated Fire Support Base Mary Ann in Quảng Tín Province and killed 30 American soldiers. Mary Ann was scheduled to be turned over to the ARVN and the U.S. forces withdrawn. Several American officers were demoted or reprimanded for "substandard performance." [14] : 7–9

The jury at a military court-martial convicted Lieutenant William Calley of the premeditated murder of 22 Vietnamese civilians during the My Lai massacre of 1968. Calley was the only soldier convicted for his role in the massacre. [19]

PAVN/VC forces killed 103 South Vietnamese civilians and destroyed 1,500 homes in the Duc Duc massacre in Duc Duc District, Quảng Nam Province. [9] : 231–2

A confidential U.S. Army directive ordered the interception and confiscation of anti-Vietnam War and other dissident material being sent to U.S. military personnel in South Vietnam. [20]

Lieutenant William Calley was sentenced to life imprisonment and hard labor at Fort Leavenworth for his role in the My Lai massacre. [19]

The U.S. 101st Airborne Division (Airmobile) and the ARVN 1st Division launched Operation Texas Star against PAVN forces in Quảng Trị and Thừa Thiên Provinces. The operation resulted in 1,782 PAVN and 386 U.S. killed. [21]

President Nixon ordered Calley to be transferred from Fort Leavenworth prison to house arrest. [10] : 274

Khe Sanh Combat Base, reactivated to support Operation Lam Son 719, was abandoned once again. [14] : 96

Operation Xieng Dong was a successful RLA operation to defend the capital Luang Prabang against a PAVN attack. RLA forces from across the country converged on the capital and forced the PAVN 335th Regiment to withdraw. [4] : 293–4

The 3rd Marine Amphibious Brigade was activated at Camp Jay K. Brooks and III Marine Amphibious Force transferred all remaining Marine forces to it. [9] : 238

John Kerry of Vietnam Veterans Against the War testified before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee stating: "Someone has to die so that President Nixon won't be - and these are his words - 'the first president to lose a war.' How do you ask a man to be the last man to die in Vietnam? How do you ask a man to be the last man to die for a mistake?" [22]

Members of Vietnam Veterans Against the War threw away over 700 medals on the west steps of the Capitol building in Washington to protest the war. [23] The next day, antiwar organizers claimed that 500,000 marched, making this the largest demonstration since the November 1969 march. [24]

The 196th Light Infantry Brigade launched Operation Caroline Hill to locate and engage PAVN/VC forces, lines of communications and base areas and provide security for pacification programs in the area west and south of Da Nang following the departure of the III Marine Amphibious Force. The operation resulted in 161 PAVN/VC killed and 11 captured and U.S. losses of 15 killed. [17] : 34

Catholic Priest Philip Berrigan and seven others were indicted for planning to kidnap Henry Kissinger and to blow up government buildings. [25]

President Nixon welcomed the 1st Marine Division back from South Vietnam at a ceremony at Camp Pendleton. [9] : 242

A reinforced company of VC infantry and sappers stormed Đại Lộc District Headquarters behind a mortar and rocket barrage. RF/PF forces killed 95 VC and captured 43 individual and crew-served weapons, at a cost of 15 dead and 43 wounded. [9] : 243

15,000 soldiers and police arrested more than 7,000 persons protesting the war in Washington. [20]

1,146 protesters against the war were arrested on the U.S. Capitol grounds trying to shut down the U.S. Congress. This brought the total arrested during the 1971 May Day Protests to over 12,000. [26]

The Paris Peace Talks between North Vietnam, South Vietnam, the Viet Cong and the United States enter their fourth year. Little or no progress had been made. [10] : 283

Operation Phoutah was an RLA defensive operation against a PAVN strike from Tchepone. The RLA failed in its attempts to capture Moung Phalane. [4] : 289–92

30 U.S. infantrymen, many from Company A, 1st Battalion, 61st Infantry Regiment, were killed when a PAVN 122mm rocket hit their bunker at Charlie 2. [27]

Elements of the 38th Regiment and 91st Sapper Battalion attacked Dai Xuyen District, south of Da Nang, where over 80,000 South Vietnamese civilians, including high government officials, had gathered for a religious ceremony. The battle raged throughout the day and into the following night before the PAVN/VC fell back, leaving behind over 200 dead while Allied losses were five killed. 20 civilians died in the fighting and homes in the area suffered extensive damage. [9] : 247

Henry Kissinger in secret peace negotiations with North Vietnam in Paris introduced a new proposal for a U.S. withdrawal from South Vietnam, a ceasefire in place and an exchange of prisoners. The ceasefire in place was a key concession because it would allow PAVN soldiers to remain in South Vietnam at least temporarily. [18] : 27–8

Brigadier General John W. Donaldson was charged with the murder of six Vietnamese civilians during operations in November 1968-January 1969 while flying in his helicopter over Quảng Ngãi Province. A colonel at the time of the alleged crimes, he was the first U.S. general charged with war crimes since 1902 and the highest ranking American to be accused of war crimes during the war. The charges were eventually dismissed due to lack of evidence. [28]

