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Bucket Held by an Apkallu, Panel 2

Bucket Held by an Apkallu, Panel 2


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Chevrolet Chevy II / Nova

The Chevrolet Chevy II/Nova is a small automobile manufactured by Chevrolet, and produced in five generations for the 1962 through 1979, and 1985 through 1988 model years. Nova was the top model in the Chevy II lineup through 1968. The Chevy II nameplate was dropped after 1968, with Nova becoming the nameplate for all of the 1969 through 1979 models. Built on the X-body platform, the Nova was replaced by the 1980 Chevrolet Citation introduced in the spring of 1979. The Nova nameplate returned in 1985, produced through 1988 as a S-car based, NUMMI manufactured, subcompact based on the front wheel drive, Japan home-based Toyota Sprinter.


Contents

In 2002, Robert A. Levy, a Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute, began vetting plaintiffs with Clark M. Neily III, for a planned Second Amendment lawsuit that he would personally finance. Although he himself had never owned a gun, as a Constitutional scholar he had an academic interest in the subject and wanted to model his campaign after the legal strategies of Thurgood Marshall, who had successfully led the challenges that overturned school segregation. [6] They aimed for a group that would be diverse in terms of gender, race, economic background, and age, and selected six plaintiffs from their mid-20s to early 60s, three men and three women, four white and two black: [7]

Shelly Parker A software designer and former nurse who had been active in trying to rid her neighborhood of drugs. Parker is a single woman whose life had been threatened on numerous occasions by drug dealers who had sometimes tried to break into her house. [8] [9] Tom G. Palmer A colleague of Robert A. Levy at the Cato Institute and the only plaintiff that Levy knew before the case began. [7] Palmer, who is gay, defended himself with a 9mm handgun in 1982. While walking with a friend in San Jose, California, he was accosted by a gang of about 20 young men who used profane language regarding his sexual orientation and threatened his life. When he produced his gun, the men fled. Palmer believes that the handgun saved his life. [10] [11] Gillian St. Lawrence A mortgage broker who lives in the Georgetown section of D.C. and who owns several legally registered long guns which she uses for recreation in nearby Chantilly, Virginia. It had taken St. Lawrence two years to complete the registration process. She wanted to be able to use these guns to defend herself in her home and to be able to register a handgun. [12] [13] Tracey Ambeau (now Tracey Hanson) An employee of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Originally from St. Gabriel, Louisiana, she lives in the Adams Morgan neighborhood of D.C. with her husband, Andrew Hanson, who is from Waterloo, Iowa. They live in a high-crime neighborhood near Union Station in D.C. She grew up around guns and wanted one to defend her home. [14] [12] George Lyon A communications lawyer who had previously contacted the National Rifle Association about filing a lawsuit to challenge the D.C. gun laws. Lyon held D.C. licenses for a shotgun and a rifle, but wanted to have a handgun in his home. [15] Dick Anthony Heller A licensed special police officer for the District of Columbia. For his job, Heller carried a gun in federal office buildings, but was not allowed to have one in his home. [16] Heller had lived in southeast D.C. near the Kentucky Courts public housing complex since 1970 and had seen the neighborhood "transformed from a child-friendly welfare complex to a drug haven". Heller had also approached the National Rifle Association about a lawsuit to overturn the D.C. gun ban, but the NRA declined. [12]

Previous federal case law pertaining to the question of an individual's right to bear arms included United States v. Emerson, 270 F.3d 203 (5th Cir. 2001), which supported the right and Silveira v. Lockyer, 312 F.3d 1052 (9th Cir. 2002), which opposed the right. The Supreme Court ruling in United States v. Miller, 307 U.S. 174 (1939) was interpreted to support both sides of the issue.

District Court Edit

In February 2003, the six residents of District of Columbia filed a lawsuit in the District Court for the District of Columbia, challenging the constitutionality of provisions of the Firearms Control Regulations Act of 1975, a local law (part of the District of Columbia Code) enacted pursuant to District of Columbia home rule. This law restricted residents from owning handguns, excluding those grandfathered in by registration prior to 1975 and those possessed by active and retired law enforcement officers. The law also required that all firearms including rifles and shotguns be kept "unloaded and disassembled or bound by a trigger lock." [17] They filed for an injunction pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 2201, 2202, and 42 U.S.C. § 1983. District Court Judge Emmet G. Sullivan dismissed the lawsuit on March 31, 2004. [18]

Court of Appeals Edit

On appeal, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit reversed the dismissal in a 2–1 decision. The Court of Appeals struck down provisions of the Firearms Control Regulations Act as unconstitutional. Judges Karen L. Henderson, Thomas B. Griffith and Laurence H. Silberman formed the Court of Appeals panel, with Senior Circuit Judge Silberman writing the court's opinion and Circuit Judge Henderson dissenting.

The court's opinion first addressed whether appellants have standing to sue for declaratory and injunctive relief in section II (slip opinion, at 5–12). The court concluded that of the six plaintiffs, only Heller – who applied for a handgun permit but was denied – had standing.

The court then held that the Second Amendment "protects an individual right to keep and bear arms", that the "right existed prior to the formation of the new government under the Constitution", also stating that the right was "premised on the private use of arms for activities such as hunting and self-defense, the latter being understood as resistance to either private lawlessness or the depredations of a tyrannical government (or a threat from abroad)." They also noted that though the right to bear arms also helped preserve the citizen militia, "the activities [the Amendment] protects are not limited to militia service, nor is an individual's enjoyment of the right contingent upon his or her continued or intermittent enrollment in the militia." The court determined that handguns are "Arms" and concluded that thus they may not be banned by the District of Columbia.

The court also struck down the portion of the law that requires all firearms including rifles and shotguns be kept "unloaded and disassembled or bound by a trigger lock." The District argued that there is an implicit self-defense exception to these provisions, but the D.C. Circuit rejected this view, saying that the requirement amounted to a complete ban on functional firearms and prohibition on use for self-defense: [19]

Section 7-2507.02, like the bar on carrying a pistol within the home, amounts to a complete prohibition on the lawful use of handguns for self-defense. As such, we hold it unconstitutional.

In her dissent, Circuit Judge Henderson stated that Second Amendment rights did not extend to residents of District of Columbia, writing:

To sum up, there is no dispute that the Constitution, case law and applicable statutes all establish that the District is not a State within the meaning of the Second Amendment. Under United States v. Miller, 307 U.S. at 178, the Second Amendment's declaration and guarantee that "the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed" relates to the Militia of the States only. That the Second Amendment does not apply to the District, then, is, to me, an unavoidable conclusion. [20]

In April 2007, the District and Mayor Adrian Fenty petitioned for rehearing en banc, arguing that the ruling created inter- and intra-jurisdictional conflict. [21] On May 8, the Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit denied the request to rehear the case, by a 6–4 vote.

The defendants petitioned the United States Supreme Court to hear the case. The Supreme Court granted certiorari on November 20, 2007. [22] The court rephrased the question to be decided as follows:

The petition for a writ of certiorari is granted limited to the following question: Whether the following provisions, D.C. Code §§ 7-2502.02(a)(4), 22–4504(a), and 7-2507.02, violate the Second Amendment rights of individuals who are not affiliated with any state-regulated militia, but who wish to keep handguns and other firearms for private use in their homes?

This represented the first time since the 1939 case United States v. Miller that the Supreme Court had directly addressed the scope of the Second Amendment. [17]

Amicus curiae briefs Edit

Because of the controversial nature of the case, it garnered much attention from many groups on both sides of the gun rights issue. Many of those groups filed amicus curiae (friend of the court) briefs, about 47 urging the court to affirm the case and about 20 to remand it. [23]

A majority of the members of Congress [24] signed the brief authored by Stephen Halbrook advising that the case be affirmed overturning the ban on handguns not otherwise restricted by Congress. [25] Vice President Dick Cheney joined in this brief, acting in his role as President of the United States Senate, and breaking with the George W. Bush administration's official position. [24] Arizona Senator John McCain, Republican, also signed the brief. Then-Illinois Senator Barack Obama, did not. [26]

A majority of the states signed the brief of Texas Attorney General Greg Abbott, authored by Abbott's solicitor general, Ted Cruz, [27] advising that the case be affirmed, while at the same time emphasizing that the states have a strong interest in maintaining each of the states' laws prohibiting and regulating firearms. [28] [29] [30] Law enforcement organizations, including the Fraternal Order of Police and the Southern States Police Benevolent Association, also filed a brief urging that the case be affirmed. [31]

A number of organizations signed friend of the court briefs advising that the case be remanded, including the United States Department of Justice [32] and Attorneys General of New York, Hawaii, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Puerto Rico. [33] Additionally, friend of the court briefs to remand were filed by a spectrum of religious and anti-violence groups, [34] a number of cities and mayors, [35] and many police chiefs and law enforcement organizations. [36]

A collection of organizations and prominent scholars, represented by attorney Jeffrey Teichert, submitted an "errors brief" arguing that many of the common historical and factual "myths and misrepresentations" generally offered in favor of banning handguns were in error. Teichert's brief argued from a historical perspective that the Second Amendment protected an individual right to keep and bear arms. [37]

Oral arguments Edit

The Supreme Court heard oral arguments in the case on March 18, 2008. Both the transcript [38] and the audio [39] of the argument have been released. Each side was initially allotted 30 minutes to argue its case, with U.S. Solicitor General Paul D. Clement allotted 15 minutes to present the federal government's views. [40] During the argument, however, extra time was extended to the parties, and the argument ran 23 minutes over the allotted time. [41]

Walter E. Dellinger of the law firm O'Melveny & Myers, also a professor at Duke University Law School and former Acting Solicitor General, argued the District's side before the Supreme Court. Dellinger was assisted by Thomas Goldstein of Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld, Robert Long of Covington & Burling and D.C. Solicitor General Todd Kim. The law firms assisting the District worked pro bono. [42]

Alan Gura, of the D.C.-based law firm Gura & Possessky, was lead counsel for Heller, and argued on his behalf before the Supreme Court. [43] Robert Levy, a senior fellow at the Cato Institute, and Clark Neily, a senior attorney at the Institute for Justice, were his co-counsel. [44] [45]

Decision Edit

(1) The Second Amendment protects an individual right to possess a firearm unconnected with service in a militia, and to use that arm for traditionally lawful purposes, such as self-defense within the home. Pp. 2–53. (a) The Amendment's prefatory clause announces a purpose, but does not limit or expand the scope of the second part, the operative clause. The operative clause's text and history demonstrate that it connotes an individual right to keep and bear arms. Pp. 2–22. (b) The prefatory clause comports with the Court's interpretation of the operative clause. The "militia" comprised all males physically capable of acting in concert for the common defense. The Antifederalists feared that the Federal Government would disarm the people in order to disable this citizens' militia, enabling a politicized standing army or a select militia to rule. The response was to deny Congress power to abridge the ancient right of individuals to keep and bear arms, so that the ideal of a citizens' militia would be preserved. Pp. 22–28. (c) The Court's interpretation is confirmed by analogous arms-bearing rights in state constitutions that preceded and immediately followed the Second Amendment. Pp. 28–30. (d) The Second Amendment's drafting history, while of dubious interpretive worth, reveals three state Second Amendment proposals that unequivocally referred to an individual right to bear arms. Pp. 30–32. (e) Interpretation of the Second Amendment by scholars, courts and legislators, from immediately after its ratification through the late 19th century also supports the Court's conclusion. Pp. 32–47. (f) None of the Court's precedents forecloses the Court's interpretation. Neither United States v. Cruikshank, 92 U.S. 542 (1876), nor Presser v. Illinois, 116 U.S. 252 (1886), refutes the individual-rights interpretation. United States v. Miller, 307 U.S. 174 (1939), does not limit the right to keep and bear arms to militia purposes, but rather limits the type of weapon to which the right applies to those used by the militia, i.e., those in common use for lawful purposes. (2) Like most rights, the Second Amendment right is not unlimited. It is not a right to keep and carry any weapon whatsoever in any manner whatsoever and for whatever purpose: For example, concealed weapons prohibitions have been upheld under the Amendment or state analogues. The Court's opinion should not be taken to cast doubt on longstanding prohibitions on the possession of firearms by felons and the mentally ill, or laws forbidding the carrying of firearms in sensitive places such as schools and government buildings, or laws imposing conditions and qualifications on the commercial sale of arms. Miller's holding that the sorts of weapons protected are those "in common use at the time" finds support in the historical tradition of prohibiting the carrying of dangerous and unusual weapons. Pp. 54–56. (3) The handgun ban and the trigger-lock requirement (as applied to self-defense) violate the Second Amendment. The District's total ban on handgun possession in the home amounts to a prohibition on an entire class of "arms" that Americans overwhelmingly choose for the lawful purpose of self-defense. Under any of the standards of scrutiny the Court has applied to enumerated constitutional rights, this prohibition – in the place where the importance of the lawful defense of self, family, and property is most acute – would fail constitutional muster. Similarly, the requirement that any lawful firearm in the home be disassembled or bound by a trigger lock makes it impossible for citizens to use arms for the core lawful purpose of self-defense and is hence unconstitutional. Because Heller conceded at oral argument that the D.C. licensing law is permissible if it is not enforced arbitrarily and capriciously, the Court assumes that a license will satisfy his prayer for relief and does not address the licensing requirement. Assuming he is not disqualified from exercising Second Amendment rights, the District must permit Heller to register his handgun and must issue him a license to carry it in the home. Pp. 56–64.

