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Dearborn, Henry (1751-1829) Secretary of War: Dearborn was born on February 23, 1751, in North Hampton, New Hampshire. He studied medicine, and set up a practice in 1772. One of his hobbies was studying the art of war and, the day after the Battle of Lexington, he lead sixty minutemen to Cambridge, Massachusetts. Thus began his distinguished military career in the Revolutionary War, including service in the Battles of Stillwater, Saratoga, Monmouth and Newton. With the rank of colonel, he served in the siege of Yorktown. In 1784, Dearborn moved to Monmouth, Maine, and was chosen brigadier general of militia in 1787, followed by major-general of militia in 17956 and US Marshall for Maine in 1789. He was elected to the US House of Representatives in 1793, serving two terms as a Democratic-Republican. President Jefferson appointed Dearborn Secretary of War in 1801, a position he retained until 1809. In 1809, President Madison gave him the collectorship of the port of Boston. Dearborn served in this capacity until he was appointed a senior major-general in the US Army in 1812. Assigned to the command of the Northern Department, he captured two points in Canada in 1813: York (now Toronto) and Fort George. Recalled because of charges of political intrigue, he was given command of New York City. He was not granted his request for a court of inquiry. After serving as Minister to Portugal from 1822 to 1824, he resigned and settled in Roxbury, Massachusetts. He authored a journal of his adventures, as well as an account of the Battle of Bunker Hill. Dearborn died in Roxbury, on June 6, 1829.
DEARBORN, HENRY. (1751–1829). Continental officer, later secretary of war. New Hampshire. Descended from a native of Exeter, England, who came to America in 1639, Henry was born on 23 February 1751 in North Hampton, New Hampshire. He studied medicine with Dr. Hall Jackson in Portsmouth and started practicing at Nottingham in 1772 before he organized and was elected captain of a militia company. After learning of the fighting at Lexington and Concord, he led sixty of his men to Cambridge, Massachusetts, where his company became part of Colonel John Stark's Regiment. Dearborn distinguished himself as part of the latter's command at Bunker Hill. Commanding a company of musketmen in Arnold's march to Quebec, he became sick and had to be left behind on the Chaudière River. He rejoined in time, however, to be captured at Quebec on 31 December 1775. Held for a while in the city, he was paroled in May 1776 but not exchanged until 10 March 1777. On 19 March he was appointed major of Alexander Scammell's Third New Hampshire Regiment (with rank from 8 November 1776), and he fought at Ticonderoga and the First Battle of Saratoga on 19 September 1777. On the latter date he was promoted to lieutenant colonel.
After spending the winter of 1777–1778 at Valley Forge in Enoch Poor's brigade, Dearborn took part in the Battle of Monmouth in June. The next summer found him in Sullivan's expedition against the Iroquois setting out from Easton, Pennsylvania. On 19 June 1781, Quartermaster General Timothy Pickering requested that Washington appoint Dearborn to be his (Pickering's) assistant, and the request was granted. While serving in this capacity during the Yorktown campaign, he had the sad duty of writing home that his former commander, Colonel Scammell, had been killed.
Serving in the Continental army until 21 March 1783, he settled in Kennebec County, in the Maine district of Massachusetts, where he rose to major general of militia and, in 1790, U.S. marshal for the district. He was a Republican congressman from 1793 to 1797. Dearborn was secretary of war during Jefferson's eight years as president (1801–1809). On 27 January 1812 President Madison made him the senior major general with command of what was expected to be the critical theater, the sector between the Niagara River and the New England coast.
History has generally judged Dearborn and his successor, William Eustis, to be incompetent secretaries of war. As a field commander, Dearborn was more conspicuously incompetent, and the American defeats of 1812 and 1813 in the War of 1812 were largely due to his lack of strategic sense and vigor. Morgan Lewis succeeded him in the summer of 1813 as field commander, but further evidence of Dearborn's incompetence being revealed by subsequent American defeats, he was relieved of command on 6 July 1813. His request for a court of inquiry being unheeded because officials were busy trying to salvage the mess he had created, Dearborn was given command of New York City. He was later made president of the court-martial that tried and condemned General William Hull for his defeat at Detroit, which was ironic, since it was Dearborn's inept strategy that had enabled the British to concentrate their entire force against Hull at Detroit.
In March 1815 James Madison surprisingly nominated Dearborn for secretary of war. In the ensuing uproar Madison withdrew his name, but not before the Senate rejected him. He was honorably discharged from the army on 15 June 1815.
During Monroe's administration, Dearborn was minister to Portugal from 1822 to 1824. He returned at his own request and retired to Roxbury, where he died on 6 June 1829.
Dearborn, Henry - History
The First Marshal of Maine: Henry Dearborn
Henry Dearborn - Source: Library of Congress
Among the first generation of United States Marshals, Henry Dearborn clearly stands out as the most prominent. Born in Hampton, New Jersey, on February 23, 1751, Dearborn studied medicine until the outbreak of the Revolutionary War. As troubles with the British increased, he organized a militia company, to which he was elected captain. His company fought at the Battle of Bunker Hill on June 17, 1775.
Dearborn accompanied Benedict Arnold's ill-fated expedition to take Quebec in the fall and winter of 1775. Along the way, the small force suffered from cold and hunger. According to legend, Dearborn sacrificed his pet dog to feed his men. In the end, the expedition turned into a disaster and Dearborn was taken prisoner. The British paroled him in May 1776 and exchanged him for British prisoners the following March.