The PAVN attack Hill 950, a U.S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam – Studies and Observations Group operations base and United States Army Security Agency radio relay site overlooking the Khe Sanh plateau. Many of the personnel at the base were evacuated by helicopter, but approximately 22 remained to defend the base and destroy its secret communications system and were either captured or evaded into the surrounding area. [29]

In the Battle of Long Khánh the 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment attacked a PAVN/VC base camp in Long Khánh Province. The battle resulted in five VC and three Australians killed. [30]

Operation Phiboonpol was an offensive by four RLA battalions to capture the Bolaven Plateau overlooking the Ho Chi Minh Trail. Faced with strong opposition from the PAVN the RLA only managed to secure a tenuous position on the edge of the plateau after suffering heavy losses. [4] : 286–9

The Mansfield Amendment, authored by Senator Mike Mansfield, was adopted by Congress. The amendment urged withdrawing American troops from South Vietnam at "the earliest practical date"—the first time in U.S. history that Congress had called for the end of a war. [20]

The last units of the 3rd Marine Amphibious Brigade left Da Nang. [9] : 246

North Vietnam negotiators Le Duc Tho and Xuan Thuy responded to Kissinger's 31 May proposal with a nine-point "bargaining proposal." This was the first time that the North Vietnamese had indicated a willingness to negotiate rather than presenting unilateral demands. [18] : 28

Kissinger made the first of two secret visits to China that paved the way for Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China. Following this meeting Zhou Enlai travelled to Hanoi to advise the North Vietnamese leadership of the change in Sino-American relations. The North Vietnamese were outraged by this change which they correctly perceived as an attempt by the U.S. to undermine Chinese support for North Vietnam in return for a change in U.S. policy towards Taiwan. [31]

The Politburo of North Vietnam instructed its negotiators in Paris not to make any further concessions to the United States. [18] : 29

Kissinger announced that the United States was prepared to provide $7.5 billion in aid to Vietnam, of which $2.5 billion could go to North Vietnam, and to withdraw all American forces within nine months. [18] : 28

Operation Sayasila was an RLA operation to capture Salavan and Paksong. The RLA succeeded at heavy cost with eight battalions rendered combat ineffective. [4] : 304–7

Operation Phou Khao Kham was an RLA operation to clear PAVN/Pathet Lao forces from Routes 13 and 7 north of Vientiane and capture Muang Soui. The RLA succeeded in recapturing Muang Soui but fails to clear the approach routes. [4] : 302

ARVN General Duong Van Minh submitted evidence to the U.S. Embassy in Saigon that President Thiệu was rigging the Presidential election scheduled for October. [14] : 104

The U.S. Embassy in Saigon informed Washington that if President Thiệu persisted in his efforts to make the upcoming Presidential election a charade, it might cause "growing political instability in South Vietnam." [14] : 104

General Minh withdrew as a candidate for president in the upcoming presidential election in South Vietnam. Minh said "I cannot put up with a disgusting farce that strips away all the people's hope of a democratic regime." [14] : 104

William Calley's life sentence for his role in the My Lai massacre was reduced to 20 years. Calley served three and one-half years of his sentence before being paroled. [32]

Operation Chenla II was a major FANK military operation. The FANK failed to dislodge the PAVN/VC from Cambodian territory and suffered heavy casualties.

Nguyễn Cao Kỳ withdrew his candidacy for president in the upcoming election. Incumbent President Thiệu was the only candidate remaining in the election. [14] : 104

A PAVN/VC sapper attack on the Cam Ranh Base tri-service ammunition storage area destroyed over 6000 tons of munitions with a value of more than US$10 million. [33]

Operation Jefferson Glenn was the last major ground operation in which U.S. troops participated in the Vietnam War. Three battalions of the 101st Airborne Division patrolled the area west of the city of Huế, called the "rocket belt," to try to prevent PAVN/VC rocket attacks. The Americans were gradually replaced by ARVN forces. The Americans and South Vietnamese claimed to have inflicted 2,026 casualties on the PAVN/VC. [34]

A bomb exploded in the Tu Do Nightclub in Saigon killing 14 Vietnamese and one American and wounding more than 50 others. [35]

In the Battle of Nui Le the 4RAR/NZ (ANZAC) Battalion engaged PAVN/VC forces at Núi Lé, Chau Duc District. The battle resulted in 14 PAVN/VC and five Australians killed.