The Opinion of the Court, delivered by Justice Scalia, was joined by Chief Justice John G. Roberts, Jr. and by Justices Anthony M. Kennedy, Clarence Thomas and Samuel Alito [47]

Second Amendment findings and reasoning Edit

The Illinois Supreme Court in People v. Aguilar (2013), summed up the Heller ' s findings and reasoning:

In District of Columbia v. Heller, 554 U.S. 570 (2008), the Supreme Court undertook its first-ever "in-depth examination" of the second amendment's meaning Id. at 635. After a lengthy historical discussion, the Court ultimately concluded that the second amendment "guarantee[s] the individual right to possess and carry weapons in case of confrontation" (id. at 592) that "central to" this right is "the inherent right of self-defense"(id. at 628) that "the home" is "where the need for defense of self, family, and property is most acute" (id. at 628) and that, "above all other interests," the second amendment elevates "the right of law-abiding, responsible citizens to use arms in defense of hearth and home" (id. at 635). Based on this understanding, the Court held that a District of Columbia law banning handgun possession in the home violated the second amendment. Id. at 635. [48]

Issues addressed by the majority Edit

The core holding in D.C. v. Heller is that the Second Amendment is an individual right intimately tied to the natural right of self-defense.

The Scalia majority invokes much historical material to support its finding that the right to keep and bear arms belongs to individuals more precisely, Scalia asserts in the Court's opinion that the "people" to whom the Second Amendment right is accorded are the same "people" who enjoy First and Fourth Amendment protection: "' The Constitution was written to be understood by the voters its words and phrases were used in their normal and ordinary as distinguished from technical meaning. United States v. Sprague, 282 U.S. 716, 731 (1931) see also Gibbons v. Ogden, 9 Wheat. 1, 188 (1824). Normal meaning may, of course, include an idiomatic meaning, but it excludes secret or technical meanings . ."

With that finding as an anchor, the Court ruled a total ban on operative handguns in the home is unconstitutional, as the ban runs afoul of both the self-defense purpose of the Second Amendment – a purpose not previously articulated by the Court – and the "in common use at the time" prong of the Miller decision: Since handguns are in common use, their ownership is protected.

The Court applies as the remedy that "[a]ssuming that Heller is not disqualified from the exercise of Second Amendment rights, the District must permit him to register his handgun and must issue him a license to carry it in the home." The Court, additionally, hinted that other remedy might be available in the form of eliminating the license requirement for carrying in the home, but that no such relief had been requested: "Respondent conceded at oral argument that he does not 'have a problem with . licensing' and that the District's law is permissible so long as it is 'not enforced in an arbitrary and capricious manner.' Tr. of Oral Arg. 74–75. We, therefore, assume that petitioners' issuance of a license will satisfy respondent's prayer for relief and do not address the licensing requirement."

In regard to the scope of the right, the Court wrote, in an obiter dictum, "Although we do not undertake an exhaustive historical analysis today of the full scope of the Second Amendment, nothing in our opinion should be taken to cast doubt on longstanding prohibitions on the possession of firearms by felons and the mentally ill, or laws forbidding the carrying of firearms in sensitive places such as schools and government buildings, or laws imposing conditions and qualifications on the commercial sale of arms." [49]

The Court also added dicta regarding the private ownership of machine guns. In doing so, it suggested the elevation of the "in common use at the time" prong of the Miller decision, which by itself protects handguns, over the first prong (protecting arms that "have some reasonable relationship to the preservation or efficiency of a well regulated militia"), which may not by itself protect machine guns: "It may be objected that if weapons that are most useful in military service – M16 rifles and the like – may be banned, then the Second Amendment right is completely detached from the prefatory clause. But as we have said, the conception of the militia at the time of the Second Amendment's ratification was the body of all citizens capable of military service, who would bring the sorts of lawful weapons that they possessed at home." [50]

The Court did not address which level of judicial review should be used by lower courts in deciding future cases claiming infringement of the right to keep and bear arms: "[S]ince this case represents this Court's first in-depth examination of the Second Amendment, one should not expect it to clarify the entire field." The Court states, "If all that was required to overcome the right to keep and bear arms was a rational basis, the Second Amendment would be redundant with the separate constitutional prohibitions on irrational laws, and would have no effect." [51] Also, regarding Justice Breyer's proposal of a "judge-empowering 'interest-balancing inquiry'," the Court states, "We know of no other enumerated constitutional right whose core protection has been subjected to a freestanding 'interest-balancing' approach." [52]

Dissenting opinions Edit

In a dissenting opinion, Justice John Paul Stevens stated that the court's judgment was "a strained and unpersuasive reading" which overturned longstanding precedent, and that the court had "bestowed a dramatic upheaval in the law". [53] Stevens also stated that the amendment was notable for the "omission of any statement of purpose related to the right to use firearms for hunting or personal self-defense" which was present in the Declarations of Rights of Pennsylvania and Vermont. [53]

The Stevens dissent seems to rest on four main points of disagreement: that the Founders would have made the individual right aspect of the Second Amendment express if that was what was intended that the "militia" preamble and exact phrase "to keep and bear arms" demands the conclusion that the Second Amendment touches on state militia service only that many lower courts' later "collective-right" reading of the Miller decision constitutes stare decisis, which may only be overturned at great peril and that the Court has not considered gun-control laws (e.g., the National Firearms Act) unconstitutional. The dissent concludes, "The Court would have us believe that over 200 years ago, the Framers made a choice to limit the tools available to elected officials wishing to regulate civilian uses of weapons. I could not possibly conclude that the Framers made such a choice."

Justice Stevens's dissent was joined by Justices David Souter, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, and Stephen Breyer.

Justice Breyer filed a separate dissenting opinion, joined by the same dissenting Justices, which sought to demonstrate that, starting from the premise of an individual-rights view, the District of Columbia's handgun ban and trigger lock requirement would nevertheless be permissible limitations on the right.

The Breyer dissent looks to early municipal fire-safety laws that forbade the storage of gunpowder (and in Boston the carrying of loaded arms into certain buildings), and on nuisance laws providing fines or loss of firearm for imprudent usage, as demonstrating the Second Amendment has been understood to have no impact on the regulation of civilian firearms. The dissent argues the public safety necessity of gun-control laws, quoting that "guns were responsible for 69 deaths in this country each day.'"

With these two supports, the Breyer dissent goes on to conclude, "there simply is no untouchable constitutional right guaranteed by the Second Amendment to keep loaded handguns in the house in crime-ridden urban areas." It proposes that firearms laws be reviewed by balancing the interests (i.e., "'interest-balancing' approach") of Second Amendment protections against the government's compelling interest of preventing crime.

The Breyer dissent also objected to the "common use" distinction used by the majority to distinguish handguns from machineguns: "But what sense does this approach make? According to the majority's reasoning, if Congress and the States lift restrictions on the possession and use of machineguns, and people buy machineguns to protect their homes, the Court will have to reverse course and find that the Second Amendment does, in fact, protect the individual self-defense-related right to possess a machine-gun. There is no basis for believing that the Framers intended such circular reasoning." [54]

National Rifle Association (NRA) Edit

Attorney Alan Gura, in a 2003 filing, used the term "sham litigation" to describe the NRA's attempts to have Parker (aka Heller) consolidated with its own case challenging the D.C. law. Gura also stated that "the NRA was adamant about not wanting the Supreme Court to hear the case". [55] These concerns were based on NRA lawyers' assessment that the justices at the time the case was filed might reach an unfavorable decision. [56] Cato Institute senior fellow Robert Levy, co-counsel to the Parker plaintiffs, has stated that the Parker plaintiffs "faced repeated attempts by the NRA to derail the litigation." [57] He also stated that "The N.R.A.'s interference in this process set us back and almost killed the case. It was a very acrimonious relationship." [6]

Wayne LaPierre, the NRA's chief executive officer, confirmed the NRA's misgivings. "There was a real dispute on our side among the constitutional scholars about whether there was a majority of justices on the Supreme Court who would support the Constitution as written," Mr. LaPierre said. [6] Both Levy and LaPierre said the NRA and Mr. Levy's team were now on good terms. [6]

Elaine McArdle wrote in the Harvard Law Bulletin: "If Parker is the long-awaited "clean" case, one reason may be that proponents of the individual-rights view of the Second Amendment – including the National Rifle Association, which filed an amicus brief in the case – have learned from earlier defeats, and crafted strategies to maximize the chances of Supreme Court review." The NRA did eventually support the litigation by filing an amicus brief with the Court arguing that the plaintiffs in Parker had standing to sue and that the D.C. ban was unconstitutional under the Second Amendment. [58]

Chris Cox, executive director of the NRA's Institute for Legislative Action, had indicated support of federal legislation which would repeal the D.C. gun ban. Opponents of the legislation argued that this would have rendered the Parker case moot, and would have effectively eliminated the possibility that the case would be heard by the Supreme Court. [59]

Immediately after the Supreme Court's ruling, the NRA filed a lawsuit against the city of Chicago over its handgun ban, followed the next day by a lawsuit against the city of San Francisco over its ban of handguns in public housing. [60]

Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence Edit

The Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence opposed the arguments made by the plaintiffs in Parker, and filed amicus curiae against those arguments in both the District and Circuit courts.

Paul Helmke, the president of the Brady Campaign, suggested to D.C. before the Court granted certiorari that it modify its gun laws rather than appeal to the Supreme Court. [61] Helmke has written that if the Supreme Court upholds the Circuit court ruling, it "could lead to all current and proposed firearms laws being called into question." [62]

After the ruling, Paul Helmke stated that, "the classic 'slippery slope' argument", "that even modest gun control would lead down the path to a complete ban on gun ownership", "is now gone." Helmke added that, "The Court also rejected the absolutist misreading of the Second Amendment that some use to argue 'any gun, any time for anyone,' which many politicians have used as an excuse to do nothing about the scourge of gun violence in our country and to block passage of common sense gun laws." [63]

To the lower court rulings Edit

Various experts expressed opinions on the D.C. Circuit's decision.

Harvard Law School professor Laurence Tribe contended that the Second Amendment protects an individual right, and predicted that if Parker is reviewed by the Supreme Court "there's a really quite decent chance that it will be affirmed." [58] However, Professor Tribe has also argued that the District's ban on one class of weapons does not violate the Second Amendment even under an individual rights view. [64]

Erwin Chemerinsky, then of Duke Law School and now dean of the University of California, Berkeley School of Law, argued that the District of Columbia's handgun laws, even assuming an "individual rights" interpretation of the Second Amendment, could be justified as reasonable regulations and thus upheld as constitutional. Professor Chemerinsky believes that the regulation of guns should be analyzed in the same way "as other regulation of property under modern constitutional law" and "be allowed so long as it is rationally related to achieving a legitimate government purpose." [65] However, the dicta in Heller suggests that applying a mere rational basis analysis is an incorrect reading of the Constitution and would, in fact, defeat the entire purpose of the Second Amendment. [51]

To the Supreme Court rulings Edit

Cato Institute senior fellow Robert Levy, co-counsel to the Parker plaintiffs, agreed with the court's ruling but describes that his interpretation of the Second Amendment would not preclude all governmental regulation of private ownership of weapons:

Even the NRA concedes that you can't have mad men running around with weapons of mass destruction. So there are some restrictions that are permissible and it will be the task of the legislature and the courts to ferret all of that out and draw the lines. I am sure, though, that outright bans on handguns like they have in D.C. won't be permitted. That is not a reasonable restriction under anybody's characterization. It is not a restriction, it's a prohibition. [66]

Clark Neily, an attorney for Dick Heller in this case, has said regarding Heller:

America went over 200 years without knowing whether a key provision of the Bill of Rights actually meant anything. We came within one vote of being told that it did not, notwithstanding what amounts to a national consensus that the Second Amendment means what it says: The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. Taking rights seriously, including rights we might not favor personally, is good medicine for the body politic, and Heller was an excellent dose. [67]

Richard Posner, judge for the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, compares Heller to Roe v. Wade, stating that it created a federal constitutional right that did not previously exist, and he asserts that the originalist method – to which Justice Antonin Scalia claimed to adhere – would have yielded the opposite result of the majority opinion.