Back with the Continental Army, Dearborn took part in the campaign against Burgoyne and fought at the battles of Ticonderoga and Freeman's Farm. He was with Washington at Valley Forge and served on the commander in chief's staff during the battle of Yorktown with the rank of colonel.
After the war, Dearborn moved to Maine, which was then a part of Massachusetts. Rather than return to the practice of medicine, he remained a soldier with the Maine militia, reaching the rank of brigadier general in 1787 and major general in 1789.
In September of that year, George Washington appointed him Marshal. Dearborn was 38 at the time of his appointment. He served as Marshal for three years until his election to Congress as one of Jefferson's Democratic Republicans in 1793. While Marshal, Dearborn earned the rather dubious distinction of committing the first federal execution when he hanged the murderer Thomas Bird in June'1790.
Dearborn retained his seat in the House of Representatives until 1797. A committed Jeffersonian, Dearborn campaigned actively against John Adams in the election of 1800. Jefferson appointed him Secretary of War in 1801. While in this post, Dearborn ordered the construction of a fort on the western shores of Lake Michigan. From that fort grew the city of Chicago. At the conclusion of Jefferson's two terms as president, Dearborn accepted appointment as collector of the port of Boston.
After the declaration of war against Great Britain in 1812, President James Madison turned to Dearborn-the only Republican with extensive military experience- to take command of the American armies in the northeast, where most of the fighting during the war took place. Unfortunately, Dearborn, who had little experience commanding large numbers of troops in the field, performed poorly. His invasion of Canada, like the expedition he accompanied during the Revolution, ended in defeat. In addition, he failed to deploy his command adequately, which exposed several of his regiments to attack by the British. Madison relieved Dearborn of command on July 6, 1813. But the President retained his faith in Dearborn and nominated him to the office of Secretary of War. A storm of public protest, however, forced the administration to withdraw the nomination. Dearborn retired to Massachusetts.
The Dearborn Inn, A Marriott Hotel
Believing it was important to preserve the past for future generations, Henry Ford commissioned the construction of five replica homes of famous Americans.
Today, these Dearborn Colonial Homes provide our guests with an experience reminiscent of a Bed and Breakfast, and are popular for guests celebrating a special occasion, as well as those seeking a unique hotel stay. The original plan called for eighteen homes, but the start of World War II led to a shortage for resources, and construction was halted after five.
Barbara Fritchie was born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania in 1766, but her long and patriotic life was spent in Frederick, Maryland, where she labored tirelessly for the Union army during the Civil War. She married John Casper Fritchie, a glove maker. Their home was a small cottage on West Patrick Street, and was known as a story-and-a-half, with dormer windows set in a low roof. Mrs. Fritchie was immortalized in a poem by John Greenleaf Whittier who touted her bravery in protesting Stonewall Jackson's march through Frederick.
The Fritchie house features three king guest rooms, two with an adjoining parlor and two full baths, one of which features a small screened porch.
Walt Whitman is heralded as one of the great American poets. He was born in West Hills, now known as Huntington, New York, in 1819, in the house that has been reproduced at The Dearborn Inn Colonial Village. It is a simple farmhouse of the type built in Westchester County, New York, and dates back to about 1675.
The Whitman house features three king guest rooms and one queen guest room. Two of the king rooms offer a separate parlor and one king room includes a screened porch.
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe, the great American author and poet, lived in a small cottage with his wife and mother in the simplest American form of frame building. It stood on the east side of Kingsbridge Road at what is now 192nd Street in New York City. Colonial influence is shown by its paneled doors, broad mantels and small paned windows.
The Poe house is the smallest in the Colonial Home Village featuring one king bedroom and a suite bath on the second floor, with the entire main floor consisting of a parlor, den, efficiency kitchen, and full bath.
Patrick Henry made his permanent mark on the pages of American Revolutionary history with the famous "Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death" speech. His home at Red Hill, Charlotte County, Virginia, which he purchased in 1794, was a small dwelling. And while Red Hill was destroyed by fire in 1919, the house was recreated from plans, records and pictures that have been deemed authentic.
The Henry house features eight king guest rooms, six of which offer an adjoining parlor and second bath, while one features a small screened porch.
Governor Oliver Wolcott
Oliver Wolcott graduated from the Yale school of medicine in 1745, but decided to take to his family's long tradition of public service. Wolcott was a signer of the Declaration of Independence, a General in the Revolutionary War and the Governor of Connecticut. The Oliver Wolcott house was built in 1754 on land in Litchfield, Connecticut, given to the future governor by his father. Among the famous guests who visited this fine old house were Alexander Hamilton, General Lafayette and General Washington. The house reflects the fine living of their day.
The Wolcott house features two king bedrooms and one queen/queen bedroom, all with adjoining parlors and two full baths. The home also features an additional king bedroom that includes one bath, adjoining parlor, and a large screened porch.
Colonial Home Amenities
- Dedicated parking adjacent to the entrance
- Refrigerator in each room
- Room service
- Wireless Internet access
Please note that fireplaces are not operational and there are no ice machines. However, ice may be delivered or retrieved from the concierge entrance. Rollaway beds are not permitted.
*Edgar Allen Poe House includes unique features and requires an additional premium charge. It is unavailable for online reservations. Please contact our Sales office for pricing and availability at 313-271-3899.
