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Aichi Experimental Type 15-Ko Reconnaissance Seaplane (Mi-go)
The Aichi Experimental Type 15-Ko Reconnaissance Seaplane (Mi-go) was designed to replace the Type Hansa Reconnaisance Seaplane but wasn't a success and didn't enter production.
After the end of the First World War Japan received a Hansa-Brandeburg W 33 reconnaissance seaplane as part of their war reparations (effectively booty from Germany). This was a twin-float low wing monoplane with open cockpits and a very distinctive tail, with the vertical surfaces below the horizontal tail plane, the reverse of the normal arrangement. The W 33 had been designed by Dr Ernst Heinkel. In 1922 it was adopted by the Japanese Navy as their new reconnaissance seaplane, replacing the Navy Type Yokosho Ro-go Ko-gata Reconnaissance Seaplane. The Type Hansa was produced by Aichi and Nakajima, and was used in front line service until 1927-28.
The Type Hansa wasn't popular with its pilots due to its poor handling and limited visibility while on the water. In 1924 the Imperial Japanese Navy decided to order a replacement for the aircraft, and asked Aichi, Nakajima and Yokosho to produce designs.
The Aichi design was effectively a modified Type Hansa, with a new wing, new floats and a different arrangement of struts, with the floats connected to the wings rather than to the fuselage as they had been on the earlier aircraft. The aircraft had a wooden framework, with a plywood covered fuselage and fabric covered wings. It was almost the same size as the older aircraft, but was lighter (both loaded and empty). Despite this it was only 8mph faster, and had a lower service ceiling, although its rate of climb was better.
The first prototype used Dornier bench-type aileron balances, but tests showed it to be unstable in flight. Aichi attempted to solve this problem by moving the centre of gravity, altering the positions of the seats and making a number of other changes. Despite all of their efforts Aichi were unable to improve the aircraft, and the Nakajima design was accepted for production as the Nakajima Type 15 Reconnaissance Seaplane.
Engine: Mitsubishi Type Hi (Hispano) vee water-cooled engine
Span: 44ft 9in
Length: 31ft 1.5in
Height: 10ft 9in
Empty weight: 2,645.5lb
Loaded weight: 3,748lb
Max speed: 112mph
Climb Rate: 18min 10sec to 9,843ft
Service ceiling: 15,748ft
Armament: One dorsal mounted 7.7mm machine-gun
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Romanian-designed two-seat, single-engine biplane configured as a single-float seaplane. Lost on its first flight. Wikipedia
Piggy-back long-range seaplane/flying boat combination produced by Short Brothers to provide a reliable long-range air transport service to North America and, potentially, to other distant places in the British Empire and the Commonwealth. Short Brothers had built the Empire flying boats which were capable of operating long range routes across the British Empire but could only attempt the trans-Atlantic route by replacing passenger and mail-carrying space with extra fuel. Wikipedia
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Three of the early aircraft were modified in 1919 for making long-range flights, with one of the cockpits replaced by additional fuel storage. This allowed a record flight of 1,300 km (808 mi) to be flown in 11 hours, 35 min on 20 April 1919.  The Ro-go Ko-gata, along with licensed built Hansa-Brandenburg W.29s, replaced the obsolete pusher Farmans in Japanese Navy service, remaining in large scale service until 1926, being re-designated Yokosho-Type Reconnaissance Seaplane in 1923. [b] Several were sold for civilian use, and were used to carry airmail until 1928.  
The IJN reconnaissance sea plane
Hi! The IJN type experimental sea plane in 1913(Taisho 2).
The IJN launched the navy aerial navigation study Group in 1912 (Taisho first year).
The office of study group was located Taura Yokosuka.
Moreover, the airfield of the seaplane was built on the nearby Oppama seashore.
And an American Curtis seaplane and a French Morris Farman seaplane were purchased.
Second Lieutenant Chikuhei Nakajima belonged to this navy aerial navigation study Group, and he was engaged in action research in May, 1913.
Furthermore, he was appointed as Factory Manager of airplane manufacturing and repair factory of the navy Yokosuka arsenal(Yokosho) weapon manufacturing department, and a management supervisor.
He took an official trip to France for the production supervisor of the Morris Farman seaplane, and keenly realized the importance of the airplane through the First World War, and it greatly advocated the objection to the large warship huge gun principle of those days.
Design manufacture of the "IJN type experimental seaplane" was carried out in the navy Yokosuka arsenal in 1913 making a Chikuhei Nakajima engineer lieutenant into a specialist person. It was the first seaplane made in Japan.
The engine was the Curtis O type V8, 75 HP.
Don't laugh, don't cry, don't even curse, but.
Yokosho type Ho go otsu seaplane.
It is the domestic seaplane by which design manufacture was carried out in the Yokosuka naval arsenal.