The text of the amendment, whether viewed alone or in light of the concerns that actuated its adoption, creates no right to the private possession of guns for hunting or other sport, or for the defense of person or property. It is doubtful that the amendment could even be thought to require that members of state militias be allowed to keep weapons in their homes, since that would reduce the militias' effectiveness. Suppose part of a state's militia was engaged in combat and needed additional weaponry. Would the militia's commander have to collect the weapons from the homes of militiamen who had not been mobilized, as opposed to obtaining them from a storage facility? Since the purpose of the Second Amendment, judging from its language and background, was to assure the effectiveness of state militias, an interpretation that undermined their effectiveness by preventing states from making efficient arrangements for the storage and distribution of military weapons would not make sense. [68]

J. Harvie Wilkinson III, chief judge of United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, consents to Posner's analysis, stating that Heller "encourages Americans to do what conservative jurists warned for years they should not do: bypass the ballot and seek to press their political agenda in the courts." [69]

Heller thus represents the worst of missed opportunities—the chance to ground conservative jurisprudence in enduring and consistent principles of restraint. The Constitution expresses the need for judicial restraint in many different ways—separation of powers, federalism, and the grant of life tenure to unelected judges among them. It is an irony that Heller would in the name of originalism abandon insights so central to the Framers' designs. [70]

Alan Gura, Lead Counsel for Respondent in Heller rejects Wilkinson's criticism, stating that "Rather, the Court affirmed the Second Amendment's original public meaning, as confirmed by its plain text. Having determined the Amendment's meaning, the Court showed the proper level of deference to the D.C. City Council's outright repudiation of the constitutional text: none." [71]

Pulitzer Prize-winning American historian Joseph Ellis criticized Scalia's Heller decision as political agenda disguised as originalist principles: "If Heller reads like a prolonged exercise in legalistic legerdemain, . that is because Scalia's preordained outcome forced him to perform three challenging tasks: to show that the words of the Second Amendment do not mean what they say to ignore the historical conditions his originalist doctrine purportedly required him to emphasize and to obscure the radical implications of rejecting completely the accumulated wisdom of his predecessors on the court." [72]

Since the June 2008 ruling, over 80 different cases have been heard in lower federal courts on the constitutionality of a wide variety of gun control laws. [73] [74] These courts have heard lawsuits in regard to bans of firearm possession by felons, drug addicts, illegal aliens, and individuals convicted of domestic violence misdemeanors. [73] [74] Also, cases have been heard on the constitutionality of laws prohibiting certain types of weapons, such as machine guns, sawed-off shotguns and/or specific types of weapons attachments. In addition, courts have heard challenges to laws barring guns in post offices and near schools and laws outlawing "straw" purchases, carrying of concealed weapons, types of ammunition and possession of unregistered firearms. [73] [74] There have been as of May 2019 more than 1,370 Second Amendment cases nationwide which challenged restrictive gun laws of various kinds since the Supreme Court issued its decision in Heller. In most cases the gun safety law or criminal conviction at issue has been however upheld by the lower courts. [75] [76] Provided with only minimum guidance from the Supreme Court in Heller the lower courts were tasked with defining the scope of the Second Amendment rights and the proper standard of review for evaluating Second Amendment claims in the aforementioned cases. [77]

The courts have upheld most of the above-mentioned laws as being constitutional. [74] The basis for the lower court rulings is the dicta in the paragraph near the end of the Heller ruling that states:

Nothing in our opinion should be taken to cast doubt on longstanding prohibitions on the possession of firearms by felons and the mentally ill, or laws forbidding the carrying of firearms in sensitive places such as schools and government buildings, or laws imposing conditions on the commercial sale of arms. [78]

Consistently since the Heller ruling, the lower federal courts have ruled that almost all gun control measures as presently legislated are lawful and that according to UCLA professor of constitutional law Adam Winkler: "What gun rights advocates are discovering is that the vast majority of gun control laws fit within these categories." [73]

Robert Levy, the executive director of the Cato Institute who funded the Heller litigation has commented on this passage describing constitutionally acceptable forms of prohibitions of firearms: "I would have preferred that that not have been there," and that this paragraph in Scalia's opinion "created more confusion than light." [73]

Similar to the lifting of gun bans mentioned previously in the settlements of lawsuits filed post-Heller, in US v. Arzberger, also decided post-Heller, it was noted:

To the extent, then, that the Second Amendment creates an individual right to possess a firearm unrelated to any military purpose, it also establishes a protectible liberty interest. And, although the Supreme Court has indicated that this privilege may be withdrawn from some groups of persons such as convicted felons, there is no basis for categorically depriving persons who are merely accused of certain crimes of the right to legal possession of a firearm. [79]

District of Columbia Edit

The D.C. government indicated it would continue to use zoning ordinances to prevent firearms dealers from operating and selling to citizens residing in the District, meaning it would continue to be difficult for residents to legally purchase guns in the District. [80] Additionally, the District enacted new firearms restrictions in an effort to cure the constitutional defects in the ordinance that the Supreme Court had identified in Heller. The new provisions were: (1) the firearms registration procedures (2) the prohibition on assault weapons and (3) the prohibition on large capacity ammunition feeding devices. In response, Dick Heller challenged these new restrictions filing a civil suit named Heller v. District of Columbia (Civil Action No. 08-1289 (RMU), No. 23., 25) where he requested a summary judgment to vacate the new prohibitions. On March 26, 2010, the D.C. District Judge Ricardo M. Urbina denied Dick Heller's request and granted the cross motion, stating that the court "concludes that the regulatory provisions that the plaintiffs challenge permissibly regulate the exercise of the core Second Amendment right to use arms for the purpose of self-defense in the home." [81]

Dick Heller's application to register his semi-automatic pistol was rejected because the gun was a bottom-loading weapon, and according to the District's interpretation, all bottom-loading guns, including magazine-fed non-assault-style rifles, are outlawed because they are grouped with machine guns. [82] Revolvers will likely not fall under such a ban. [83]

On December 16, 2008, the D.C. Council unanimously passed the Firearms Registration Emergency Amendment Act of 2008 [84] which addresses the issues raised in the Heller Supreme Court decision, and also puts in place a number of registration requirements to update and strengthen the District's gun laws. [85]

Justice Antonin Scalia's opinion for the majority provided Second Amendment protection for commonly used and popular handguns but not for atypical arms or arms used for unlawful purposes, such as short-barreled shotguns. Scalia stated: "Whatever the reason, handguns are the most popular weapon chosen by Americans for self-defense in the home, and a complete prohibition of their use is invalid." "We think that Miller's "ordinary military equipment" language must be read in tandem with what comes after: "[O]rdinarily when called for [militia] service [able-bodied] men were expected to appear bearing arms supplied by themselves and of the kind in common use at the time." 307 U. S., at 179." "We therefore read Miller to say only that the Second Amendment does not protect those weapons not typically possessed by law-abiding citizens for lawful purposes, such as short-barreled shotguns." "It may be objected that if weapons that are most useful in military service – M-16 rifles and the like – may be banned, then the Second Amendment right is completely detached from the prefatory clause. But as we have said, the conception of the militia at the time of the Second Amendment's ratification was the body of all citizens capable of military service, who would bring the sorts of lawful weapons that they possessed at home to militia duty." [86]

On July 24, 2014, the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia ruled, in Palmer v. District of Columbia, that the District's total ban on the public carrying of ready-to-use handguns is unconstitutional. [87] [88] In its decision, the Court stated: "[ . . . ] the Court finds that the District of Columbia's complete ban on the carrying of handguns in public is unconstitutional. Accordingly, the Court grants Plaintiffs' motion for summary judgment and enjoins Defendants from enforcing the home limitations of D.C. Code § 7-2502.02(a)(4) and enforcing D.C. Code § 22-4504(a) unless and until such time as the District of Columbia adopts a licensing mechanism consistent with constitutional standards enabling people to exercise their Second Amendment right to bear arms. Furthermore, this injunction prohibits the District from completely banning the carrying of handguns in public for self-defense by otherwise qualified non-residents based solely on the fact that they are not residents of the District." [89]

New York Edit

Mayor of New York City Michael Bloomberg said that "all of the laws on the books in New York State and New York City" would be allowed by the ruling as "reasonable regulation." [90] Robert Levy has stated that the current New York City gun laws are "not much different" from the D.C. ban that has been overturned. [91] The National Rifle Association and other gun-rights advocates have not ruled out suing New York City, especially over the definition of "reasonable regulation". [92]

Southern District of New York Magistrate Judge James Francis has said that, prior to Heller, it would not have been considered unreasonable to require a defendant to surrender a firearm as a condition of pretrial release. Specifically, according to Judge Francis: [93]

This all changed, with the recent U.S. Supreme Court decision in District of Columbia v. Heller 128 S.Ct. 2783 (2008), where the court changed the course of Second Amendment jurisprudence by creating what he said was a "protectible liberty interest" in the possession of firearms. Thus, in the absence of an individualized determination at a bail hearing, requiring the defendant to give up any firearms violates due process.

Maloney v. Rice (a.k.a. Maloney v. Cuomo and Maloney v. Spitzer), 554 F.3d 56 (2d. Cir. 2009) originally held that the 2nd Amendment does not apply to the states in the Second Circuit. The case involved a state ban on Nunchaku sticks (a martial arts weapon) in New York. In a memorandum opinion dated June 29, 2010, the Supreme Court vacated the Second Circuit decision in Maloney and remanded for further consideration in light of the holding in McDonald v. City of Chicago that the Second Amendment does apply to the states. The Second Circuit has remanded the case to the trial court. [ citation needed ]

Illinois Edit

The NRA has filed five related lawsuits since the Heller decision. [94] In four Illinois lawsuits, the NRA sought to have the Second Amendment incorporated by the Fourteenth Amendment, causing the Second Amendment to apply to state and local jurisdictions and not just to the federal government. [95] Three Illinois lawsuits have been negotiated and settled out of court involving agreements that repeal gun ban ordinances and did not result in incorporation of the Second Amendment to state and local jurisdictions. The fourth NRA lawsuit against Chicago was rejected. [96] The NRA appealed the case to the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals. On June 2, 2009, the Court of Appeals affirmed the district court's decision, based on the theory that Heller applied only to the Federal Government (including the District of Columbia), and not to states or their subordinate jurisdictions. [ citation needed ] This opinion directly conflicts with the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals' earlier decision, holding that Heller applies to states as well. [ citation needed ]

On June 28, 2010, the Supreme Court reversed the Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit's decision in McDonald v. City of Chicago and remanded it back to Seventh Circuit to resolve conflicts between certain Chicago gun restrictions and the Second Amendment. Chicago's handgun law was likened to the D.C. handgun ban by Justice Breyer. [97]

Similarly, three Illinois municipalities with gun control measures on the books that previously had banned all handguns have rescinded their handgun bans. [98] [99] [100] [101] These cities were Morton Grove, Illinois, [102] Wilmette, another Illinois village, [103] and Evanston, Illinois which enacted a partial repeal of its handgun ban.

In Ezell v. Chicago, [104] decided July 6, 2011, the Seventh Circuit reversed a district court decision that the post-McDonald measures adopted by the City of Chicago were constitutional. The Chicago law required firearms training in a shooting range in order to obtain a gun permit, but also banned shooting ranges within the City of Chicago. The city had argued that applicants could obtain their training at gun ranges in the suburbs. The opinion noted that Chicago could not infringe Second Amendment rights on the grounds that they could be exercised elsewhere, any more than it could infringe the right to freedom of speech on the grounds that citizens could speak elsewhere.

California Edit

On January 14, 2009, in Guy Montag Doe v. San Francisco Housing Authority, the San Francisco Housing Authority reached a settlement out of court with the NRA, which allows residents to possess legal firearms within a SFHA apartment building. The San Francisco lawsuit resulted in the elimination of the gun ban from the SF Housing Authority residential lease terms. Tim Larsen speaking for the Housing Authority said that they never intended to enforce its 2005 housing lease gun ban against law-abiding gun owners and have never done so. [105]

Idaho Edit

On January 10, 2014, in Morris v. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the District Court struck down a Corps of Engineers regulation barring possession of loaded guns in recreation areas surrounding Corps dams. The court held that tents are akin to homes, and under Heller, Second Amendment rights are protected. [106]

Initial reaction has deemed the Heller ruling to be of great significance, although it remains too soon to tell what the long-term effects may be. [107] Sanford Levinson has written that he is inclined to believe that the Heller decision will be relatively insignificant to the practice of law in the long run but that it will have significance to other groups interested in cultural literacy and constitutional designers. [107]

In 2009, both Levinson and Mark Tushnet speculated that it is quite unlikely that the case would be studied as part of casebooks of future law schools. [107] As was predicted, [108] a large surge of court cases was seen in lower federal courts in the aftermath of the 2008 ruling. As of March 2009 [update] , over 80 cases had been filed seeking to overturn existing gun laws. [109] [ needs update ]

The decision in McDonald v. City of Chicago, which was brought in response to Heller and decided in 2010, did invalidate much of Chicago's gun purchase and registration laws, and has called into question many other state and local laws restricting purchase, possession, and carry of firearms. [ citation needed ]

Justice Stevens later called the decision "unquestionably the most clearly incorrect decision that the Supreme Court announced during my tenure on the bench" and called for a Constitutional amendment overruling it. [110]

Historian Joseph Ellis and Yale law professor Reva Siegel noted the irony that Scalia's Heller decision only makes sense in light of a living Constitution, a principle that Scalia rejected. The law review articles written by NRA advocates and the shift in popular opinion toward an individual right to bear arms took place only a few decades before the Heller decision was handed down. While Scalia professed to be channelling the "original meaning" of the Second Amendment, Ellis argued that he actually engaged in historical interpretation informed by present attitudes, exactly as a liberal justice would. Furthermore, Ellis asserted that the truly "originalist" opinion in the Heller case was Justice Stevens's dissent, which he asserted correctly interpreted the Second Amendment in the context of maintaining state militias. [111]

Stephen Halbrook, a lawyer and Second Amendment analyst who successfully argued three firearms-related cases before the Supreme Court, concluded the majority's opinion in Heller "relied on text, history, and tradition." [112] Halbrook asserted that the individual right to bear arms was not an invention of gun rights activists in the preceding few decades, but was in fact a textualist interpretation confirmed by the historical context of the Second Amendment. This included the English Declaration of Rights of 1689, as well as "post-ratification commentary, antebellum judicial opinions, Reconstruction legislation, and post-Civil War commentary." [113]


The 1934 Chevrolet Suburban

After the first production year we already begin to see the evolution of the Suburban within the second year of its creation. Instead of the wood construction, sheet metal was used for the body, but the original design from the 1933 version held. Three rows of seats made this vehicle which was known as the “Carry All Suburban” a highly functional vehicle for transporting an entire family or group within a single automobile. Convenient side hinged rear panel doors or the option of a rear tailgate and lift window were the innovations that made it possible to access the rear cargo area.