Greenfield Village, a living history experience
Horse-drawn carriages are a relaxing way to see Greenfield Village or to get from one end to the other
Greenfield Village is laid out like a real town. It offers homes from different eras and styles, four working farms (complete with chickens, horses, and gardens), various businesses, and administrative buildings including a courthouse and post office. All are staffed by people in period clothing. Although you can walk the 80 acres, there are also lots of old-timey modes of transportation, including horse-drawn carriages and omnibuses, vintage Model Ts, and the Weiser Railroad pulled by steam or diesel locomotives.
In addition to Henry Ford’s boyhood home, you can see Noah Webster’s 1823 house, a 17th-century stone Cotswold cottage from southwest England, brick slave quarters from the Hermitage Plantation near Savannah, Georgia, and an 18th-century farmhouse from Connecticut, among others.
The Wright brothers’ 1871 family home is here, as is their Wright Cycle Shop from Dayton, Ohio, where they conducted aviation experiments and built their Wright Flyer in 1903, the first successful heavier-than-air powered aircraft.
There’s also a reproduction of Thomas Edison’s Menlo Park Laboratory, faithfully rebuilt in 1929 using photographs, recollections of Edison’s early employees, and salvaged materials from the original New Jersey site where Edison created his incandescent bulb.
For a meal, there’s no more authentic place to dine than Eagle Tavern, built in Clinton, Michigan, as a stagecoach stop between Detroit and Chicago. Exuding the atmosphere of a mid-19th-century tavern, it offers mostly locally sourced meals inspired by 1850s recipes, such as oyster fritters or roast chicken with cranberry sauce.
The Dearborn Inn, A Marriott Hotel
Explore a unique historic hotel in the metro Detroit area built on the grounds of the Ford Motor Company in 1931 and spanning 23 landscaped acres. Our distinctive guest rooms and suites with a modern, yet Colonial décor define this perfectly-located historic hotel in the Detroit area. Be a part of the rich Dearborn history with every detail.
The House that Henry Built
In the 1920's, Henry Ford's vision to automate the production of automobiles ignited the Golden Age of Travel. By 1931, the airplane had given it wings. In Detroit, the man behind the wheel watched planes land at Ford Airport in Dearborn, Michigan, dispensing passengers far from Detroit's downtown hotels. With a business mogul's savvy, a love for colonial architecture and an admiration for traditional Southern hospitality, he commissioned famed architect, Albert Kahn, to design one of the world's first airport hotels.
The Dearborn Inn opened for business in 1931 on a 23-acre colonial setting reminiscent of a traditional American inn, but with the modern conveniences that would attract luminaries throughout the years, including Eleanor Roosevelt, Jesse Owens, Norman Rockwell and Orville Wright.
Expanding with the Times
By the time the Ford Airport closed and was replaced by the Ford vehicle test track in 1933, The Dearborn Inn was enjoying a reputation as one of the nation's premier lodging and dining establishments by visitors and locals, alike. But that did not stop Henry Ford from expanding on his vision. In 1933, a Dormitory Building was added to house the hotel's employees, many of whom were Irish immigrants. In 1937, the Inn was expanded to include five replica homes in a Colonial Village setting, recreating with painstaking detail the historic homes of famous Americans: Edgar Allan Poe, Oliver Wolcott, Barbara Fritchie, Walt Whitman and Patrick Henry. In 1960, the completion of two additional motor houses, geared toward the growing automobile travel market, added another 54 rooms to Dearborn Inn.
The Marriott Connection
After an extensive renovation in the late 1980s that included enlarging the Inn's banquet facilities, increasing and completely refurbishing all of the guest rooms and extensively relandscaping the grounds, The Dearborn Inn reopened in 1989 as a Marriott hotel. Since then, additional renovations and upgrades have positioned the hotel to accommodate the needs of current and future travelers, while maintaining its sense of history and tradition.
Major General Henry Dearborn
Henry Dearborn was born in Hampton, New Hampshire, on 23 February 1751. He studied medicine under Dr. Hall Jackson in Portsmouth and then married Mary Bartlett in 1771.
Dearborn joined the military early in the Revolution and saw action at Bunker Hill. He served under Benedict Arnold in Quebec, was captured and then paroled in 1776. As a major, he fought at Ticonderoga and Freeman’s Farm with the 1st New Hampshire Regiment. He spent the winter of 1777-1778 at Valley Forge, and later fought at Monmouth, against the Six Nations, and at Yorktown.
In the succeeding years, he returned to Maine, became a major general of militia there, was appointed U.S. marshal for the district of Maine, served in the U.S. House of Representatives, served as Secretary of War and helped plan the removal of the Indians to the west of the Mississippi River.
From 27 January 1812 to 15 June 1815, Dearborn was the senior officer in the Army. He fought unspectacularly against the British in the northeast theater in the War of 1812. He then went to command New York, and soon left active service. In later life, he was the ambassador to Portugal from 1822 to 1824. He died at Roxbury, Massachusetts, on 6 June 1829.
About The Army Historical Foundation
The Army Historical Foundation is the designated official fundraising organization for the National Museum of the United States Army. We were established in 1983 as a member-based, charitable 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. We seek to educate future Americans to fully appreciate the sacrifices that generations of American Soldiers have made to safeguard the freedoms of this Nation. Our funding helps to acquire and conserve Army historical art and artifacts, support Army history educational programs, research, and publication of historical materials on the American Soldier, and provide support and counsel to private and governmental organizations committed to the same goals.
Learn about Henry Ford and the Henry Ford Museum
NARRATOR: Automobile tycoon Henry Ford was in the business of making history. With the success of the Model T and the assembly line, Ford's signature had turned trademark. He was mobilizing the 20th century, and he knew it.