Marine Security Guard Sergeant Charles "Wayne" Turberville was killed in a Khmer Rouge grenade attack in Phnom Penh. [36] [37]

Operation Sourisak Montry VIII was a Thai offensive against Pathet Lao forces along the Mekong River near Xieng Lom, Laos. The operation was indecisive with the Pathet Lao retaining control of the area. [4] : 315–20

The 1971 South Vietnamese presidential election was held. Incumbent President Thiệu garnered 94.3 percent of the vote. All of Thiệu's opponents had dropped out of the race. [14] : 107

Several U.S. soldiers at Firebase Pace near the Cambodian border refused to undertake a patrol outside the perimeter of the firebase. The combat refusal was widely reported by the media as was a letter signed by 65 American soldiers at Firebase Pace to U.S. Senator Edward M. Kennedy protesting that they were being ordered to participate in offensive combat operations despite U.S. policy to the contrary. [10] : 291

President Nixon announced that "American troops are now in a defensive position. the offensive activities of search and destroy are now being undertaken by the South Vietnamese" [14] : 25

Prime Minister Lon Nol of Cambodia suspended the Cambodian National Assembly and announced that he would run the country by executive decree. Lon Nol said that "the sterile game of democracy" was hindering the Cambodian government's fight against the communist forces of the Khmer Rouge and North Vietnamese. [10] : 291

Typhoon Hester made landfall over South Vietnam causing severe damage. At Chu Lai Base Area, Hester damaged or destroyed 75 percent of the structures in the base. Sustained winds and gusts in the base were estimated to have reached 130 km/h (80 mph) and 160 km/h (105 mph) respectively. [38] Four hangars collapsed in the Chu Lai Air Base, with total aircraft losses amounting to 36 destroyed and 87 damaged. [38] The 91st Evacuation Hospital was mostly destroyed and was forced to transfer patients to Qui Nhơn. [39] Nearly 50 percent of the structures at the Marble Mountain Air Facility were damaged by the storm's high winds. Heavy rains accompanying the storm caused considerable flooding in the country, approximately 370 km (230 mi) of coastline between Quảng Trị and Da Nang were inundated. About 90 percent of homes in Da Nang were damaged. [38] Twenty-two people were killed when an RVNAF C-47 transport crashed 5 miles (8.0 km) west Qui Nhơn. [40] Thee Americans were killed due to flying debris during the storm and twenty-one others were injured. [38] On 25 October, thunderstorms associated with Hester were blamed for a CH-47 crash near Nha Trang that killed 10 Americans. [41]

Operation Bedrock was an RLA offensive against the PAVN 46th Battalion near Salavan. The operation succeeded in securing the rice growing area near Salavan. [4] : 304–8

A U.S. Senate sub-committee issued a 300-page report "corruption, criminality, and moral compromise" at U.S. Post Exchanges in South Vietnam. [20]

Operation Thao La was an RLA dry season offensive to capture the Bolaven Plateau. The RLA secure Tha Theng and Ban Phong but lost Salavan and Paksong. The operation resulted in 1,204 PAVN and 399 RLA killed. [4] : 308–9

A US Army CH-47 carrying five crew and 28 soldiers from the 101st Airborne Division on a flight from Da Nang to Phu Bai Combat Base crashed into high ground killing all onboard. [42] [43]

The Vinh wiretap was a CIA espionage operation to intercept North Vietnamese military telephone lines. [4] : 381–6

17 December - 30 January 1972

Campaign Z was a PAVN combined arms operation against the RLA base at Long Tieng. The PAVN used T-34 tanks and 130mm field guns for the first time supported by VPAF fighter jets. The PAVN were able to temporarily seize high ground and shell Long Tieng before being pushed back. [4] : 323–34

President Nixon ordered the initiation of Operation Proud Deep Alpha, an intensive five-day bombing campaign against military targets in North Vietnam just north of the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone above the 17th parallel north. [18] : 29

30 December - 16 March 1972

Operation Maharat was the RLA defense of the Route 7 and 13 intersection at Sala Phoun Khoun. After being initially pushed out the RLA counterattacked and seized the area. [4] : 331


Contents

When Theodosius ascended to the imperial throne in 380, he began on a campaign to bring the Eastern Church back to Nicene Christianity. Theodosius wanted to further unify the entire empire behind the orthodox position and decided to convene a church council to resolve matters of faith and discipline. [5] : 45 Gregory Nazianzus was of similar mind, wishing to unify Christianity. In the spring of 381 they convened the second ecumenical council in Constantinople.

Theological context Edit

The Council of Nicaea in 325 had not ended the Arian controversy which it had been called to clarify. Arius and his sympathizers, e.g. Eusebius of Nicomedia were admitted back into the church after ostensibly accepting the Nicene creed. Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, the most vocal opponent of Arianism, was ultimately exiled through the machinations of Eusebius of Nicomedia. After the death of Constantine I in 337 and the accession of his Arian-leaning son Constantius II, open discussion of replacing the Nicene creed itself began. Up until about 360, theological debates mainly dealt with the divinity of the Son, the second person of the Trinity. However, because the Council of Nicaea had not clarified the divinity of the Holy Spirit, the third person of the Trinity, it became a topic of debate. The Macedonians denied the divinity of the Holy Spirit. This was also known as Pneumatomachianism.