Jennifer Makes Her Own Bit of Split the Bucket History in Castleisland RFC Draw

Castleisland RFC PRO Nóirín Uí Chathasaigh with the latest Split the Bucket results. ©The Maine Valley Post Gerdy Brosnan being presented with his winning cheque for €713 by Castleisland RFC Chairman, Dan Casey at Martin Curtin’s Right Buy on Saturday evening.

The winner of the Split the bucket draw held in Martin Curtin’s Right Buy shop on Saturday, July 11th was Jennifer O’Sullivan.

Jennifer, who made her own bit of Split the Bucket history by being the first on-line winner, won herself, €720.

While they were at Martin Curtin’s on Saturday evening they also presented Gerdy Brosnan with his winning cheque for €713 from the previous week’s draw.

The next draw will be held in Diarmuid’s Butchers at 6pm on the coming Saturday, July 18 th .

How to Play Split the Bucket

The ‘How to Play’ instructions have changed a little since the post Covid-19 return of ‘The Bucket’ but the principle of winning half the pot remains the same and it’s making its way steadily, weekly back towards its ‘thousandaire days.’

Self Sealing Envelopes

Split the Bucket Envelopes – but now the self sealing kind – are available in almost all shops which are open now throughout this and neighbouring parishes.

You simply put your €2 in the envelope, seal it and sign it and add your telephone number and pop it in the bucket or the club coloured, red and blue stand.


KING-T

Don Tognotti

As we rounded out the Promotions, Inc. Show Car Division roster of feature attractions for the 1964-65 season, a top-notch rod was an obvious necessity. Little trouble was encountered though, as we needed look no further than Sacramento, California, where we found the wildest stock-bodied roadster, ever built. Sweepstakes winner at both Winternationals and Oakland shows, the rod is none other than Don Tognotti’s KING-T.

Don is positive proof that car enthusiasts are a different breed of people. Although he customizes cars strictly as a hobby, Don worked 20 hours a week over a period of 1 1/2 years to create this Model T extravaganza which is now valued at $10,000. Why so much time and money spent on a hobby? In Tognotti’s own words, “It gives a person the chance to be an individual.” His answer appears to be quite accurate, for there can be no doubt that the KING-T is a one-of-a-kind automobile.

Don purchased the original 1914 Model-T Ford for $300.00, stripped it to the frame, and started rebuilding. His final product, the KING-T, features stock fenders, body, windshield, radiator shell, and headlights with a turtle deck reproduced in fiberglass. The paint combines shades of special “chameleon” lavender, applied by Gene Winfield of Modesto who is also credited with the body work.

The interior sports black deep-pile carpet, chrome-button tufted pearl-beige naugahyde upholstery, gleaming walnut instrument panel, and wooden steering wheel. Power comes from a modified 1955 Chevy engine, coupled to a Hydro trans. Don mounted Hilborn blower injectors on a special intake manifold.

The biggest single feature of the KING-T is probably the undercarriage, for every piece, including the frame rails, has been chrome plated. A hand formed tube axle with 󈧷 Chev coil springs supports the front end, while independent rear suspension is featured. Airheart disc brakes are utilized with inboard location at the rear.

The KING-T successfully fulfills builder Tognotti’s objective of combining past and future into one wild automotive creation.

toured by Promotions, Inc.


Notable battles

Affiliation

Clone Force 99, unofficially known as the "Bad Batch," was a clone commando special forces squad that was active during the Clone Wars. The squad initially consisted of four clone commandos that were designed with genetic mutations and led by Clone Sergeant "Hunter," a clone with enhanced sensory abilities. Other members of the squad included "CT-9904, AKA Crosshair," a clone with keen eyesight and marksmanship that allowed him to excel in long distance firefights, "Wrecker," a reckless clone with enhanced muscular form, and "Tech," a clone with enhanced mental capacity and intelligence. Following the crucial Battle of Anaxes, Advanced Recon Commando Clone Corporal CT-1409 "Echo" joined the unit.

Most of the members' mutations and the ordeal Echo suffered prior to joining caused their inhibitor chips to fail, meaning Clone Force 99 was able to disobey Order 66. With the Proclamation of the New Order and the rise of the Galactic Empire from the shell of the Republic, Clone Force 99—with the exception of Crosshair, whose chip had functioned properly—defected with a child named Omega, and Admiral Wilhuff Tarkin ordered that they be hunted down.


Bucket Held by an Apkallu, Panel 2 - History


Table of Contents Release Date 1)

Aerodynamics and the Trans Am A. Introduction B. Front Fender Air Extractors C. Front Spoiler Variations D. Rear Spoiler Variations E. Wheel Spats 2)

Interior Appointments A. Introduction B. The Rear Seat Center Console C. Formula Steering Wheel D. Bucket Seat Variations I.1970 Low Back II.1971-75 Bucket - Standard III.1971-72 Bucket - Custom IV.1973-75 Bucket - Custom - The "Horse Collar" Years V.1976-1978 Bucket - Standard

1) Aerodynamics and the Trans Am
A. Introduction
Before most consumers had any idea of the importance of aerodynamics on a production car, the Trans Am designers made it an integral part of the package. The average customer believed the sleeker the package, the more aerodynamic the car. This, however was not always the case. Look at one of the Trans Am's contemporaries the Chevrolet Corvette of the same era. The "Mako Shark II" inspired body screamed sleekness, yet this car was horrible aerodynamicly. There was so much front end lift that driving the car at high speeds was not for the faint of heart.

Even pure bred racing cars were not exempt from this concept of "function following form" philosphy. The eventual all-conquering Ford GT40 left the Lola factory as a beautiful race car, perhaps the most visually stunning car of the era, yet was so poor aerodynamicly that the first shakedown runs were disasterous. It was only after serious aero and mechanical tweaking that the car was to become a winner.

The Trans Am was different. Pontiac's engineers as well as the design team put together a package that managed the air flow. The made the air work for the car. While the assortment of spoilers, spats, and shakers made a stunning visual impact, the fact that they were designed to work a well as they looked is a tribute to those involved.

B. Front Fender Air Extractors
Front fender exhaust vents have been a part of the automobile for almost as long as there have been fenders on cars. If you care to journey back to the pre integrated fender era, the hood of many cars of the period had vents on the sides of the cars to get rid of excess engine heat. The front fender air extractors on the T/A do remove heat from the engine compartment, but that is just one of their responsibilities.

Pure sports and racing cars of the 50's and 60's used fender vents to reduce the air pressure beneath the hood, thereby reducing lift. By giving the air that enters the engine compartment a controlled way out, the air doesn't have to force it's way out the bottom of the car, which lessens the high pressure air beneath the car. In many of todays race cars, this air is now redirected out of the hood thru the use of louvres, which is ok on a race car, but this practice (althougth there are cars that employ vents of this nature) is less practical on a street driven car where water can enter the engine compartment.

The front fender air extractor, is the vent is located in a depressed area of the housing, in kind of a backward scoop. This design takes advantage of the "Venturi" effect, using air flowing accross the air extractor to create a low pressure area, thereby drawing air out of the extractor. This results in something for nothing. High pressure air is given a pathway out of the engine compartment and at speed, a low drag port is molded into the side of the car which naturally aids in air removal.

Later, the Camaro Z28 would employ a similar fender air extractor, but this was done more to match the visual appeal of the Trans Am's air extractors.

C. Front Spoiler Vairiations
While the front fender air extractors were basicly changeless during the 12-year run of the second generation Trans Am, the spoiler went thru five variations.

1970-1973 - The original front spoiler was an integral part of the aero package of the Trans Am. The spoiler was about three-inches deep and was painted body color unlike the black spoiler of the original 1969 Trans Am. The spoiler ran full width and the ends flowed into the front wheel spats. The front spoiler added real aerodynamic downforce, again at a time in the auto industry was more interested in form over function. So natural and effective this spoiler was, it was used pretty much "as is" when raced in the S.C.C.A. Trans Am series, much unlike today's silhouette cars which run in the series.

1974-1975 - When it was time for the Trans Am to receive the Federaly mandated five mile-per-hour bumper impact standards, the front fascia of the T/A changed drasticly. The new front bumper requires a deeper front pan, so the front spoiler was reduced in depth to a little over an inch. While not as effective as the original, the new spoiler was a bit more more friendly to parking blocks and curbs than if it would have been deeper.

1976 - A new front end with a more integrated appearance debuted in 1976, and with it, yet another front spoiler. This spoiler wasn't much deeper than the '74-'75 version, and it seemed to be a bit more integrated. This spoiler was attached underneath the car behind a flexible, slotted pan. These spoilers mated up quite nicely to the spats, something that became increasingly less common when the pressure was on to increase the production numbers. This spoiler was used only for the 1976 model year so replacements are difficult to come by.

1977-1978 - A new nose piece combining the front bumper and the header panel into a single piece of urethane meant it was time for yet another front spoiler vairiation. This new spoiler was actually a combination of the front under pan and the spoiler. Made in an impact resistant plastic the pan used bolts and tabs extending from the pan to hold it into place. The spoiler portion extended barely over an inch deep and part of its duty was to force air into the vents on the front pan. The ends of the spoiler were intended to line up with the spats, but the results were often not quite as intended. The spoiler/pan was extremely vulnerable to cracking and breaking and it an regular sight to see a '77 or '78 running around "naked" without the pan.

1979-1981 - The final version of the Trans Am front spoiler variation was one that was as much a styling element as it was an effectual component. The new nose was a "bottom breather", whereby part of the cooling air was taken below the car where the turbulent air normally lived, rather than disrupt the smooth airflow that passed over the front end by giving it an opening to glow into. The result was a spoiler that was much larger than the preceeding years. The new spoiler was made of a flexible material so it was much more resilient to life's everyday adventures. Because the new front spoiler was much larger and had a softer shape, new front wheel spats were required.

Which front spoiler had the greatest appeal? This is a tough one to call because they all had the same intent and thier design was ultimately determined by the front end style they were attached to.

D. Rear Spoiler Vairiations
While the front spoiler went thru numerous changes during the twelve year production run, the rear spoiler was limited to two, and these changes were limited to the end caps. Before we examine the end caps singularly, let's look at the rear spoiler as a unit. When viewed end on the spoiler appears to be an efficient devise, carefully breaking up the airflow as it leaves the decklid, lowering drag and increasing downforce. Yes, that's correct, a rear spoiler at highway speeds (around 70 mph) as the original designers had intended creates about 50 pounds of positive downforce. While 50-lbs. of downforce may not seem much in light of modern racing cars creating hundreds of pounds of downforce remember the average passenger car creates lift as if travels down the freeway.

Although the downforce generated is wonderful, if the engineers would have truely had their way the spoiler end caps would have taken on a different shape entirely. The designers made original caps come down to almost a point with a rounded top which actually spills air off the spoiler around the back of the car. Pontiac engineers wanted a spoiler that was more squared off and came down the sides straight, to give just that little bit more downforce. Sound familiar, because if you look at the Camaro rear spoiler, this is what Pontiac engineers had in mind.

When 1979 rolled around, the Trans Am got some softer shapes. The new nose was softened to break the wind better. The rear bumper was all new as was the entire rear end treatment except for the center section of the rear spoiler. What was new for the rear spoiler were the end caps. The end caps were much larger at the bottom, instead of coming down to a near point, the end caps had a horizontal detail line that met up with a vertical one that followed the leading edge of the end cap.

Opinions vary as to which rear spoiler looks the best. The original is tough to beat and did survive for nine years. But the rear spoiler that was used for the final three years was certainly more aggressive, despite being softened, so it to has its own appeal. Like the front spoiler, the rear spoiler is ultimately decided by the year of the car.

E. Wheel Spats

Wheel spats or wheel air deflectors, whichever name you wish to use, were another often imitated component of the Trans Am's aerodynamic package. The spats deflected air around the turbulence of the tires, cleaning up a bit of aero drag for a tradeoff of just a bit of frontal area. In the front, the spats were prone to bug strikes as well a the occasional stone from other vehicles. At the rear, a "sand blast" effect was common as the front tires threw all kinds of road debris rearward, chipping the paint of the spats. There was only one change to the spats design, in 1979, where the spats were made to blend in with the new front spoiler design.

During the era, companies offered "foilers", which mimicked the wheel spats, only turned around. These were a very stylish way to add mud & stone deflectors to your car, and unlike many aftermarket add-ons, they actually looked pretty good. The rubber welting was prone to deterioration over time, actually looking quite nasty. Aftermarket companies have offered replacement welting off and on over the years and replacement spats are also in production.

The popularity of the Trams Am's wheel spats did not go unnoticed by the other manufacturers. AMC got into the game with the Hornet based AMX. Chevrolet added them to the Camaro Z28 and the Monza Spyder. At Ford, similar wheel spats were added to the 1978 "King Cobra" edition of the Mustang II. All tried to copy the look benchmarked by the Trans Am, but a copy is merely a substitute for the real thing!