CHRISTIAN OVERLAND: America's a place of making things. We are known throughout the world as a country that creates innovation.
NARRATOR: The Henry Ford, in Dearborn, Michigan, began as one man's vision to document the genius of ordinary people.
HENRY PREBYS: Ford was very interested in how the average person solved day-to-day-living problems, so he collected things that reflected those issues.
JEANINE HEAD MILLER: Things that were very humble objects that people had used in everyday life—and if he hadn't collected them, they might not still exist.
EDSEL B. FORD II: What I understand of my great-grandfather was this was his personal collection. This was meant to be reflective of what he saw in America at the time.
NARRATOR: By the time he opened his museum in 1929, Henry Ford had amassed tens of thousands of seemingly ordinary objects.
BOB CASEY: All of these things that speak to the broad sweep of American history, the sweep of American society—from ordinary folks to rich folks, ordinary work to Thomas Edison's work—we've got it all.
NARRATOR: Rows of cast-iron stoves, an endless parade of planes, trains, and automobiles, Edgar Allan Poe's desk, the Rosa Parks bus, a silver teapot crafted by Paul Revere, tractors, cotton pickers, and a combine—all are displayed on the planks of the world's largest teakwood floor.
LEO LANDIS: We have this fantastic collection of just different things to—to stimulate different types of people and be inspired in different ways to live your dream.
NARRATOR: Here at the Henry Ford everyday life is elevated to a glorious saga of ingenuity and invention that could only have been made in America.
EDSEL B. FORD II: Where do you go in the world to see a DC-3 hung from the ceiling or a locomotive that's 80 years old that you can actually go and touch and feel and smell—all together in one museum—where you can see a Dymaxion house or see the original Wienermobile or see wonderful automobiles? It's got such a wonderful tactile dimension to it.
LEO LANDIS: It's about never stopping. It's about never giving up. It's about having a dream and trying to realize that dream.
Dearborn, Henry - History
History of Lawrenceburg Township, Dearborn County, Indiana
From: History of Dearborn County, Indiana
Her People, Industries and Institutions
Archibald Shaw, Editor
Published By: B. F. Bowen & Co., Inc.
Indianapolis, Indiana 1915
Lawrenceburg township was one of the first settled townships in the county. No sooner had General Wayne, by his treaty at Greenville, Ohio, established peace and security to the lives of the pioneers, than the settlers came in to the county. Desirable lands were selected and cleared with an eye to entering, when the new lands had once been surveyed and prepared for sale. It was five long years to wait before the land was ready for sale by the national government. Many of the incomers grew tired of waiting and traveled on in search of greener pastures others never became able financially to purchase the lands they had chosen, when they were open for entry.
The earliest entries were made by Joseph Hayes, Jr., Henry Hardin, George Crist and Samuel C. Vance in 1801 Barnet Hulick in 1802 Zebulon Pike in 1804 Jacob Froman, Isaac L. Masters and John Brown in 1806 Samuel Bond in 1808 Samuel Bond and Thomas Townsend in 1809 David Dutton in 1810 Cabel Pugh, Dell Elder and Robert Piatt in 1811 William Caldwell and Adam Pate in 1812 Samuel Evans in 1813 John Ferris, George Weaver, John Dumos and Stephen Ludlow in 1814. Timothy Guard, Amos Way, Isaac Lamasters, Jacob Brashear, Leonard Chase, David Rees, Enoch Pugh, Daniel Perine, in 1815 Zebulon Pike in 1816 Jesse Laird in 1817 Thomas Branin, Mary Muir and John Davis in 1831. This last tract entered, in 1831, is near the state line and on Double Lick run, adjacent to the first ground entered in the state by Joseph Hayes.
The land in Lawrenceburg was nearly all entered from the government before the War of 1812, and by the end of the war there were only two or three unentered pieces.
Samuel Morrison, a prolific writer of the early history of Dearborn county. says of the early pioneer history of Lawrenceburg township, "in the spring of 1791 Capt. Joseph Hayes, an officer of the Revolutionary War, and family his two married sons, Job and Joseph Hayes, Jr., their wives and children his two sons in law, Thomas Miller, Sr., wife and five children, James Bennett, and wife Benjamin Walker, wife and three children Samuel, John and Joseph and their sister, Jane Walker Isaac Polk, Garrett VanNess. and Joseph Kitchell, landed at North Bend, on the Ohio river. During the previous spring Alexander Guard and his wife, Hannah, and their four children, had landed at the same point. The names of the children of this couple were Timothy, David, Ezra and Bailey. In 1793 Captain Hayes and Thomas Miller, Sr., took a lease of Judge John Cleves Simmer, for a tract of land at the mouth of the Great Miami river, and removed there early that spring, and to this point nearly the entire colony removed. Here Captain Hayes and family and the families of his children remained and cultivated the soil as best they could until after the ratification of the treaty of Greenville. Early in the spring in 1796 Hayes and family and the families of Joseph Hayes, Jr., and Thomas Miller, Sr., removed west of the Miami river and settled in this county (then Knox county, Northwestern Territory). Thomas Miller and Joseph Hayes, Jr., purchased the first tract of land purchased of the United States in the now state of Indiana. Their purchase was fractional section 1, township 5, range I west, and section 36, township 6, range 1 west, containing in all about 1,000 acres. It was entered in April, 1801, and was paid out fully in 1810. The amount in principal and interest was $2,635.03 in silver. This tract of land, with the addition of many more acres, is still owned by the descendants of these two men. The sections referred to are located a little northeast of Hardinsburg, and are next to the state line. Section I also bordered on the Miami river as it run at that time."