Nicene Christianity also had its defenders: apart from Athanasius, the Cappadocian Fathers' Trinitarian discourse was influential in the council at Constantinople. Apollinaris of Laodicea, another pro-Nicene theologian, proved controversial. Possibly in an over-reaction to Arianism and its teaching that Christ was not God, he taught that Christ consisted of a human body and a divine mind, rejecting the belief that Christ had a complete human nature, including a human mind. [6] He was charged with confounding the persons of the Godhead, and with giving in to the heretical ways of Sabellius. Basil of Caesarea accused him of abandoning the literal sense of the scripture, and taking up wholly with the allegorical sense. His views were condemned in a Synod at Alexandria, under Athanasius of Alexandria, in 362, and later subdivided into several different heresies, the main ones of which were the Polemians and the Antidicomarianites.

Geopolitical context Edit

Theodosius' strong commitment to Nicene Christianity involved a calculated risk because Constantinople, the imperial capital of the Eastern Empire, was solidly Arian. To complicate matters, the two leading factions of Nicene Christianity in the East, the Alexandrians and the supporters of Meletius in Antioch, were "bitterly divided . almost to the point of complete animosity". [7]

The bishops of Alexandria and Rome had worked over a number of years to keep the see of Constantinople from stabilizing. Thus, when Gregory was selected as a candidate for the bishopric of Constantinople, both Alexandria and Rome opposed him because of his Antiochene background. [ citation needed ]

Meletian schism Edit

See of Constantinople Edit

The incumbent bishop of Constantinople was Demophilus, a Homoian Arian. On his accession to the imperial throne, Theodosius offered to confirm Demophilus as bishop of the imperial city on the condition of accepting the Nicene Creed however, Demophilus refused to abandon his Arian beliefs, and was immediately ordered to give up his churches and leave Constantinople. [8] [9] After forty years under the control of Arian bishops, the churches of Constantinople were now restored to those who subscribed to the Nicene Creed Arians were also ejected from the churches of other cities in the Eastern Roman Empire thus re-establishing Christian orthodoxy in the East. [10]

There ensued a contest to control the newly recovered see. A group led by Maximus the Cynic gained the support of Patriarch Peter of Alexandria by playing on his jealousy of the newly created see of Constantinople. They conceived a plan to install a cleric subservient to Peter as bishop of Constantinople so that Alexandria would retain the leadership of the Eastern Churches. [11] Many commentators characterize Maximus as having been proud, arrogant and ambitious. However, it is not clear the extent to which Maximus sought this position due to his own ambition or if he was merely a pawn in the power struggle. [ citation needed ] In any event, the plot was set into motion when, on a night when Gregory was confined by illness, the conspirators burst into the cathedral and commenced the consecration of Maximus as bishop of Constantinople. They had seated Maximus on the archiepiscopal throne and had just begun shearing away his long curls when the day dawned. The news of what was transpiring quickly spread and everybody rushed to the church. The magistrates appeared with their officers Maximus and his consecrators were driven from the cathedral, and ultimately completed the tonsure in the tenement of a flute-player. [12]

The news of the brazen attempt to usurp the episcopal throne aroused the anger of the local populace among whom Gregory was popular. Maximus withdrew to Thessalonica to lay his cause before the emperor but met with a cold reception there. Theodosius committed the matter to Ascholius, the much respected bishop of Thessalonica, charging him to seek the counsel of Pope Damasus I. [13]

Damasus' response repudiated Maximus summarily and advised Theodosius to summon a council of bishops for the purpose of settling various church issues such as the schism in Antioch and the consecration of a proper bishop for the see of Constantinople. [14] Damasus condemned the translation of bishops from one see to another and urged Theodosius to "take care that a bishop who is above reproach is chosen for that see." [15]

Thirty-six Pneumatomachians arrived but were denied admission to the council when they refused to accept the Nicene creed.

Since Peter, the Pope of Alexandria, was not present, the presidency over the council was given to Meletius as Patriarch of Antioch. [16] The first order of business before the council was to declare the clandestine consecration of Maximus invalid, and to confirm Theodosius' installation of Gregory Nazianzus as Archbishop of Constantinople. When Meletius died shortly after the opening of the council, Gregory was selected to lead the council.

The Egyptian and Macedonian bishops who had supported Maximus's ordination arrived late for the council. Once there, they refused to recognise Gregory's position as head of the church of Constantinople, arguing that his transfer from the See of Sasima was canonically illegitimate because one of the canons of the Council of Nicaea had forbidden bishops to transfer from their sees. [17] : 358–9

McGuckin describes Gregory as physically exhausted and worried that he was losing the confidence of the bishops and the emperor. [17] : 359 Ayres goes further and asserts that Gregory quickly made himself unpopular among the bishops by supporting the losing candidate for the bishopric of Antioch and vehemently opposing any compromise with the Homoiousians. [18] : 254

Rather than press his case and risk further division, Gregory decided to resign his office: "Let me be as the Prophet Jonah! I was responsible for the storm, but I would sacrifice myself for the salvation of the ship. Seize me and throw me. I was not happy when I ascended the throne, and gladly would I descend it." [19] He shocked the council with his surprise resignation and then delivered a dramatic speech to Theodosius asking to be released from his offices. The emperor, moved by his words, applauded, commended his labor, and granted his resignation. The council asked him to appear once more for a farewell ritual and celebratory orations. Gregory used this occasion to deliver a final address (Or. 42) and then departed. [17] : 361