2) Interior Appointments
A. Introduction

When it came to interior selection, the Second Generation Trans Ams were at the forefront styling. A beautiful instrument panel, wonderful appearing seats, a variety of sound systems, and a host of luxury and convenience features abounded. This section will go over many of the interior features available on Trans Ams.

B. Rear Seat Console
Of all the neat features ever to grace a Trans Am, the rear seat console has to be one of the best. Ahead of its time, the option had a short lived lifespan, seven production years 1971-1977. When introduced, the rear seat console gave the rear passengers a center armrest as well as a place to put the inboard seat belt buckles. In 1973, outboard retractors eliminated the buckles with adjusters. Now the belt webbing was not long enough for the new buckles to fit in the console pockets. While the rear seat console no longer had a functional purpose, the appearance factor was well worth the small cost. In hindsight we can say this, but the reality at the time must have been different. Usually GM will eliminate an option when it falls below the 5% penetration level. This means in 1977 there was a likihood of only around 7,800 rear seat consoles being ordered (accross the entire Firebird line), so the rarity of this item (as a percentage level) is nearly equivilant to a 1970 Ram Air IV!.
C. Formula Steering Wheel
With a name like "Formula Steering Wheel" in a Trans Am, it almost sounds like the cart was put before the horse. Here was the a steering wheel named after the Trans Am's cousin. Shouldn't the best steering wheel have been named the "Trans Am" steering wheel?

Whatever the chosen name, the Formula steering wheel was almost the perfect appliance to point your Trans Am in the desired direction. The 14-inch diameter was small enough to take advantage of the T/A's quick reflexes and just thick enough to hold onto without your fingers wrapping around too far. The wheel, aside from color changes remained basicly unchanged for it's 12-years of usage.

The wheel was available in colors that matched the interior unlike the 3rd and 4th generation wheels that are available in any color you want as long as it's black. The spokes were available in a black finish, a natural finish, or in the gold finish of the SE's and LE's. Horn caps mimicked the wheel rim color, and on the special models, the bird in the center was unique to the model.

The wheel rim section was held to a cast aluminum collar that was finished with a "crinkle" paint treatment. Allen head bevel screws attached the wheel to the collars and were coated with a "thread locking" material to keep the threads from backing out. After all, it would be bad news to require your customers to periodicly tighten the steering wheel.

From 1970 to 1972, the steering wheels included a stitched wrapping, but beginning in 1973 the wheel rims were made of a rubberized vinyl with a simulated leather covering, right down to the fake stitching. On 10th Anniversary models, the wheel was treated to a real leather covering, complete with genuine stitching! The leather was a medium gray color to match the horn button and most of the other interior appointments.

The spokes were done in a semi-machined finish with the left and right spokes having a straight accross pattern, and the vertical spoke having it's grain going up-down crossing the left-right pattern behind the horn button. Most cars received a low gloss black finish, a natural silver finich on 10th Anniversary models, and as mentioned above, the SE and LE's were given a gold tone.


The Significance

The critical data repository in question was exposed not by the enterprise holding primary responsibility for the information, but by a third-party vendor to the enterprise. It was a publicly accessible AWS S3 bucket owned by third-party vendor NICE Systems that revealed the sensitive personal details of Verizon customers.

To judge by much of its website copy and marketing material, NICE Systems is indeed a company that provides technology of particular use to call centers, a crucial component of the Verizon business chain. SEC filings reveal NICE Systems to call Verizon a “main partner,” providing the telecom carrier with such software as a workforce management tracker to monitor how efficiently call center operators are using their time. Other programs offered within the suite of NICE Enterprise software include data and voice analytics software, technology in which NICE has made significant investments as crucial to call center customers.

Beyond such direct business, a series of high-profile US acquisitions by the Israeli firm have given them an even closer business relationship with Verizon’s North America operations than might be immediately apparent. In 2016, NICE acquired inContact and VPI, both firms that have in the past supplied Verizon with software for its back-office and call center operations.

In short, NICE Systems is a trusted Verizon partner, but one that few Americans may realize has any access to their data. Such third-party vendors are entrusted every day with the sensitive personal information of consumers unaware of these arrangements. There is no difference between cyber risk for an enterprise and cyber risk for a third-party vendor of that enterprise. Any breaches of data on the vendor’s side will affect customers as badly and cost the business stakeholders as dearly as if it had been leaked by the enterprise.

Beyond the sensitive details of customer names, addresses, and phone numbers—all of use to scammers and direct marketers—the prospect of such information being used in combination with internal Verizon account PINs to takeover customer accounts is hardly implausible. To do so would enable impersonators to tell Verizon call center operators to do whatever was wished of them—enabling, perhaps, costly “SIM Swap” scams of customer SIM cards, or, as reported by The Verge, the breaching of two-factor authentication:

The prospect of a host of your applications and digital accounts being compromised from one third-party vendor’s exposure of data is not science fiction, but the unfortunate reality of cyber risk today. The data exposed in the Verizon/NICE Systems cloud leak is, indeed, a testament to how profoundly every aspect of life today is touched by those systems to which we impart so much knowledge.


Bucket Held by an Apkallu, Panel 2 - History

Antique Utensils ranging from bread proofing pans to Archimedean egg beaters. We offer nice wire ware items and other utensils including apple peelers and revolving graters. True kitchen collectibles as well as great accent pieces
for any room.

Here is the first presentation from my upcoming video about antique utensils and Dutch oven cooking. This segment is about antique Dutch ovens and cast iron.

Please click on specimen link or image for more photographs or pricing information.