Mr. Morrison is authority for saying that Alexander Guard and family moved west of the Miami river and settled in the beautiful bottoms west of Elizabethtown, Ohio, and from thence into Dearborn county. In 1793 the family had moved down to Hayes station on the mouth of the Miami. "Among others living at the station referred to who moved into the country in 1796 and settled in the township were William Gerard and wife and two sons, Eli and Elias, and daughter, Mrs. George Crist, with her husband, and three step children, Rees, Rachel and William Crist. These settled about one mile above Hardinsburg. The same year Henry Hardin and family, consisting of William, Mary, James, Catherine, John and Philip, settled on the site where fourteen years later the village of Hardinsburg was laid out. Other families came during the same year, among which were those of William Allensworth and Isaac Allen, who settled on the land just north of Greendale cemetery. In 1810 Henry Fowler and family came west from Virginia and settled on Wilson creek. George Weaver settled on ground just west of Tanners creek, in the bottoms, where he lived for a number of years."
George W. Lane in his centennial notes says that "Samuel Weaver, a son of George, was one of the most chivalrous, high toned and daring young men that graced the forest homes of the period, the captain at the huskings, the first to lead off at the country dance, the acknowledged leader in all deeds of danger, generous to a fault, liberal without measure, and an acceptable visitor in any society." His uncle, Capt. James Weaver, was one of the most truly worthy men that graced the frontier settlements. He rendered valuable services in, defending the homes of the pioneers from the Indians, and was always regarded as the bravest of the brave. Capt. James Weaver was often called on to lead his company in driving back the savage foe that threatened to destroy all the pale faces on this side of the Ohio river. Less worthy heroes have had books written in their praise while many of those who defended this country and preserved its pioneers from the tomahawk and the scalping knife rest alone in the memory of their old associates, or their immediate descendants, to do them justice and preserve their names from the tomb of forgetfulness. Captain Weaver was an enterprising business man, and was among the first to engage in running boats down the river loaded with the surplus produce of the county, which he continued for a number of years. Many will remember him for his promptness and fair dealing his word was as good as his bond he prized his honor as his life and would as soon have parted with the one as the other.
Davis Weaver was another of the family that was prominent about the time of the War of 1812, and for a short time after. He is spoken of in the writings of the early period as a genial, pleasant gentleman, fond of good company and enjoyed a good story or an inoffensive joke. He could not do too much for a friend and as a business man was straightforward and law abiding citizen.
"In 1801 Eli Hill settled near Lawrenceburg. He was the father of Capt. Abram Hill and was a well known man of his time.
"Capt. John Crandall and George Rabb settled on Pleasant Ridge (now Greendale). Captain Crandall had served during the Revolutionary War in the United States navy. He was an intelligent gentleman. Father Rabb was one of the best men we ever knew. 'As honest as Mr. Rabb,' was a byword in his day. His son, D. G. Rabb, moved to Ohio county soon after the death of his father, where he lived during the rest of his life. In early times a camp meeting was held in a grove near Father Rabb's. It was on the way to attend one of these meetings that the writer saw the first carriage, now so common on our roads and streets. A family of Lawrenceburg was on the road near where the residence of Joseph Groff, deceased, now stands, riding in a cart with a yoke of good oxen at the tongue. While thus traveling along at a gait that was fair for those times and such a team, Captain Vance came up in his fine carriage and span of spanking bays. with a shaded driver on the front seat, and would have passed us in a whiff. But not so fast this is a game that two can play at, and those who remember Amos Lane will readily believe that he would not relish being passed on a dusty road, no more than to submit to a defeat in court or at the forum in a fair debate, without an effort. So down came the whip, off started the oxen, first at a trot, then at a run, until from the noise of the heavy wheels over the rough road, the rattle of the chairs in the cart, the laughing and cheers of the boys, the two well groomed horses took fright, and none too soon the driver sheered off to one side and let the ox team pass to prevent a runaway scene."
David Devitt, the grandfather of Stewart and John Devitt, came to the township shortly after the War of 1812. Mr. Devitt was a man of immense frame, strong and muscular. His son Frank was one of the men that crossed the plains to California in 1849 and spent many years in that far famed Eldorado, in the decade between 1850 and 1860. Like his father, he was a man of gigantic frame and hardly knew his own strength.
Jesse Laird settled on Wilson creek in 1817 where he lived for his natural life, leaving a large family. One grandson still resides on part of the same land his grandfather entered from the government in 1817. Howard Laird, the grandson, lives in the same house in which his father, Martin Laird, resided. It is claimed that just across Wilson creek on the hillside a few yards from the creek the last bear was killed in Lawrenceburg township, in the year 1817.
The village of Hardinsburg was laid out on the land that Henry Hardin entered from the government in 1801. It was surveyed by Moses Scott. The village was laid out on May 19, 1815, and acknowledged by Mr. Hardin the next day. It was named after the owner of the land, Henry Hardin. An addition of thirty lots was added by David Findlay, in 1817, the surveying being done by Benjamin Chambers, who had taken part in the survey of the lands of the government secured by the Wayne treaty, and had also been the surveyor for Captain Vance when he laid out Lawrenceburg fifteen years before. David Findlay and a man by the name of Delaplaine were some of the early merchants. The Miami river, at the time the town was laid out, made a horseshoe bend and the town was on its bank with a good landing and a good grade to load and unload produce. For twenty years or more after the town was platted it flourished and grew. Many flatboats were loaded here during the fall and winter seasons. For a time nearly as much business was done here as in Lawrenceburg and it began to feel that it wads a rival for the trade of the back country.