Nectarius, an unbaptized civil official, was chosen to succeed Gregory as president of the council. [18] : 255

Seven canons, four of these doctrinal canons and three disciplinary canons, are attributed to the council and accepted by both the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Oriental Orthodox Churches the Roman Catholic Church accepts only the first four [20] because only the first four appear in the oldest copies and there is evidence that the last three were later additions. [21]

The first canon is an important dogmatic condemnation of all shades of Arianism, and also of Macedonianism and Apollinarianism. [20]

The second canon renewed the Nicene legislation imposing upon the bishops the observance of diocesan and patriarchal limits. [20]

The third canon reads:

The Bishop of Constantinople, however, shall have the prerogative of honour after the Bishop of Rome because Constantinople is New Rome. [22] [21] [20]

The fourth canon decreed the consecration of Maximus as Bishop of Constantinople to be invalid, declaring "that [Maximus] neither was nor is a bishop, nor are they who have been ordained by him in any rank of the clergy". [20] [23] This canon was directed not only against Maximus, but also against the Egyptian bishops who had conspired to consecrate him clandestinely at Constantinople, and against any subordinate ecclesiastics that he might have ordained in Egypt. [24]

The fifth canon might actually have been passed the next year, 382, and is in regard to a Tome of the Western bishops, perhaps that of Pope Damasus I. [20]

The sixth canon might belong to the year 382 as well and was subsequently passed at the Quinisext Council as canon 95. It limits the ability to accuse bishops of wrongdoing. [20]

The seventh canon regards procedures for receiving certain heretics into the church. [20]

The third canon was a first step in the rising importance of the new imperial capital, just fifty years old, and was notable in that it demoted the patriarchs of Antioch and Alexandria. Jerusalem, as the site of the first church, retained its place of honor.

Baronius asserted that the third canon was not authentic, not in fact decreed by the council. Some medieval Greeks maintained that it did not declare supremacy of the Bishop of Rome, but the primacy "the first among equals", similar to how they today view the Bishop of Constantinople. Throughout the next several centuries, the Western Church asserted that the Bishop of Rome had supreme authority, and by the time of the Great Schism the Roman Catholic Church based its claim to supremacy on the succession of St. Peter. When the First Council of Constantinople was approved, Rome protested the diminished honor to be afforded the bishops of Antioch and Alexandria. [ citation needed ] The status of these Eastern patriarchs would be brought up again by the Papal Legates at the Council of Chalcedon. Pope Leo the Great, [25] declared that this canon had never been submitted to Rome and that their lessened honor was a violation of the Nicene council order. At the Fourth Council of Constantinople (869), the Roman legates [26] asserted the place of the bishop of Rome's honor over the bishop of Constantinople's. After the Great Schism of 1054, in 1215 the Fourth Lateran Council declared, in its fifth canon, that the Roman Church "by the will of God holds over all others pre-eminence of ordinary power as the mother and mistress of all the faithful". [27] [28] Roman supremacy over the whole world was formally claimed by the new Latin patriarch. The Roman correctores of Gratian, [29] insert the words: "canon hic ex iis est quos apostolica Romana sedes a principio et longo post tempore non recipit" ("this canon is one of those that the Apostolic See of Rome has not accepted from the beginning and ever since").

It has been asserted by many that a synod was held by Pope Damasus I in the following year (382) which opposed the disciplinary canons of the Council of Constantinople, especially the third canon which placed Constantinople above Alexandria and Antioch. The synod protested against this raising of the bishop of the new imperial capital, just fifty years old, to a status higher than that of the bishops of Alexandria and Antioch, and stated that the primacy of the Roman see had not been established by a gathering of bishops but rather by Christ himself. [30] [31] [note 1] Thomas Shahan says that, according to Photius too, Pope Damasus approved the council, but he adds that, if any part of the council were approved by this pope, it could have been only its revision of the Nicene Creed, as was the case also when Gregory the Great recognized it as one of the four general councils, but only in its dogmatic utterances. [33]

Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed Edit

Traditionally, the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed has been associated with the Council of Constantinople (381). It is roughly theologically equivalent to the Nicene Creed, but includes two additional articles: an article on the Holy Spirit—describing Him as "the Lord, the Giver of Life, Who proceeds from the Father, Who with the Father and the Son is worshipped and glorified, and Who spoke through the prophets"—and an article about the church, baptism, and the resurrection of the dead. (For the full text of both creeds, see Comparison between Creed of 325 and Creed of 381.)

However, scholars are not agreed on the connection between the Council of Constantinople and the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed. Some modern scholars believe that this creed, or something close to it, was stated by the bishops at Constantinople, but not promulgated as an official act of the council. Scholars also dispute whether this creed was simply an expansion of the Creed of Nicaea, or whether it was an expansion of another traditional creed similar but not identical to the one from Nicaea. [34] In 451, the Council of Chalcedon referred to this creed as "the creed . of the 150 saintly fathers assembled in Constantinople", [35] indicating that this creed was associated with Constantinople (381) no later than 451.