Tin Container - 1/2 Gallon
VU414
This is a beautiful example of tinware in a size that will work great in any chuckbox or kitchen. The detail on this container really makes it stand out. The embossed handle has rolled under edges and tapers from a width of 1 1/4” down to 1/2”. The container stands 8 1/2” high with a bottom diameter of 5 1/4” and holds a little more than 1/2 gallon. You would have to look far and wide to find a specimen that can match this one for quality – it even retains much of its bright tin finish.
Berry Pail - Covered
VU412
This is a nice covered berry bucket or lunch pail in Very Good condition. These pails make excellent storage containers for a chuckbox or in a period camp. This pail is of a larger size than you normally see with a diameter of 7” and a height of 5 1/2” to the top of the lid. The interior still retains much of its bright tin finish. These old pails are fun to collect and can serve a number of purposes in any home.
Cream Can
VU413
A very nice tin cream can with two strap handles. This specimen displays beautifully and would make a wonderful storage container in any kitchen or chuck wagon. This specimen is free of dents and dings and has an interior that is very clean and free of rust. The strap body handle has a width of 1 inch at the top and tapers down to 1/2" at the bottom. The strap handle on the lid has a width of 3/4 inch and has rolled over edges. This container has a diameter of 4 1/2" and a height of 9 1/2".
SOLD
This is a wonderful set of darkened tin measuring cups ranging from ½ cup down to slightly more than a tablespoon. The quarter cup measure even has a delicate little handle – the smallest measure has the tiniest poor spout you have ever seen. All in all it is a very nice set that would look great in any chuck box or country kitchen. The largest cup measures 1 ½” high with a 2 ½” diameter ranging down to the smallest measure that stands 1 ¼” high with a diameter of 1 1/8”. These would make a great addition to any collection of early kitchen tin ware.
SOLD
This is a very nice Earthenware Pitcher that would be perfect for honey or molasses. This little gem looks very nice with its brown and cream colored salt glaze finish. It is in Excellent condition with no chips or cracks. The pitcher stands 4 ½ “ in height with a diameter of 4” and a handle width of ¾”.
SOLD
This is a very attractive One Quart tin container in Excellent condition. This canister still retains most of its bright tin finish and presents very well – the interior is as clean and bright as can be. Both the body handle and the lid handle have nicely folded under edges. The body handle tapers from 1 inch at the top to 3/4" at the base while the strap handle on the lid has a width of 1/4". The container stands 9" high to the top of the lid strap and has a bottom diameter of 4". This specimen would work great in any primitive camp or chuck wagon situation – or even as an accent piece in any kitchen.
SOLD
This is a wonderful One Quart measure in excellent condition. It is very seldom you can find one of these measures that still retains nearly all of its bright tin finish – this one is beautiful. The graduated measures embossed on the side of the measure are 1/2 Pt., 1 Pt., 1 1/2 Pt., 1 QT Liq’d.. The strap handle has nicely folded under edges and is tapered for comfort. The measure stands 5 1/4" to the top of the lip and has a bottom diameter of 4". This would make a wonderful addition to any collection of kitchen tinware.
SOLD
This is a beautiful Cleaver in a serious size – nearly 30 ounces and measuring 13 1/4" from stem to stern. This specimen is a #7 and marked "International Edge Tool Co. – Solid Steel – Newark N.J." The blade measures 7" long with an average cutting depth of 4". The attractive Mahogany colored handle measures 6 1/2" in length with a depth of 1 1/4". This specimen will hold its own in any cutlery collection and is a real eye catcher.
SOLD
This nice cleaver is ready to go to work in your kitchen. Its gently curved 7 1/2" blade and comfortable 4 1/2" handle make it a good size for both small and large jobs. The scales are free of any chips or cracks and sport nice brass rivets. The heavy steel blade has an average cutting depth of 2 1/2".
SOLD
An early six wire, Androck pastry blender with a turned handle in Excellent condition. The comfortable handle still retains it's vibrant red paint. Advertisements and trade catalogs of the period always showed pictures of this pastry blender with seven wires rather than six. Patent date of January 12, 1929.
SOLD
This is a very nice Griswold #10 Skillet in Excellent condition. This skillet measures 11 ¾" in diameter and has a depth of 2 ¼". The smooth bottom is marked with the Griswold small block logo and "Erie PA 716E". This style pan is nice to use with its double pour spouts and comfortable handle. Griswold pans cook foods beautifully because of their heft and quality construction.
SOLD
Here is a very nice Tin Coffee Boiler with a copper bottom and the popular tipping handle. This boiler is in Very Good condition and holds 28 cups – just right for a chuck wagon setting. The pot stands 10” high with a bottom diameter of 10” and a top diameter of 6”. The turned wooden handle and lid finial still retain their black paint and are free of any chips or cracks. These old pots are getting to be increasingly difficult to find – this one would look great in any camp situation or collection.
SOLD
This is a very nice, primitive Chopping Knife. This specimen is ready to go to work in your kitchen or chuck box. In excellent overall condition this knife sports a comfortable T handle with a width of 4 &frac14" attached to a sturdy tang and a gently curved blade that has a cutting depth of 2". The width of the knife is 6 1/4" with a height of 6". This would make a very nice to any collection of vintage chopping knives.
SOLD
This is a very nice Henry Disston & Sons Chopping Knife. This specimen is still nice and sharp and ready to go to work in your kitchen or chuck box. In excellent overall condition, this knife sports a comfortable handle and a gently curved blade that has a cutting depth of 2 7/8". The width of the knife is 6" with a height of 5 &frac14". This would make a very nice to any collection of vintage chopping knives or to any Disston collection.
Spatula
VU379
This is a very attractive and interesting kitchen spatula. This spatula has an interesting blade that has perforations as well as concave areas to help with drain off. The blade measures 4" in length and 3 &frac14" in width. The handle is beautifully turned and has the remains of the original black paint. The overall length of the spatula is 15".
SOLD
This is a nice, early Dover Egg Beater in Very Good + condition. This beater has the attractive patina of old steel and tin. The crank wheel is marked “Dover Egg Beater – Patd. May 6th 1873, Apr 3rd 1888, July 9th 1889”. The handle is also stamped with the name Dover. The wooden knob is free of any chips or cracks and the beater spins freely. The beater measures 10 ¼” in length and the crank wheel measures 3” in diameter. Dover egg beaters were so popular that at one point the generic term "dovering eggs" was used to describe the egg beating process in recipes.
SOLD
This is a garnish cutter in Excellent condition. This nice little cutter sports a turned, red painted handle that has minimal chipping. The cutter blade still retains a bright tin finish. These are still a very handy gadget for ripple cutting vegetables in your kitchen.
SOLD
Here is a wonderful find that will look great in any vintage kitchen or in a chuck box. This tin match safe has the attractive patina of 130 year old tin and is embossed with “Patented July 16 78”. The hinge on the lid is still nice and tight and the striker on the bottom of the safe is nice and clean. This match safe measures 3” high by 4 ¼”wide and 2” deep. Match safes of this style are getting to be increasingly difficult to find and this specimen would make a beautiful addition to any collection or historical presentation
Springerle Mold
VU367
Here is a nice example of an early Springerle mold – in Very Good condition. This attractive mold is in the design of a fish and has a nice fluted edge as well as a comfortable handle. Springerle molds are fun to use and make wonderful accent pieces for any room. This mold has an overall length of 8 ½” with width of 3 ½” at the shoulder and the mold has a depth of 1”. The handle measures 3 ¼” in length.
SOLD
This is a unique, large sized Wire Whip in in very good condition. This whip stands an impressive 13” high and the spring style whip has a maximum diameter of 4”. The turned and black painted handle is free of cracks or chips and has a length of 5 ¾”. The whip works almost like a “slinky” - place the whip in a bowl and plunge the handle up and down to quickly mix batters, etc. This is a wonderful kitchen collectible that would make a great addition to any collection.
SOLD
Here is a real treasure, the Little Star apple peeler in Very Good + condition. This specimen is a wonderful example of Victorian design with its S shaped handle. The peeler is stamped with the name “Little Star” Pat’d June 9, 1885 - C. E. Hudson Co. Leominster, MA. This was one of the first peelers that had a blade that always faced the fruit for better peeling.
SOLD
This is a very nice Straining spoon in Excellent condition. This specimen has the beautiful patina of well used old steel and presents very well. This is one of those early kitchen utensils that is just as handy today as it was 100 years ago. The strainer has an overall length of 15” and has a bowl diameter of 3 5/8”. This is the perfect addition to any chuck box or vintage kitchen.
SOLD
Here is a nice Holt’s Egg Beater in good condition. This beater spins freely and is ready to go to work in your vintage kitchen or primitive camp. The crank wheel is stamped “ Holt’s Egg Beater Pat. AUG. 22, 1899 APR 3, 1900.” These are getting to be increasingly difficult to find.
SOLD
This is a nice Calumet Baking Powder storage tin in Very Good condition. With its darkened tin, the container presents very well. The lid is embossed with “Calumet Baking Powder - Absolutely Pure - 1 lb.” and the lid is of the old style that works perfectly for a biscuit cutter. The tin Stands 7” high with a diameter of 3". A great addition to any chuck box or period camp.
SOLD
This is a real fun collectible, the Ovaltine drink shaker in very good condition. This nice aluminum shaker works great for mixing Ovaltine, salad dressing, martinis, or any number of things. The shaker stands 7” high and has a maximum diameter of 3 ½”.
SOLD
This is an Calumet Baking Powder tin in Good condition. This nice little, darkened tin, 4 ounce can has an embossed lid that says “Calumet Baking Powder - 4 oz. - Made In U.S.A. - Absolutely Pure”. This is just the right size to hold spice or seasoning in a chuck box or to use as an accent piece. The can stands 3 ¼” high with a diameter of 2”.
SOLD
This is a beautiful, Charles Asprey, Circa 1891, bottle with paneled sides in Excellent condition. The bottle stands 5” high and has a diameter of 1 1/4”. The ten panels have nice crisp edges and add a nice flair to the bottles appearance. 1 panel has a slight fleabite to its edge. The silver around the mouth of the bottle is threaded and the British hallmark on the cap adds an elegant touch. This attractive little bottle would make a nice accent piece in any room or make a wonderful condiment bottle.
SOLD
This is a beautiful bottle with paneled sides in Excellent condition. The bottle stands 5” high and has a diameter of 1 5/8”. The ten panels have nice crisp edges and add a nice flair to the bottles appearance. The silver around the mouth of the bottle bears an English hallmark. This attractive little bottle would make a nice accent piece in any room or make a wonderful condiment bottle.
SOLD
This is a beautiful bottle with paneled sides in Excellent condition. The bottle stands 5 1/4” high and has a diameter of 1 7/8”. The ten panels have nice crisp edges and add a nice flair to the bottles appearance. The silver around the mouth of the bottle adds an elegant touch. This attractive little bottle would make a nice accent piece in any room or make a wonderful condiment bottle.
S OLD
Here is a “Bull Dog” can opener in Very Good condition. This opener has a beefy business end that is marked “Bull Dog Tempered” and is ready to go to work. The overall length of the opener is 6” with a handle length of 3 ½”.
SOLD
This is a Rumford spatula in Very Good + condition. This turner is made of tinned sheet metal and has a wire handle that is stamped “Rumford the Wholesome Baking Powder”. The blade has a width of 1 1/2” and a length of 5 1/2”. The overall length of this spatula is 11".
SOLD
Here is a great little cake turner bottle opener combination in Very Good + condition. This specimen is very attractive with a heart shaped blade that also has a small heart cut into its surface and has a bottle opener at the end of the handle. The handle is embossed with the words “ Albers Flapjack Flour – Peacock Buckwheat Flour”. This would make a very nice addition to any utensil collection and makes a great wall hanger. The spatula has an overall length of 10 7/8" and a blade width of 2 5/8".
SOLD
This is a nice Swans Down Spatula in Very Good + condition. The spatula has a blade length of 7” and a width of 1 ¼” - the overall length is 12 ¼”. The heavy wire handle is embossed with “Swans Down Cake Flour Makes Better Cake”.
SOLD
This is a cup of darkened tin in Good condition. This holds exactly ¾ of a cup and would make a great measuring cup for a chuck box or a re-enactors cook kit. The cup has a diameter 3” and a height of 1 3/4”. The tapered handle measures 3/4” at the top and 1/4” at the bottom.
Spatula - Metal
VU346
This is a metal spatula in Very Good + condition. This turner is made of tinned sheet metal and has a wire handle that is stamped "Stop & Shop At The Basket Market, Cadova, S.D.". The blade has a width of 1 1/2" and a length of 5 1/2". The overall length of this spatula is 11".
SOLD
This Rumford slotted spoon is Very Good + condition and still retains a bright tin finish. The heavy wire handle is stamped “Rumford The Wholesome Baking Powder”. The business end of this spoon measures 3 1/4” by 2 1/4” and has a handle length of 8 1/4”.
SOLD
A mechanical cake turner in Very Good + condition. This is one of those fascinating kitchen utensils that shows a lot of inventiveness. This works like a normal spatula or turner but the flipping action is achieved by squeezing the wire handle. This causes the business end of the turner to flip 45 degrees and flip your pancakes. The hinge assembly on this specimen is in like new condition - these are often worn out and sloppy. A great kitchen collectible and a fun conversation piece. 11" in length by 2 1/2" blade width.
Utensil Set - Federal Land Bank
VU344
This is a fun utensil set from the Federal Land Bank Association in Excellent condition. This set includes an egg separator, a funnel, a sifter, and a measuring cup with 1 through 4 tablespoon measures. A fun little kitchen collectible in a nice yellow color.
Slicer - Covell's
VU343
The Covell’s cheese slicer if very good condition. This handy little gadget has adjustable cutting capability - simply slide the logo plate forward or backward to adjust the cutting depth. The over all length of this slicer is 6 ½” with a handle length of 3 ½”. The width of the cutter is 2 ¼”. A neat little gadget for any kitchen.
SOLD
This is a hard to find Potato Muddler in Very Good + condition. Muddlers of this style have a business end of tinned cast iron and date to around 1870. These work nicely because you can both apply mashing pressure and spin at the same time - plus it can stand proudly on your counter when not in use. The diameter of the masher is 3” with a length of 8”. This would be a great utensil for any chuckbox or vintage kitchen setting.
SOLD
This is an attractive Slotted Spoon in Very Good + condition. This nice spoon has a nice cut out pattern in the bowl and still retains a nice bright finish. The comfortable wooden handle even has a countersunk hole to hang the spoon. The overall length of the spoon is 12” - the bowl measures 4” x 2 ½”. Spoons of this style work great for mixing batter as well as straining.
Cake Turner - Spatula
VU340
Spatula or Cake Turner in Very Good + condition. This is an attractive A & J turner circa 1930. This is one of the nice ones with the stylized blade and flared out shoulders. The blade measures 2 ¾" x 4 ¾" and has an overall length of 13 ¼". A fun collectible ready to go to work in your kitchen.
Casserole Dish - Covered
VU338
This is a nice “retro” Mirro, aluminum casserole in Very Good + condition. This is quite attractive with its handled caddy with four feet. The nice cut out design on the sides are bordered on the top and bottom with a rope like ornament. The bottom of the covered insert is marked “Mirro – The Finest Aluminum – Made In U.S.A. - Trade Mark Registered”. The specimen stands 5 1/2” high with a handle to handle width of 10 1/2”. This would make a fun addition to any collection of retro tableware.
SOLD
This is an interesting Miranda Rolling Cutter or Mincer in Very Good + condition. The handle is embossed with “D.R.G.M. (German patent mark (meaning Deutsches Reich Geschmacksmuster) 194167” “Made in Germany” Guido Riedel”. These are still a very handy utensil in the kitchen as they make quick work out of mincing garlic, etc. and they work great to cut noodles. Each of the 10 cutting wheels measure 1 1/4” in diameter and the overall length of the mincer is 6 3/4”.
Apple Corer
VU336