Col. Abram Ferris came to the township from Cincinnati in 1831. He was a brother of Dr. Ezra Ferris and had been a prominent business man in that city. Concluding to retire to a farm, after years of successful business life, he purchased a section of land on the Manchester pike and erected the largest and finest residence in the county. He also purchased two sections just over the Ripley county line and close to the state road. He farmed on a large scale and was quite as successful a farmer as he had been a business man. His son, Benjamin F. Ferris, lived on the Ripley county farms for most of his later life and was one of the best men of this section of the state. - being known far and wide as one of the best informed men of his generation.
Herewith is' an interview, published in the Versailles Republican, from Mrs. F. B. Freeland, a daughter of Rev. Benjamin Franklin Ferris and a granddaughter of Col. Abram Ferris. The interview is published in the Republican under date of July 21, 1915, and for accurate description of farm life and work of a half century ago it can hardly be excelled:
"Grandfather Ferris, Col. Abram Ferris as he was known, purchased from the government, during Jackson's administration, three tracts of land containing six hundred and. forty. acres each. One on the Lawrenceburg hill on the Manchester pike, one near Dapoleon, the other two miles south of Sunman. Father, B. F. Ferris, controlled the latter, and it was in the family until quite recently. Three hundred acres of the land was kept in meadow for years. During harvest thirty men were employed for six weeks to attend to the crop, all cut with scythes and raked with wooden hand rakes. At that time all the farmers kept whisky for their men, and the consequence was that some days they were nearly all drunk. Grandfather vetoed it. He called the men together and informed them that there would be no more whisky. All that could not work without it could stop. They all stopped, some swore, others pouted and declared they would not work. But they all changed their minds and finally became resigned. The trouble ended then and there.
"The hay was pressed with an old wooden screw press with two sweeps. Its music, which was not the most melodious, could be heard for miles. The first reaper and mower, the McCormick, was introduced by Eber Jones, of Greensburg. Then a wooden rake was purchased. Father built a large two story barn, which required one hundred men two days to raise. In the second story a threshing floor was made, surrounding a modern hay press, called a pounder press. The bales of hay were encircled by split wooden hoops soaked in vats and were nailed together. After wheat raising was introduced on the farm, the threshing was done on the floor spoken of. The sheaves of grain were spread on the floor and eight or ten horses were used for tramping it. It was occasionally turned and the tramping continued until the grain was all separated from the straw, then removed, and another supply placed there. It was then run through a fanning mill turned by hand and no small amount of work required.
"The first top buggy was purchased by James Stevenson, price $273. Not long afterward, William Ehler also purchased one at the same price. His wife took a great pride in it and kept it covered with quilts to exclude dirt. Not long after, Morgan and his raiders made their appearance. She kept an eye on the buggy, but when they spied it they began rolling it out of the shed. She cried out, 'Don't take that buggy, I am a Democrat.' But Morgan and his men were no respector of persons, so out came the rig, took the wings of the morning and away it flew towards the east. Henceforth, Mrs. Ehler took her joy rides in a spring wagon. The first fruit canning was done by Mrs. Thomas Slack, our neirest neighbor. She used some kind of an old tin can and began on blackberries. We were favored with a sample and found it a very dark purple and soft as mush, no sugar. The only fruit used was dried, even to elderberries. Wild grapes were gathered, placed in stone jars and covered with molasses, for pies in the winter. There were no evaporators. Pumpkins were cut in strips and apples strung like beads and altogether hung up over the fireplace and the ceilings. Sorghum was raised in small quantities as a curiosity, no mills to grind it. Mrs. Slack then experimented with it. She peeled the stalks of cane, cut it in pieces, boiled it in an iron kettle and strained, then boiled again. We also were favored with a sample of it, it resembled tar, but father said it would be a success some day. In a short time mills were introduced and kettles used for boiling the syrup. Then next evaporators were introduced. Mr. Neuforth, father of the doctor, was among the first, and Jacob Mendel also purchased one. The best quality of molasses was made at that time, it was as clear as honey. I have not seen any to compare with it for years.
"There has been a great change in social affairs and church work. The Methodist socieiy consisted of very few members and held their services in an old church at Clinton. The members were B. F. Ferris and wife, Martin Manley and wife, Curtis Abel and wife, Dr. J. B. Hoel and sister, Miss Bertha Critchfield, and John Bishop, Sr. We children were compelled to go to church and after the service compelled to remain for class meeting, which was a terror to us all, when the leader came to us, as was his custom and asked us to speak as he termed it, our hearts were in our mouths and the breath almost left our bodies. Then he would say 'God have mercy on you for you have no religion or you would be willing to say something.' Martha Manley, a little daughter of Brother Manley and wife, jumped up and repeated a poem that was going the rounds then 'Little robin red breast sat on a pole,' etc., and completed it before she could be stopped. She sat down felling she had done her duty as a Christian. The society was afterwards removed to the Ferris school house, by the instigation of Rev. S. B. Falkenberg and my mother.
"The Mr. Neuforth spoken of came here from Germany in 1825, and also purchased land from the government under Jackson. The Whitehead family came here when it was solid woods, built a small cabin and had only a quilt for a door and were surrounded by Indians. He kept whisky to treat them with to keep them peaceable and when he would go to Lawrenceburg to purchase corn meal his wife would be alone with two small children. The Indians would raise the quilt at night and ask for whisky. She would deal it out to them and they would depart.