Christology Edit

This council condemned Arianism which began to die out with further condemnations at a council of Aquileia by Ambrose of Milan in 381. With the discussion of Trinitarian doctrine now developed, the focus of discussion changed to Christology, which would be the topic of the Council of Ephesus of 431 and the Council of Chalcedon of 451.

Shift of influence from Rome to Constantinople Edit

David Eastman cites the First Council of Constantinople as another example of the waning influence of Rome over the East. He notes that all three of the presiding bishops came from the East. Damasus had considered both Meletius and Gregory to be illegitimate bishops of their respective sees and yet, as Eastman and others point out, the Eastern bishops paid no heed to his opinions in this regard. [36]

The First Council of Constantinople (381) was the first appearance of the term 'New Rome' in connection to Constantinople. The term was employed as the grounds for giving the relatively young church of Constantinople precedence over Alexandria and Antioch ('because it is the New Rome').

The 150 individuals at the council are commemorated in the Calendar of saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on February 17.


HCPCS Background Information

Each year, in the United States, health care insurers process over 5 billion claims for payment. For Medicare and other health insurance programs to ensure that these claims are processed in an orderly and consistent manner, standardized coding systems are essential. The HCPCS Level II Code Set is one of the standard code sets used for this purpose. The HCPCS is divided into two principal subsystems, referred to as level I and level II of the HCPCS. Level I of the HCPCS is comprised of CPT (Current Procedural Terminology), a numeric coding system maintained by the American Medical Association (AMA). The CPT is a uniform coding system consisting of descriptive terms and identifying codes that are used primarily to identify medical services and procedures furnished by physicians and other health care professionals. These health care professionals use the CPT to identify services and procedures for which they bill public or private health insurance programs. Decisions regarding the addition, deletion, or revision of CPT codes are made by the AMA. The CPT codes are republished and updated annually by the AMA. Level I of the HCPCS, the CPT codes, does not include codes needed to separately report medical items or services that are regularly billed by suppliers other than physicians.

Level II of the HCPCS is a standardized coding system that is used primarily to identify products, supplies, and services not included in the CPT codes, such as ambulance services and durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics, and supplies (DMEPOS) when used outside a physician's office. Because Medicare and other insurers cover a variety of services, supplies, and equipment that are not identified by CPT codes, the level II HCPCS codes were established for submitting claims for these items. The development and use of level II of the HCPCS began in the 1980's. Level II codes are also referred to as alpha-numeric codes because they consist of a single alphabetical letter followed by 4 numeric digits, while CPT codes are identified using 5 numeric digits.


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NASA’s Apollo 9 mission launches on March 3 News Events. The purpose of the mission was to prepare for an eventual manned lunar landing later that year. It was the first space test of a complete Apollo spacecraft including the lunar module and Saturn V launch rocket. The included James McDivitt, David Scott, and Russell Schweickart. They performed the first docking and extraction of a lunar module and the first crewed flight of a lunar module. The crew also performed several test on the lunar module systems and a two person space walk. The Apollo 9 space mission returned to Earth successfully after 10 days in space.

  • Woodstock attracts more than 350,000 rock-n-roll fans, Atlanta International Pop Festival on 4th July attracts 100,000 fans, Isle of Wight Festival attracted an audience of approximately 150,000

Property Records & Documents Online

Real Estate Property Records (also public property records, property ownership records) is public information in the United States of America, which means anyone can access it. County Recorder of deed and Courthouse and Property (Tax) Assessor's offices maintain real estate records.

Only a few years ago, researching property information or running a title search intended going to the local recorder's office, filling out forms and paying a fee for each copy of a property record or a document. Advancements in high-speed and secure e-commerce have made it possible to search and deliver millions of real property records via the Internet. Nowadays researching and retrieving property information, generating property reports, or uncovering hidden real estate assets takes only minutes.

In addition to property reports, localized radius searches, and custom property research, HomeInfoMax also offers free links to maps, county officials and demographic information, and several options for filtering, storing, saving, downloading and printing property reports, documents, and marketing leads. Our conventional research is limited to County and State, or City and State, or ZIP Code. We also developed Asset Finder option that works Statewide and Nationwide. Those are high-level methods designed to search and locate real estate assets throughout the state or the entire country. Asset search is possible with a current Owner Name or a Mailing Address.

Flexible search does not require the exact property address. Using a property owner name or a business name is one of the possibilities available to our subscribers. Searching with a formatted Assessor's Parcel Number (Tax Number) is another excellent method. We are ideally suited to establish the property owner location and mailing address, as well as verify the residency. To assist our subscribers, we allow “wildcard” entry in certain search fields, and the quality and consistency of property reports remains uncompromised. We have also incorporated free State/County/City/ZIP Search tools for looking up Counties and Cities throughout the United States and review county demographics.