Moreover, it is also the first domestic machine that enabled it to attach a bomb under the body.
It is a body of the dawn, and although speed is slow, cruising capacity also has 11 hours and a half.
Unlike continental Europe, the design concept of sea power Japan would have a cruising capacity intention from the beginning.
The design was the Nakajima airplane founder's Chikuhei Nakajima navy captain.
Don't laugh, don't cry, don't even curse, but.
blackkite, I'm afraid Jemiba can only regroup posts in one topic but he cannot "rearrange" anything. The chronology will be the one of your original posts, and the attachments will be in the posts where you originally added them. Hence the importance of avoiding those "all and sundry" topics such as "Japanese projects before 1945" which become a nightmare when you want to make some sense of them!
As for the question of how to reorganize posts. Some people will prefer to regroup aircraft with the same mission (as you suggest). Some will prefer to have all aircraft by a particular manufacturer together in the same thread. Others still will want all floatplanes together, all flying boats together, etc. regardless of their mission. I think the question deserves to be asked before Jemiba gets round to the hard work.
Don't laugh, don't cry, don't even curse, but.
Hmmm. Very difficult discussion for me. :-[ Anyway I keep posting.
Hi! Yokosho Tatsu go.(辰号, the dragon go)
All-metal version of Yokosho "Tatsu-go. Longitudinal ribs are visible on the sides of the fuselage and new front floats.
Floatplane "Tatsu-go, despite the progressive design is somewhat larger competitor from Aichi and more than 200 kg heavier-impact the lack of experience of Japanese engineers. Power 300 hp engine was apparently not enough, the aircraft was very rare especially in parts of the climb. As a result of the fleet withdrew from it and all was built only one prototype. But the leaders left the project in the middle of the Scout company Nakajima Type 15, came into service under the designation E2N.
Don't laugh, don't cry, don't even curse, but.
Hi Aichi Mi go.（巳号, the Serpent go）
A very similar car, "Tatsu-Guo" ("Tatsu-go") built on the arsenal of Jokošo in 1925, under the leadership of designer Narihisa Yokota. Unlike the cel′noderevânnogo project "Mi-go", the Jokošo "Tatsu-go was all-metal, thus becoming one of the first all-metal aircraft in Japan.
Conceptually and visually Hydroplane "Tatsu-go as well as competitor from Aichi, very closely resembled the German Hansa-Brandenburg W 33, but structurally, the difference was even more significant than the MI-go. A pair of floats fitted to the fuselage only two racks. Many Struts, characteristic from the German prototype, disappeared. The fuselage was of rectangular cross section of the outer two ribs on both side surfaces. As well as the first prototype of the MI-go on èleronah been applied external weighting u-shaped compensators Dornier designs. The "Tatsu-go" has also been applied inline 8-cylinder engine Mitsubishi Hi "type (French Hispano-Suiza 8F) rated at 300 HP.
ACCESS: Above Top Secret
Don't laugh, don't cry, don't even curse, but.
Hi! Yokosho type 1 go recannaissance seaplane for submarine borne.
Japan's first aircraft for submarine was built in 1925 by the Yokosuka Kaigun, Ko-sho (the abbreviated name is Yokosho), located in the city of Yokosuka. The aircraft was similar to the German seaplane Caspar U1.
The German designer of the prototype and the owner of the firm Henseatischen Flug-zeugwerke was Karl Kaspar. In 1923, his plane Caspar U1 was taken to Japan and shipped to the Yokosho. Later, this company was designed and built by the equivalent German machine, equipped with a more powerful engine. The Japanese designs were widely used aluminium alloys.
The plane did not have braces and Struts. The upper wing was fixed to the fuselage on four massive racks. Wingtips were rounded. Tailplane was strut also. Floats and wings from the fuselage and otstykovyvalis′ in stowed position placed in the hermetically sealed cylindrical airplane hangar located on the deck of the submarine before the cut command.
The length of the hangar stood at 7.4 m, diameter is 1.7 m cars, equipped with a more powerful engine. The Japanese designs were widely used aluminium alloys.
The plane did not have braces and Struts. The upper wing was fixed to the fuselage on four massive racks. Wingtips were rounded. Tailplane was strut also.
Floats and wings from the fuselage and otstykovyvalis′ in stowed position placed in the hermetically sealed cylindrical airplane hangar located on the deck of the submarine before the cut command. The length of the hangar stood at 7.4 m, diameter is 1.7 m.
Build a seaplane five engineers was done in four minutes. Full time training aircraft to fly since surfacing submarine was 15-16 minutes. Disassembly of the aircraft the same mechanics performed for 2 minutes.