A hand held, T handle apple corer in Very Good condition. Simply plunge the cutter in to the center of the apple and twist to remove the core. The length of the corer is 6 1/4” with a handle width of 3 1/2”. This style was patented by Melville Hayward on Jan 23, 1917.
Brilliant Cut Glass Bowl
ABCG01
This is a stunning Brilliant Cut Glass Bowl in Excellent condition. What a showpiece – it displays like a gem with a wreath of roses cut into its sides. The scalloped sawtooth rim and additional diamond cuts around the body really add to the beauty of this bowl – even the base has a fluted edge and a star design cut into the bottom. The bowl has a height of nearly 5” with a diameter of 8 1/4” the base has a diameter of 4 1/4”. Don't miss out on the opportunity to add a wonderful addition to your Brilliant Cut Glass collection.
Casserole Dish - Covered
VU335
This is a very attractive Covered Casserole in Excellent condition. This specimen would look great on any buffet or Holiday table – even the vintage GlasBake bowl contained within the casserole has attractive medallions embossed on its sides. The finial handle on the lid is reminiscent of fine early American silver and the bright chrome finish make this piece really stand out. The height of this specimen is 5 1/2” to the top of the handle and has a diameter of 9 1/2”.
SOLD
This is an attractive Pie Carrier or Server in Excellent condition. This nice specimen still has its nice clean nickel finish and stands on four diminutive feet. This makes a very attractive server for any buffet or dinner table. The server even has a vintage Pyrex pie plate. The server stands 2 1/4” high to the top of the handles with a diameter of 8 3/4”.
SOLD
Here is a very nice set of two pans that are just the right size for a small cake or for use in a Dutch oven. The round pan has a diameter of 7” and a depth of 1”. The rectangular pan is tinsmith made and has very attractive envelope folded corners and nicely folded over edges. This little pan measures 6” by 4 ¼” with a depth of 1”. These will make a great addition to any collection of primitive baking pans.
Spatula - Straining
VU331
This is a very nice, primitive Spatula in Very Good condition. This attractive specimen even has holes in the blade to allow straining while the product is being lifted. The spatula has an overall length of 7 1/8” and a maximum width of 4 3/4”.
SOLD
This is the Foley Chopping Knife with three blades and an attractive green painted T grip. The chopper works by plunging the spring loaded inner blade up and down like a pogo stick. This chopper has a patent # of 2,113, 085 and was patented by Melvin Higgs, April 5, 1938.
Pail - Covered
VU329
This is a nice covered berry bucket or lunch pail in Very Good condition. These pails make excellent storage containers for a chuckbox or in a period camp. This pail is of a larger size than you normally see with a diameter of 7 1/8” and a height of 5 1/2” to the top of the lid and has a capacity of around 1 gallon. The interior still retains a nearly all of its bright tin finish. These old pails are fun to collect and can serve a number of purposes in any home.
SOLD
This is a beautiful Lee's knife sharpening steel with a black, faux antler handle in Very Good + condition. Even modern knives can be improved with the use of a steel to create a keen edge and you can sharpen in style with this 13" long Lee's steel. The black antler and silver handle presents very well and would look great in any kitchen or dining room. The steel length is 8 1/4" - the handle has a length of 4 3/4".
SOLD
Here is a beautiful Victorinox Forged Professional Knife in Excellent condition. The 9" blade is ice tempered to create a hardened blade that will sustain its sharpness longer and give desired effect when re-sharpened. Traditional hot-drop forging creates a superior steel product with increased elasticity and maximum internal strength. Triple rivet, rosewood handle with attractive shape is designed to provide optimum weight, balance and comfort. This knife has a blade length of 9" with a cutting depth of 1 3/4". The handle has a length of 5". This knife will make a wonderful addition to any kitchen.
SOLD
A Heuck French Fry Cutter in Very Good + condition. The wire cutters are divided into 30 squares to make a nice sized French fry. All of the wires on this specimen are still nice and tight and ready to be put to work.
Spatula
VU321
This is a very nice primitive spatula in Very Good + condition. This specimen has a nice long curved handle that can reach inside a Dutch oven and has a nice patina and hammered rivets. The spatula has an overall length of 14” and a handle length of 9 3/4”. The spatula blade measures 3 1/4” wide by 4 1/2” in length. The handle has a nice curve to the end making it easy to keep at hand near your Dutch ovens.
Spoon - Straining
VU320
This is a very nice primitive straining spoon in Very Good + condition. This specimen has character galore with a nice patina and copper rivets. The spoon has an overall length of 9 1/4” and a handle length of 5 1/2”. The spoon bowl measures 4 1/4” wide by 3 3/4” in length.
Spatula - Ben Hur Flour
VU319
This is a Ben Hur Flour spatula in Very Good condition. This turner is made of tinned sheet metal and has a wire handle that is stamped "Use Ben Hur Flour – Thomas Milling Co. - Weatherford Okla.". The blade has a width of 3 1/2" and a length of 4 1/2". The overall length of this spatula is 11 3/4".
Spatula - Smith and Fiegel
VU318
This is a Smith and Fiegel spatula in Very Good condition. This turner is made of tinned sheet metal and has a wire handle that is stamped "Smith & Fiegel It Pleases Us To Please You". The blade has a width of 2 3/4" and a length of 5 1/2". The overall length of this spatula is 11".
Wooden Spoon
VU317
Here is a nice Wooden Spoon in Excellent condition. This spoon has a beautiful grain pattern and has the nice smooth feel of well used wood. The spoon is free of any chips or cracks and has a slender knob on the end of the handle for a hanging twine. The spoon has a length of 13 ½” and a bowl width of slightly over 2”.
SOLD
A vintage bread dough raising or proofing pan in Excellent condition. These are very difficult to find this pristine. The interior of this dough raising pan near mint and the exterior retains nearly all of its bright tin finish. There are no dings or dents and only a small amount of cleanable, spotty rust along the rim on the foot of the pan. The pan stands 8 1/2” high and has a diameter of 16”. This pan would hold its own in any vintage kitchen utensil collection.
SOLD
This is a very nice tin dough pan or chuck wagon wrecking pan in Excellent condition. This wonderful pan will look great hanging on the back of a chuckbox and will work great to use as a wrecking pan in any period camp situation. Of course, it can hold a place of honor in any collection of kitchenalia too. The pan is nice and clean with no dings or dents and still retains nearly all of its bright tin finish. The pan has a diameter of 16” and has a height of 4 1/4”.
SOLD
This is a Mason Seald-Sweet Juicer in Very Good + condition. This juicer is made of cast aluminum and is wall mounted, with a cup or juice container and has a pouring lip along with a deeply ribbed reamer cone. The diameter is 5” and the height is 4”. A nice juicer that makes a fun conversation piece.
SOLD
This is a great old alarm clock – a Westclox Sleep Meter in Excellent condition. This is the perfect wind up alarm clock to use in a chuckbox or in your sleeping quarters because of its soothing old timey tick, tick, tick. It also has the added benefit of an alarm that is loud enough to stampede a herd of cattle. The clock was made by the Western Clock Company of La Salle, Illinois and it works like new – a true collectors item. The clock stands 5” high and has a face diameter of 4”.
SOLD
This is a beautiful Bread Knife with a double cutting edge in Very Good + condition. This style of knife is perfect for hard crusted breads because of its double edged blade which has both a scalloped and saw tooth edge. The blade is rust free and is stamped with the name “Princess”. The blade length is 9 3/4”. The comfortable wooden handle is free of any chips or cracks – the bolster is nice and bright but has one slight crack – the and has a length of 5 1/4” giving the knife an overall length of 15”. This is a very attractive and functional knife that would be great to add to any collection.
SOLD
This is a very nice Flesh Fork in Very Good + condition. The nicely turned, black painted handle is has minimal chipping and is free of any cracks. The business end is made of heavy steel and has a bright nickle finish. Even the tines on the fork are of heavy construction. The overall length of the fork is 13” with a handle length of 4 1/8”.
Spatula - Rumford
VU287
This is a Rumford spatula in Excellent condition. This turner is made of tinned sheet metal and has a wire handle that is stamped "Rumford the Wholesome Baking Powder". The blade has a width of 1 1/2" and a length of 5 1/2". The overall length of this spatula is 11".
SOLD
This is a beautiful example of an early Charles Parker & Company coffee mill in Excellent condition. Charles Parker began making coffee grinders and mills in 1833. This model number 360 side mill is ready to go to work in a Victorian kitchen or on a chuck box. The front of the mill is embossed with the words "The C. Parker Co. No. 360 . Meriden CT" and has a very attractive vine and Greek key design. The lid on this side mill is a replacement and fits beautifully. The mill stands 6 1/2" high with a hopper width of 4 3/4". The dimensions of the back board are 8 3/4" x 6 1/4".
SOLD
Here is a great little cake turner bottle opener combination in Very Good + condition. This specimen is very attractive with a heart shaped blade that also has a small heart cut into its surface. The handle is embossed with the words “ Albers Flapjack Flour – Look For The Miner”. This would make a very nice addition to any utensil collection and makes a great wall hanger. The spatula has an overall length of 10 7/8" and a blade width of 2 5/8".
SOLD
This a very nice metal Spatula in excellent condition. This is a nice specimen with a blade that is just the right size to fit under a peace of pie when lifting it from a pan. The fork has an overall length of 11 1/2”. The loop handle is embossed with “Ward & Company General Merchandise – Buffalo Gap, S.D.” and the end of the handle even has a handy bottle cap remover. This spatula is a wonderful example of an early advertising premium and is still a very handy utensil.
SOLD
This a a very nice Flesh Fork in excellent condition. This is a nice sturdy specimen that will not bend when lifting a heavy cut of meat. The fork has an overall length of 12 3/4”. The loop handle is embossed with “H. Kleinheksel – Archer , Iowa - General Merchandise” and “Pat. APL'D For -Tempered Steel” is stamped on the back. This fork is a great example of early advertising premiums.
SOLD
Here is a Bromwell's Multiple flour sifter in Excellent condition. These old Bromwell sifters are often missing one or both of the caps that fit on the top and bottom of the sifter – this specimen still retains both of its original covers. The sifter still retains nearly all of its bright tin finish and the green paint on the turned wooden handle is free of any cracks or chips. The interior screen is still intact and clean. The sifter stands 7” high with a diameter of 5”.
Egg Beater - Dunlap Silver Blade
VU269
This is a difficult to find Dunlap Silver Blade Cream and Egg Whip bowl and beater combination in Excellent condition. It is very seldom you can find this set still intact. The Dunlap bowl is free of any chips or cracks and still has a nice bright glaze. The bowl measures 3 1/4” high with a top diameter of 7”. The beater measures 12 1/2” in length. The wheel of the beater is engraved with the words “Dunlap's Silver Blade Cream & Egg Whip – No Spatter No Waste – J.S. Dunlap, Chicago, U.S.A. - PAT'D May 15, 1906 – Feb, 26 1907”. This is a very collectible beater and bowl set that would look great in any kitchen.
SOLD
This is a beautiful example of an early Charles Parker & Company coffee mill in Excellent condition. Charles Parker began making coffee grinders and mills in 1833. This model number 1350 side mill is ready to go to work in a Victorian kitchen or on a chuck box. The interior of the mill even has coffee residue. The mill stands 5 1/2” high with a hopper width of 4”. The dimensions of the back board are 8” x 5 1/2”.
SOLD
This nice tin Scoop in Very Good condition. This scoop is free of rust and has a 3/4” handle with folded over edges. The scoop has an overall length of 3 3/4” with a bowl depth of 2 3/4” and a diameter of 2 1/4”. A scoop with these dimensions equals a ½ cup measure.
Pastry Blender
VU274
An early six wire, Androck pastry blender with a turned handle in Very Good condition. The comfortable handle still retains much of it's black paint. Advertisements and trade catalogs of the period always showed pictures of this pastry blender with seven wires rather than six. Patent date of January 12, 1929.
SOLD
This is a very nice red handled strainer in Very Good condition. The handle still retains its vibrant, glossy red paint and is in excellent condition. The basket is free of any tears and still retains some of its bright tin finish. The strainer has an overall length of 9" with a basket diameter of 3 1/4". These strainers make great wall hangers in any country kitchen.
SOLD
This is an early, tin shaving comb box and shaving mirror in Very Good + condition. This repousse' tin beauty would look great hanging in any Victorian style bathroom and would be perfect to use as part of a shaving station on a chuck wagon or in a period camp situation. The mirror is still intact and reflects nicely – it could be re-silvered if a person wished to. The design of the tin is nautical in nature. This specimen measures 8 1/4” wide by 9 1/4” high and the box at its base has a depth of 2”.
SOLD
A very attractive bakelite and chromed steel cake comb knife. This knife resembles the Art Deco style and the handle has a soft gold coloration. This comb is 10 1/4" in length and has a depth of 3 3/4" and would make a great addition to any collection.
Steamer Pan
VU277
This is an attractive steamer basket in Very Good + condition. These old baskets make great accent pieces in any room and this specimen, with its bright tin finish, will really stand out. These are also good storage containers for a chuckbox. These are usually in a darkened state – this one is nice and clean. The height of this piece is 5” with a diameter of 10 1/4”.
SOLD
A nice spring wire whip in Good condition. Interesting in it's design in that the metal frame is twisted and then folded back on itself to form the handle. The business end of the whip is a combination of spring around the perimeter and chicken wire interior. This whip has an overall length of 10 1/4" with a handle length of 5 1/2". The width of the oval shaped business end is 4 1/2" in length by 3" in width.
Tray - Metal
CNT11
This is a very interesting copper /iron tray in Excellent condition. This wonderful specimen is very detailed with its fern leaf design - in fact, it appears that a mold was made of an actual fern leaf as the design even carries itself to the three footed back. There seems to be a base metal of copper or brass that shows here and there through the black finish coat. This is a very unique and collectible dish or tray that would make a beautiful accent piece in any room.
Steam Cooker
VU267
This is a medium sized, Circa 1890, tin food steamer complete with the original insert in Very Good + condition. This specimen sports attractive darkened tin and has a nice copper bottom. The steamer is still water tight and ready to be put to work. These are difficult to find in a condition this free of rust and with it's tapered sides this specimen displays very well. The steamer has a bottom diameter of 5 1/2” and a top diameter of 6 1/2” the overall height is 10". The attractive handle on top of the lid has folded over edges and measures 3/4” wide. The insert has a diameter of 5 3/4” and rests at the 1/3 mark from the bottom. This is a scarce kitchen collectible.
SOLD
This is a wonderful example of a Circa 1872 twisted wire trivet in Very Good + condition. These trivets were also known as pot stands and with a diameter of 6” and a height of 1/2” these make the perfect trivet to use in the bottom of a Dutch oven. Trivets like this are quite scarce and make the perfect addition to any kitchen or chuck box arsenal.
SOLD
This is a Short'ning And Ice Cream Spoon in Excellent condition. This nice aluminum spoon sports a nice copper finish and still retains a nice bright shine. The spoon has a length of 8" and the bowl measures 2 1/2" by 3".
SOLD
This is an Acme garnish cutter in Very Good + condition. This nice little cutter sports a turned, red painted handle that has minimal chipping. The cutter blade still retains a bright tin finish. These are still a very handy gadget for ripple cutting vegetables in your kitchen.
SOLD
A very attractive bakelite and chromed steel cake comb knife. This knife resembles the Art Deco style and the handle has a jade coloration with caramel colored swirls. This comb is 10 3/4" in length and has a depth of 3 3/4" and would make a great addition to any collection.
SOLD
Here is a nice trivet in Very Good condition. This trivet is made of aluminum and is just the right size to fit in the bottom of a bread pan. This would work great for meat loaf or a turine. This specimen measures 7 1/2" by 3 3/4".
SOLD