Having access to diverse real estate data presents certain technological challenges, as well as unique opportunities. We are monitoring and capturing most updates and title transfers within days. Regrettably, some counties still are not modernized enough to offer up-to-the-minute information, yet we do monitor all available sources and promptly incorporate most recent updates. Our State/County Coverage area of property records is the largest in the nation and includes virtually all types of Real Estate properties, such as residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, vacant lands, time-shares, and others. We offer property information throughout all 50 states and cover over 98.8% of real property owners in the United States – that makes us the largest provider of real estate records, documents, liens, and parcel maps in the country.

In addition researching property profiles, our users can obtain Property Title History, Voluntary Liens, Involuntary Liens, and Property Legal & Vesting reports. Real estate reports may consist of many elements we also offer digital copies of actual recorded documents (Deeds) as Document Images and Parcel Maps reflecting the legal boundaries and dimensions of each parcel. Our Basic or Detailed Property Reports do not contain title history, lien records or Legal & Vesting descriptions. The property Title History report (also called Transaction History Report) is moderately different and principally deals with chronological events of financial transactions (mortgages) and ownership (title) transfers. The property Voluntary Liens report (also called Debt Report) is a more comprehensive report made up of chosen liens with chronological events of financial and ownership transactions on a property, such as the status of secured financial interests, releases, assignments and foreclosures. The Involuntary Liens Report shows liens on a property to secure money owned to the third party by the property owner. In includes Mechanic's Liens, HOA Liens, Bankruptcy Liens, Judgment Liens, Federal Tax and IRS Liens, State, County, City other municipality Liens, Support Judgment, and Divorce. The Legal & Vesting report in essence consists of 2 distinct factors – the Legal part deals with property legal description, and the Vesting part deals with property ownership and status and manner in which title of ownership is held (title vesting). Our instant Legal & Vesting report also includes the latest property tax. As an extra service, we also offer Property Building Permit Records providing construction records that may also include recent and previous remodeling or other property improvements requiring permits.

One of the advantages of modern technology is our ability to manipulate, categorize and organize property data in highly optimized ways to make it exceptionally beneficial to our users. For example, property search via a street address range will produce owner names, addresses and parcel numbers of all properties within that specified range. Similarly, searching by owner or business name will generate all properties owned by a specified individual or a business within your selected area. All our subscribers get Homeowners Lists program at no additional cost. This program contains not only residential homeowners' lists, but also all other types of real property owners.

If you have unique property search requirements or are interested in target marketing with customized search variables, we offer two choices: our exclusive Property Research & Lead Generation and Radius Search programs are available to all our subscribers. For highly customized and personalized property searches and concise Single-Line Property Reports our Property Research & Lead Generation program is one of the most modernized systems used by professionals who look for ways to custom-tailor and fine-tune their marketing needs. If you research within the boundaries of a neighborhood, the Radius Search program originally designed for Real Estate "farming" will identify immediate properties and property owners within a close proximity from the target property.

Custom property research and radius searches would not have been possible without sophisticated and highly synchronized search algorithms. All these programs also include most types of real estate properties throughout all 50 states.

Property Records Restrictions

The amount of property information available within a particular geographic area varies depending upon what each state legislates to the property recorders to make it public. For instance, the following states: Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming are non-disclosure states, meaning they do not have to make certain property data public, such as property sale price and/or sale date. Other key states, such as California, Florida, New York and most others, make virtually all Real Estate records accessible to public. A few states, such as California also may impose public restrictions on the availability of property records of elected officials.

How to Retrieve Property Records

Today, Real Estate property records are easily obtainable from the Internet, and HomeInfoMax provides secure, convenient and instant access to the leading nationwide property records' databases.

ABRIDGED DEFINITIONS

What is Property?
  • the rights that one individual has in land or goods to the exclusion of all others rights gained from the ownership of wealth.
  • Real Estate.

Property includes all those things and rights which are the object of ownership. Real property consists of land or anything attached to or a part of the land such as a house. Real property is commonly known as Real Estate. Property that becomes an integral part of a building such as heating and air conditioning units is also considered to be real property.

All other property such as stocks, bonds, jewelry is called personal property - our Website deals wholly with general real estate, and particularly with real estate property records.

What are Real Estate Property Records?

Real Property Records contain all of the recorded data associated with a particular Real Estate. Real Property definition includes many different types of properties such as residential, condominium, commercial, industrial, vacant land, mobile home, and time-shares - virtually everything that can be developed and used for residential or commercial purposes.

Types of Real Estate
  • Residential Property:In real estate brokerage terminology, owner-occupied housing in income taxation terminology, rental units used for dwelling purposes, not of a transient (hotel, motel) nature. To qualify as residential, at least 80% of a building's income should be derived from dwelling units.
  • Condominium:A form of property ownership in multi-unit structures can be residential, industrial or commercial. Each unit is owned individually and all common areas (sidewalks, hallways, stairs, pools, etc.) are owned in undivided interest ownership with all unit owners having an equal share.
  • Commercial Property:Property designed for use by retail, wholesale, office, hotel/motel, or service users.
  • Industrial Property:Property used for industrial purposes, such as factories, industrial yards, or developmental parks.
  • VacantLand:Land not currently being used may have utilities and off-site improvements. Contrast with raw land.
  • Mobile Home:A dwelling unit manufactured in a factory and designed to be transported to a site and semi-permanently attached.
  • Time-Share:A form of property ownership under which a property is held by a number of people, each with the right of possession for a specified time interval. Time-sharing is most commonly applied to resort and vacation properties.
What is Property Title?