"I must mention an amusing incident connected with Gen. Thomas L. Hayman, who afterwards died at Vicksburg during the siege. While S. R. Adams was president of Moores Hill College, we three sisters were studying there. Our home was a resort for the students, especially during vacation. Tom Hayman, as he was called, came out one Saturday evening dressed in a fine, black broadcloth suit, looking as though he had just come from a band box. Father and mother were gone and when the cat is away the mice will play. We had several cows to milk and Tom insisted on helping us. We warned him not to do it, but milk he would. He selected his cow and we told him it was treacherous. After looking her in the eyes he remarked 'I can always tell a cow's character by her countenance she is safe.' He sat down and when the bucket was filled with milk she raised her hind foot and with one stroke inverted him and the bucket also. He was covered with the fluid from head to foot. His first remark was, 'Don't let the students at Moores Hill find this out. It was henceforth called 'the dead secret. He married my sister Louisa during the Civil War while home on furlough. As all connected with the incident are gone from whence no traveler returneth, I feel there is no harm done in telling the story after so long a period.
"We had one physician at Clinton. He had an extensive practice and seemed to be successful. It made no difference what the disease was, calomel was the main remedy, whether colic or smallpox. Mother kept her bottle of calomel and another of castor oil and rhubarb. If one of the family complained, down came the calomel. We were compelled to take it before Doctor H ____ arrived, for he would administer it anyway, and that would save time. After the calomel then we could choose between the oil and the rhubarb, but we were given to understand that it was certain death if we did not submit to one or the other, for the calomel would kill us alone. I vowed then that if ever I was my own boss I would never swallow a dose of either, and I stick to it yet. When capsules were first introduced, Henry Osting was ill and a physician was called. The quinine was placed in capsules. His wife took particular pains to take the medicine from them without breaking them, returned them saying, 'Here are your little bottles, doctor.'
"In those days of old the women of the community would exchange visits, spend the day, bringing knitting or sewing and never failed to bring from four to six children, as the case might be. Did not wait for a special invitation and drop in a few minutes before meal time as now. They would come early in the morning and remain until dark. Father had a large number of sweet cherry trees, yellow Spanish and Black Tartarian, very fine. The people would come in numbers, as did the jay birds and red headed woodpeckers, to help eat the cherries - come by the wagon load. One day, especially, I remember when we girls were alone, early in the morning the Farrar boys, cousins, of Lawrenceburg, accompanied by a friend, John Hibbetts, came out hunting. They brought in a few squirrels for us to prepare for dinner. My older sister made a pot pie of them, then people began to come in, and as a new wagon load approached they would add more crust to the pie. When dinner was announced, there were thirty guests.
"Our school houses were of logs with long benches without backs, no classes except reading and spelling. Young men six feet in height came. They ciphered from morning until night, and aimed to beat each other through the arithmetic. If they were puzzled the teacher would solve it, if he could, without explanation. Anyone could get a teacher's license who could read and write and whip. From the year 1855 to 1860 father held the office of township trustee. There were no banks, and as he drew the money for the teachers' pay in the fall, he gave it to mother for safe keeping. At one time he had $3,000. Mother wrapped it in paper (it was paper money) and placed it in a straw tick on her spare bed, as was the custom. In the spring, as the school was drawing to a close, he asked for the money. She had forgotten about it and where she had put it. Then she remembered she had emptied the straw in the hog yard, which contained about thirty or forty hogs, six weeks before. They never expected to see it again, but after a careful search it was found in perfect order. The hogs did not seem to relish as costly food as some people do now."
MANY CHANGES WITH THE YEARS.
Col. Abram Ferris has been gathered to his fathers. His son, Rev. B. F. Ferris, has followed, the fine colonial mansion caught fire and was burned to the ground. The family, like most of families in this country of ours, is scattered the land about the old mansion is now owned by Deidrich Ellinghausen, who has erected modern buildings, capacious barns and the place is once more taking on its former attractiveness.
On the Manchester pike the township has undergone many changes. The old time landowners have departed, never to return. Their descendants have sold out and sought other fields, until scarcely any of them are left to connect the present with the past of seventy five or even fifty years ago. On the west side of Tanners creek, about on the site where Henry A. Bobrink now has his dairy barns, Robert and Thomas Mason had, before the war, a large hay warehouse, from which many flatboats were loaded for the New Orleans market. Another brother, Charles Mason, moved to New Orleans, where he was an extensive dealer in northern produce under the firm name of Mason & Pleasants. The old three mile house has recently been torn away. The families of Daniels, Roland, Frazier, and Jelley have become extinct in the township. At one time Col. J. H. Lane resided near where the residence of William Mason is now located. The father of Philip, Samuel and Col. Benjamin Spooner at one time lived in about the same locality. Philip Spooner, father of ex United States Senator John C. Spooner, of Wisconsin, owned and lived for several years on the place now owned by George H. Wood. Stewart and John Devitt are the only representatives of the Nevitt family in the township. The extensive land holdings formerly belonging to David Nevitt are now divided up among a number of landowners, and all of them are prosperous and thrifty.
North and west from the city of Lawrenceburg, and adjoining on to it by the corporation line between it and Mill street, the town of Greendale lies along an extended gravel ridge, supposed to have been thrown up during the glacial period. It overlooks the broad valley of the Great Miami and gives a fine view of the surrounding hills, the Kentucky hills just across the Ohio, Fort Hill and the range of beautifully rounded elevations on the farther side of the Miami, reaching to the bold promontory that juts out overlooking the confluence of the Miami and the Whitewater. To the north the low range of hills reaches from the state line to Cemetery hill, just north of the beautiful Greendale cemetery. To the west overlooking the town standing some three or four hundred "feet above it, is the long range of hills that are led up to by the old state road, that has had such history to recount of the early pioneer days when it was a thoroughfare and along which the men and women who peopled the country to the west took their way.