This is a double blade chopping knife in Good + condition. The knife is unmarked but is typical of the chopping knives manufactured by A & J. The double blades are spaced 1 1/8" apart and have a cutting depth of 1 1/4” and a width of 5 1/2”. The overall height of the chopper is 4 1/4”. The handle length is 3 7/8” and shows evidence of green paint where the handle attaches to the tang.
SOLD
This is a wonderful example of Victorian engineering, the Schroeter Brothers Hardware Company, Improved Grater 1000, in Excellent condition. Schroeter Brothers Hardware had a series of revolving graters in progressively larger sizes – the 1000 is a large counter top model. The top does have a small repair that has been made as shown in the photographs. The crank and grater drum assembly turns freely and would still work as a greater. Advertisements for the smaller 250 model state that “It can be used for grating potatoes, cheese, crackers, cocoanut, horseradish, bread, turnips, carrots, and many other vegetables”. This grater displays beautifully and would look great as an accent piece in any room. The grater stands 12” high with a width of 7” and a depth of 12 1/2”. The grating drum has a diameter of 6 3/4”. Revolving graters like this are very difficult to find and a specimen like this can hold it's own in any collection.
SOLD
This is a nice “Retro” egg slicer in Excellent condition. This slicer is a nice yellow color and the slicing wires are nice and tight. The diameter of this slicer is 3 3/4”.
SOLD
This is a very nice little funnel with a clip handle in Good condition. This funnel of darkened tin still retains a fair percentage of its bright tin finish and is free of any dents or dings. The funnel has a diameter of 2 5/8 with a height of 3 1/4”.
SOLD
This is an attractive set of long measuring spoons with their wall hanger finished in bright copper. This set is in excellent condition. These long spoons work very well for getting the spices out of the bottom of tall jars. The spoons measure 1 Tablespoon, 1 teaspoon, ½ teaspoon and ¼ teaspoon. This set would make a great wall hanger in any retro kitchen.
Chopping Knife - Double Blade
VU248
Here is a very nice, circa 1900, double blade chopping knife in Very Good + condition. This is a very well constructed chopping knife with double tangs and a comfortable, large sized handle. The sausage shaped blades have a cutting depth of 2” and a length of 6”. The handle has a length of 4 3/4”. The height of the chopping knife is 5 1/2”. These old chopping knives are still a very handy utensil to have in any kitchen.
SOLD
This is a double blade chopping knife in Very Good condition. The wishbone shaped double tang is connected to nice crescent shaped blades. The maximum cutting depth of the blades is 2 3/8” with a width of 7”. The knife has a height of 5 3/4”. The comfortable turned handle has a length of 3 1/2” and has a little dimple at one edge. These chopping knives are a very useful utensil in any kitchen and have enough variety in design to make a fun collectible.
SOLD
This is a Universal double blade chopping knife in Very Good + condition. As with all utensils made by Landers, Frary & Clark this chopping knife is very well built and has some heft when lifted. The beefy wishbone tang is connected to two blades with a cutting depth of 3” and a width of 6 1/4”. The height of this chopping knife is 7” and the turned handle has a length of 4 1/4”. This is a great addition to any Landers, Frary & Clark – Universal collector.
SOLD
Here is a very nice, circa 1880, double blade chopping knife in Very Good + condition. This is a very well constructed chopping knife with double tangs and a support rod that spreads between the tangs. The sausage shaped blades have a cutting depth of 1 3/8” and a length of 6 1/4”. The turned handle has a length of 3 3/8”. The height of the chopping knife is 5”.
SOLD
Here is an interesting Full Vision Beater Set in Very Good + condition. This is a great mixer and cup combination manufactured by A&J. The cup has a three cup capacity and still retains nearly all of its bright finish – the mixer is rust free and spins easily. The combination stands 7 1/2" high with a cup diameter of 4".
SOLD
This is a nice whisk in Very Good condition. This whisk has an attractive turned handle that is free of any chip or cracks. The business end has Art Deco styling and still retains nearly all of its bright tin finish. Its overall length is 11”.
Wooden Paddle
VU242
This is an interesting wooden paddle with tons of character. The paddle end has multiple small worm holes that add a nice element to its patina and the handle has the nice smooth feel of well used treenware – any surface cracking is light. The overall length of the paddle is 16 1/2” with head dimensions of 6 3/8”in length by 2 5/8” in width. This specimen would make a very nice addition to any antique kitchen utensil collection.
SOLD
This is an attractive cake/bread knife with a blade marked “SUCCESS”. The 1 ¼” deep blade has a very interesting scallop pattern that presents very well. The turned handle has a length of 5” and has a few little dents at the base. The overall length of this knife is 15”.
SOLD
The "Turntable 78" made by the Reading Hardware Company of Reading, PA. This peeler has a patent date of 1878. The gears are protected by an ornate, decorated cover. The mechanism is canted at an angle to improve visibility and insure that the parings fall into a receptacle. This specimen has both a push off and a blossom cutter and features an anti-reverse pawl to keep it from being cranked backwards. This is one of those kitchen utensils that really need to be displayed as well as used. Very attractive.
Cake Turner - Heart Shape
VU238
Here is a great little cake turner bottle opener combination in Excellent condition. This specimen is very attractive with a heart shaped blade that also has a small heart cut into its surface. The handle is embossed with the words “ Albers Flapjack Flour – Peacock Buckwheat Flour”. This would make a very nice addition to any utensil collection and makes a great wall hanger.
Meat Fork - Central Meat Market
VU237
This is a very nice, heavy duty meat fork in Excellent condition. This fork still retains it bright finish and is ready to go to work in your kitchen. The handle is stamped with the words “Central Meat Market – Sidney Nebr. Phones 30 & 31”. The fork has an overall length of 13”.
Spatula - Rumford
VU236
This is a Rumford spatula in Excellent condition. This turner is made of tinned sheet metal and has a wire handle that is stamped “Rumford the Wholesome Baking Powder”. The blade has a width of 1 1/2” and a length of 5 1/2”. The overall length of this spatula is 11".
Tin Measuring Cup - Rumford
VU233
This is a Rumford Baking Powder measuring cup in Very Good condition. This nice cup still retains nearly all of its bright tin finish and is embossed with the words “Rumford Measuring Cup” as well as markings for quarter and third cups. The tapered strap handle has rolled over edges and has an average width of 5/8”. This would make a great addition to any Rumford Baking Powder collection.
Cake Turner or Spatula - Rumford
VU234
This is a Rumford cake turner in Excellent condition. This turner is made of tinned sheet metal and has a wire handle that is stamped “Rumford the Wholesome Baking Powder”. The underside of the handle is stamped “Pilgrim Nov. Co., Prov., R.I.”. This specimen has a nice little heart cut out near the handles anchor point. The blade has a width of 2 3/4” and a length of 3 1/2”. The overall length of this turner is 10 3/4”.
Cake Turner or Spatula - Rumford
VU235
This is a Rumford cake turner in Excellent condition. This turner is made of tinned sheet metal and has a wire handle that is stamped “Rumford the Wholesome Baking Powder”. This specimen has a nice pattern of small circles cut out of the blade. The blade has a width of 2 3/4” and a length of 3 1/2”. The overall length of this turner is 10 3/4”.
SOLD
This is a wire ware masher in Very Good condition. This masher has a nice turned handle and an interesting masher constructed of heavy wire mesh and twisted wire. The overall length of the masher is 9 3/4” with a business end diameter of 3 1/4”.
SOLD
A potato ricer in Good condition. This specimen has green painted malleable iron lever handles and a tinned perforated cup with a metal presser. The presser is marked "Mfd. by Handy Things Co." These older ricers are of much sturdier construction than their modern counterparts and still hold a spot in any kitchen arsenal. The overall length of this ricer is 11".
SOLD
This is an attractive ice cream scoop in Good condition. This scoop is an interesting example due to its dimpled handle. This scoop has some heft to it and is comfortable in the hand. The scoop measures 6 1/2” in length with the bowl diameter being 2”.
Ice Cream Scoop
VU229
This is an attractive ice cream scoop in Good condition. This scoop is an interesting example due to its blue colored bowl and ribbed handle. The scoop measures 6 3/4” in length with the bowl measuring 2 1/8” by 1 5/8”.
SOLD
The One Hand Wit Whip in Excellent condition. The handle is marked “The One Hand Wit Whip – Made In U.S.A – Pats. 2,096,442 & 2,278,398” also “Dr. Jo Wit Labs NY & LA – Patents Pend.”. This is one of the handy Archimedean style mixers that can be used with one hand. The mixer is 11” in length with a beater width of 3”.
Spoon - Slotted Cake Spoon
VU227
This is an interesting style of slotted spoon in that the cut outs are in the shape of small squares. These spoons were also know as cake spoons. This specimen is in Very Good + condition and is notable for the interesting carved handle. The handle is free of any chips or cracks and the metal still retains most of its bright nickel finish. The spoon measures 12 1/2" in length with a bowl measuring 2 1/2" wide by 4 1/4" in length. This spoon would look great hanging in any vintage kitchen.
SOLD
This is a wire ware whisk in Very Good + condition. This style of whisk has a head with ladder like construction for aggressive mixing. The whip measures 10 1/4" in length with the head being 3"wide by 4 3/4" in length.
SOLD
This is a wire ware whisk in Very Good + condition. This very rare style of whisk is made of one continuous piece of wire and is notable for the nine circles of wire in the head. The whip measures 11 1/4" in length with the head being 2 1/8"wide by 3 3/4" in length.
SOLD
This is a revolving grater, in Good + condition, manufactured by Lorraine Metal Manufacturing Company. This nice little grater still has its wooden pusher and retains nearly all of its original green paint and bright tin finish. Revolving graters make a very nice addition to any kitchen utensil collection. The grater stands 7 1/2” high when table mounted and has a drum diameter of 2' and a feeder shoot diameter of 1 1/2”.
SOLD
This is a slotted spoon or cake whip in Very Good condition. This heavy spoon still retains most of its nickel finish and is free of any rust. These are a very handy utensil for braking up clumps of flour in batter. This spoon has a length of 11” and a bowl width of 2 1/4”.
SOLD
This is an example of the A & J food mill in Very Good + condition. This specimen has nice tabs that allow the mill to rest on the rim of a container while being used. The blades turn freely and the wooden knob still retains nearly all of its green paint. The overall length of this mill is 12 1/2” with a strainer diameter of 6”. These are still a very useful addition to any kitchen arsenal.
SOLD
This is a Climax revolving grater in Excellent condition. This beautiful specimen still retains its attractive red/brown paint and it still has the all to frequently missing glass pusher for the feed shoot. The wooden knob on the handle is free of any cracks or chips and ads to the attractive appearance of this very collectible revolving grater. The grater stands 11 1/2” tall when mounted to a table and has a drum diameter of 3 1/2”.
SOLD
This is a nice example, in Good condition, of an A & J cake turner. This specimen has the desirable shouldered blade and still retains most of its nickel finish. The overall length of this nice turner is 13” with a blade width of 3”. The 3 1/2” long handle has a smooth finish and a pleasing patina. A good wall hanger for any kitchen as well as a fun to use vintage utensil.
SOLD
This is a nice mixing spoon in nickel covered steel with a turned wooden handle. In Very Good + condition, this spoon still retains nearly all of its nickel finish and the wooden handle is free of any chips or cracks. The spoon has a length of 12 3/4”.
SOLD
A very attractive bakelite and chromed steel cake comb knife. This knife resembles the Art Deco style and the handle has a jade coloration. This comb is 10 3/4" in length and has a depth of 3 3/4" and would make a great addition to any collection.
SOLD
A very attractive bakelite and chromed steel cake comb knife. This knife resembles the Art Deco style and the handle has a amber coloration. This comb is 11" in length and has a depth of 4" and would make a great addition to any collection.
SOLD
A very attractive bakelite and chromed steel cake comb knife. This knife resembles the Art Deco style and the handle has a red coloration. This comb is 10 1/4" in length and has a depth of 3 7/8" and would make a great addition to any collection.
SOLD
This Rumford spatula is in Very Good + condition and still retains much of its bright tin finish. The heavy wire handle is stamped “Rumford The Wholesome Baking Powder”. The business end of this spatula measures 2 3/4” by 3 3/8” and has a handle length of 7 5/8”.
Slotted Spoon - Rumford
VU212
This Rumford slotted spoon is Good + condition and still retains some of its bright tin finish. The heavy wire handle is stamped “Rumford The Wholesome Baking Powder”. The business end of this spoon measures 3 1/4” by 2 1/8” and has a handle length of 7 1/2”.
SOLD
Here is a very nice spatula and bottle opener combination in Very Good + condition. This is a hard to find specimen with the large spatula blade. The wire handle is embossed with the words “Merry Xmas 1928 – Booth Motor Company” and the patent date of 11-4-14 on the back of the handle. The overall length of of this spatula is 11 1/2” with a blade length of 5 5/8” and an average blade width of 2 1/2”.
SOLD
This is a set of two wire ware whisks one with the spring whisk design and one with a chicken wire pattern both are in darkened tin. The spring whisk is 10 1/2" in length and the chicken wire whisk is 10 3/4" in length.
SOLD
This is a nice grapefruit knife by A & J. The attractive handle has a combination of cream and turquoise colored paint. This would make a nice addition to any vintage utensil collection.
Meat Tenderizer and Ax
VU207
This is an interesting meat tenderizer and ax combination. The head can be taken apart for easy cleaning. Manufactured by the Tyler Manufacturing Company, of Muncie, IN. Patented Dec, 5 - 1922. This example has an attractive turquoise painted handle that is free of chips and cracks.
SOLD
Here is a nice "Kettle Strainer" made by the Foley Company of Minneapolis, MN. This strainer has a patent number of 2,507,159 - May 9, 1950 with the patent being held by Freda and Frank Holmgren of Minneapolis. This is a very handy tool for straining pasta, etc. It has an attractive turquoise handle with a length of 4 1/2".
SOLD
This is the Foley Chopping Knife with three blades and an attractive turquoise painted T grip. The chopper works by plunging the spring loaded inner blade up and down like a pogo stick. This chopper has a patent # of 2,113, 085 and was patented by Melvin Higgs, April 5, 1938.
SOLD
A unique Archimedean mixer or beater with double beaters in very good condition. This mixer works by pushing down on the spring loaded handle which causes the beater blades to spin. The spring tension then pushes the handle back upward to repeat the process. Really quite effective. A great conversation piece a very useable. Length of 13 1/2" and a base width of 3 1/2".
SOLD
An Archimedean drill mixer or beater in very good condition. This mixer works by pushing down on the spring loaded handle which causes the beater to spin. The spring tension then pushes the handle back upward to repeat the process. Really quite effective. 12 1/2 inches in length with a beater diameter of 2 inches. A great conversation piece and very useable.
SOLD
This is a beautiful example of a Triton Revolving Grater. Triton is a mythological Greek god, and is the messenger of the sea. He is the son of Poseidon, god of the sea, and Amphitrite, goddess of the sea. He is usually represented as a merman. A nautical theme is abundant on this very attractive and scarce revolving grater. Triton’s face is displayed on the base of the grater along with three sea serpents - two reaching down from the drum to Triton and one sculpted in to the handle. The drum enclosure displays a sea shell motif and disassembles for easy cleaning. This wonderful revolving grater will hold it’s own in any collection and displays beautifully.
SOLD
An early specimen in Very Good + condition. Crank wheel is stamped "Dover Pattern Improved" and "Pat'd Feb 4, 1904" The letter T is stamped under the handle. The overall length is 10 1/2" with a wheel diameter of 3". The first egg beaters appeared in the 1850's and since that time more than 1000 patents have been awarded for different designs. Dover egg beaters were so popular that at one point the generic term "dovering eggs" was used to describe the egg beating process in recipes. Dover egg beaters remain very collectible today.
SOLD

Their Quality Made Them Famous - Made The Clean Ward Way” The back of the measure states “Ward’s Tip Top Bread


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