Evidence that the ownership of Real Estate is in lawful possession thereof evidence of ownership. It is the owner's right to possess and use the property.

Forms of Property Ownership

Real property can be held in several different methods, which affect income tax, estate tax, continuity, liability, survivorship, transferability, disposition at death and at bankruptcy. Most recognizable property ownership types are:

  • Tenancy in severalty: Ownership of property by one person or one legal entity.
  • Joint tenancy with right of survivorship: Two or more persons own a property. A joint tenant with the common law right of survivorship means the survivor inherits the property without reference to the decedent's will. Creditors may sue to have the property divided to settle claims against one of the owners.
  • Tenancy by the entireties: A husband and wife own the property with the common law right of survivorship so, if one dies, the other automatically inherits.
  • Tenancy in common: Two or more persons own the property with no right of survivorship each has an undivided interest. If one dies, his interest passes to his heirs, not necessarily the co-owner. Either party, or a creditor of one, may sue to partition the property.

Other Real Estate forms of ownership are business kinds such as Corporation, Limited Partnership, Partnership, Real Estate Investment Trust, and Subchapter S Corporation. Practically all types of real estate can be held under virtually all forms of ownership.

What is Property Deed?

A written document, properly signed and delivered, that conveys title to the real property. There are several types of deeds: General Warranty Deed, Quitclaim Deed, Special Warranty Deed, Grant Deed, Trustee's Deed and others.

What are Counties?

A County is district into which a state is divided. It is a sub-division of regional self-government within an autonomous jurisdiction. The United States in addition to being divided into states are also divided into counties counties are divided into civil townships, boroughs, towns, etc. The term county in the U.S. is used in 46 states in addition of county boundaries servicing as local subdivisions of the state government, they are also used for local property records upkeep, including most, but not necessarily all real estate records. The exceptions are Alaska and Louisiana – they call each such division a “borough” and a “parish” respectively. For practicality, HomeInfoMax does not distinguish between alternate names or definitions – searching for property records is always available within a county and a state, or statewide as well as nationwide with an owner name throughout all 50 states, Washington DC and U.S. Virgin Islands. There are at present over 3,140 counties in the United States of America.

Several samples of Property Records are available for review for Basic and Detailed Property Profiles, Title History, Property Voluntary Liens, Involuntary Liens, Property Legal & Vesting reports, Assessor Parcel Maps, Deeds and other Recorded Documents you can also evaluate our Property Research & Lead Generation and Homeowners Lists retrieval programs. Some real property reports, such as vacant lands, are usually obtainable by searching with County/State only, yet searches in City/State or a ZIP Code can also be productive. HomeInfoMax in addition to governmental property information also provides a smaller percentage of property records from reliable commercial and private sources.

To make clear sense of so many different types of property records and accompanying fees, we have assembled a well-organized chart that lists all pricing plans along with their associated types of property reports. Everything that relates to our pricing schedule and subscriptions is found on PLANS page - it is easy to compare.

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Specifications for a 4 Cylinder Hercules Diesel Engine

Hercules was a manufacturer of diesel engines until 1999. Due to economic downturns and losing government contracts, it no longer manufactures engines. The company, however, is far from defunct. As of 2010, it supplies all the parts for its original engines, and is heavily involved with engine re-manufacturing for various brands. The company still sells engines, and makes available to the general public the specifications for its current line of re-manufactured engines.

The G1600 is a four-cylinder engine displacing 163 cubic inches. Its horsepower rating is a minimum of 20 to a maximum of 65 horsepower. Hercules states this engine is used on pallet trucks (also called hi-los), generators, some Jeeps, and wood chippers.

The D2300 displaces 226 cubic inches. Its horsepower rating is from 27 to 84 horsepower through its rpm range. Some uses for this engine include shredders, small buses, and aircraft support vehicles, such as baggage carriers. Hercules states that some customers that use this engine include Chance Coach, Ingersol Rand, and the Ford Motor Co.

The D198ER is designed for military applications. It has a displacement of 198 cubic inches, and produces 58 horsepower at 2,600 rpm. It is 32 inches long, 24 inches wide, and 31 inches tall. It weighs 695 lbs. If you are designing a piece of equipment that uses this engine, Hercules recommends contacting the company in the early design stages for engineering assistance.

Tony Oldhand has been technical writing since 1995. He has worked in the skilled trades and diversified into Human Services in 1998, working with the developmentally disabled. He is also heavily involved in auto restoration and in the do-it-yourself sector of craftsman trades. Oldhand has an associate degree in electronics and has studied management at the State University of New York.


Watch the video: Thomas Macdonough (May 2022).