This finely situated town was laid out in the year 1852 by Stephen Ludlow, but not recorded until 1883. Subdivisions have been added at different times by James H. Lane, William Tate and the Greendale Land Company. The population of the town is growing. The census of 1910 showed 697.
It has a good public school building, is furnished with electric lighting and waterworks, by contract and franchise, by A. D. Cook, manufacturer of well supplies. The main street has recently been laid with concrete and good concrete pavements have been laid that make it not only a very desirable residence town, but it is unexcelled as a manufacturing place. The Cook Well Company, W. P. Squibb Distilling Company, the H. P. Diehl Company, fireworks manufacturers, the Greendale Distilling Company, and James Walsh & Company, distillers, are the manufacturers. It is claimed for the town that it is, in proportion to the population, the wealthiest corporation in the country.
PATRONS' MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY.
Harry L. Nowlin has his office in Greendale, as secretary of the Patrons' Mutual Fire Insurance Company, a history of which is here appended.
On March 14, 1877, the General Assembly of Indiana passed an act authorizing farmers to organize mutual insurance companies for the purpose of protecting the property of its members from loss or damage by fire or lightning, and limiting the territory over which any company could operate to three contiguous counties.
The farmers of Dearborn county were not slow in taking advantage of the law and in September, 1877, met in Aurora and organized the Patrons' Mutual Fire Insurance Company of Dearborn County, adopting articles of association and bylaws for their government, covering the counties of Dearborn, Ohio and Ripley, which were signed by the following persons: William H. Greene, William B. Miller, Joseph Bossong, Elijah Huffman, Ralph Collier, Samuel B. Sanks, William Foster, George A. Golding, E. T. Hubbert, A. S. Peck, William S. Tyer, David C. Wright, Henry Garrison, Adam Kerr, T. C. Hall, C. L. Olcott, R. B. King, Charles Ewan and J. D. Prichard.
The first officers were elected at a meeting held in Aurora on October 20, 1877, and were as follow: Directors, William B. Miller, A. D. Hopping, J. B. Chase, T. W. Hansel, Elijah Huffman, William Heustis, O. H. Smith, Joseph Bossong, J. R. McConnell, Tyler T. Annis, William S. Tyer and John Randall. These directors selected the following officers: President, William B. Miller vice president, George V. Churchill secretary, Elijah Huffman treasurer, William S. Tyer.
Immediately the directors, acting as agents, began soliciting insurance and March 2, 1878, had $48,870 in applications, and policies were ordered issued to the applicants. From that date the Patrons' Mutual Fire Insurance Company of Dearborn County has continued to do business with rather varied experience. Sometimes losses were heavy and assessments high, and some felt discouraged but the company grew gradually until the last few years when the growth has been rather rapid, till now it is one of the best and is fast becoming one of the largest in the state, as the following figures show:
January 1, 1888, there was $105,297.83 insurance in force January 1, 1898, $212,788.99 January I, 1908, $619,811.25 September 1, 1915, $3,161,022. The gain in the past two years has been almost $1,000,000. The average cost of insurance, covering all fees and assessments, has been $2.30 per year for each $1,000 of insurance carried.
The present officers are: President, W. L. Pryor, Milan vice president, H. D. Tufts, Aurora secretary treasurer, H. L. Nowlin, Lawrenceburg, and assistant secretary, Lute Helm, Moores Hill. The directors are, W. L. Pryor, Milan H. D. Tufts, Aurora H. L. Nowlin, Lawrenceburg Lute Helm. Moores Hill M. F. Holman, Osgood J. A. Horton, Versailles J. M. Pate, Cross Plains William H. Greene, Dillsboro W. C. Mulford, Cold Springs George W. Sawdon, Aurora Frank C. Dam, Lawrenceburg T. B. Cottingham, Harrison. Of these directors William H. Greene has served continuously since January, 1880, H. D. Tufts since January, 1881, and George W. Sawdon since January, 1883. Two of the original signers of the articles of association still have their insurance in the company, viz.: William H. Greene and C. L. Olcott.
Welcome to Henry Ford Academy
The District will not discriminate against any person based on sex, race, color, national origin, religion, height, weight, marital status, handicap, age or disability. The Board reaffirms its long-standing policy of compliance with all applicable federal and state laws and regulations prohibiting discrimination including, but not limited to, Titles VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. §§ 2000d. et.seq. and 42 U.S.C §§ 2000e, et seq. Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972, 20 U.S.C. §§ 1681, et seq. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C § 794 The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1210, et seq. the Persons with Disabilities Civil Rights Act, MCL §§37.1101, et seq. and the Elliott-Larsen Civil Rights Act, MCL §§ 37.12101, et seq.
Inquiries or complaints by students and/or their parent(s)/guardian(s) related to discrimination based on disability/handicap should be directed to
Assistant Principal/Mr. Michael Flannery
Henry Ford Academy
20900 Oakwood Blvd
Dearborn, MI 48124
Discrimination and Harassment (Title IX) Grievance Procedures
Henry Ford Academy is dedicated to maintaining a school and work environment free from unlawful sexual discrimination in all aspects of the educational experience, including academics, extracurricular activities, and athletics.