The first prototype was built in 1927, and received the designation Yokosho 1-Go. The aircraft turned out to be the smallest Japanese military aircraft. Despite its small size, the plane was particularly strong fuselage truss made of steel pipes.
Flight characteristics of seaplane Yokosho 1-Go
Wing span, m. 7.2
Fuselage length, m. 6.205
Высота, м. 2.390
Wing area. 15.2
Empty weight, kg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
Weight, kg Starto′aâ. 520
Payload weight, kg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Wing loading, kg/m2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34.2
Maximum speed, km/hr. 154
The covering of the fuselage in the bow is the aluminium panels, tail section-obšisalas′ canvas. The upper and lower wings and tailplane had a wooden structure, covered with a cloth.
Floats are completely made of metal. The plane was installed license 5-cylinder radial French air-cooled Le Rhone capacity 80 l with mass-produced Japanese firm Gasuden. The engine was a wooden 4-blade propellers propeller with a diameter of 1.95 meters the permanent step. With this power unit aircraft developed a maximum speed of 154 km/h. The fuel tank had a capacity of 63.5 litres, the oil tank is 7.5 litres.
In 1927-1928, plane 1 Yokosho-Go was the intensive testing. Check its performance when used with the submarine I-2, which have mounted special air-tight aircraft hangar. During the tests, it turned out that while training to fly 1 Yokosho-go was as much as 40 minutes, which was totally unacceptable. For this reason, despite the generally successful tests and flying characteristics that met military aircraft design, did not receive further development.
The military has been focused on the next seaplane of similar purpose — Yokosho 2-Go.
- Mikesh, Robert C Abe, Shorzoe (1990). Japanese Aircraft 1910-1941. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books. ISBN 0-85177-840-2 .
- Taylor, Michael J. H. (1989). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. p. 501.
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- Heinkel A7He (He 112)
- Yokosuka DXHe (He 118)
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2 Hyphenated trailing letter (-J, -K, -L, -N or -S) denotes design modified for secondary role
Japanese Aircraft of WWII
The Nakajima G5N Shinzan ("Mountain Recess") was a four-engined long-range heavy bomber designed and built for the Imperial Japanese Navy prior to World War II. The Navy designation was "Experimental 13-Shi Attack Bomber" the Allied code name was "Liz".
The Nakajima G5N Shinzan originated due to the Imperial Japanese Navy's interest in developing a long-range attack bomber capable of carrying heavy loads of bombs or torpedoes a minimum distance of 3,000 nmi (5,600 km 3,500 mi). To meet this requirement, it became apparent a four-engine lay-out would be necessary. As Japanese aircraft manufacturers lacked experience in building such large complex aircraft, the Navy was forced to search for a suitable existing foreign-made model upon which to base the new design. It settled on the American Douglas DC-4E airliner. In 1939 the sole prototype of this airliner (previously rejected by American airline companies) was purchased by Nippon Koku K.K. (Japan Airlines Co) and clandestinely handed over to the Nakajima Aircraft Company for dismantling and inspection.
The design that emerged from this study was for an all-metal mid-wing monoplane with fabric-covered control surfaces and powered by four 1,870hp Nakajima NK7A Mamoru 11 air-cooled radial engines driving four-bladed propellers. Notable features included a long ventral bomb-bay, glazed nose and twin tailfins replacing the DC-4E's distinctive triple rudder. The DC-4E's retractable tricycle undercarriage was retained, as well as the original wing form and powerplant arrangement. Defensive armament comprised one 20mm Type 99 Model 1 cannon each in a power-operated dorsal and tail turret plus single-mount hand-operated 7.7mm Type 97 machine guns in the nose, ventral and beam positions.
The first prototype G5N1 made its maiden flight on 10 April 1941. Overall performance proved disappointingly poor however, due to a combination of excessive weight, the unreliablity of the Mamoru engines and the complexity of the design. Only three more prototypes were completed. In an attempt to salvage the project, two additional airframes were fitted with 1,530hp Mitsubishi MK4B 12 "Kasei" engines and redesignated G5N2s. Although the Mitsubishi engines were more reliable than the original Mamoru 11s, the aircraft was now even more hopelessly underpowered and further development of the type was halted.
Of the six completed Shinzans, four of them (two G5N2s and two G5N1s re-engined with the Kasei 12) were relegated for use as long-range Navy transports under the designation Shinzan-Kai Model 12 Transport G5N2-L. The Allies allocated the code-name "Liz" to the aircraft, in the expectation it would be used as a bomber.
* G5N1: Four-engined heavy bomber. Production version, four built.
* G5N2: Four Mitsubishi MK4B 12 "Kasei" radial engines in place of Nakajima Mamoru 11 engines. Two built.
* G5N2-L: Long-range Navy transport conversion.
* Nakajima Ki-68: Japanese Army heavy bomber. Four Mitsubishi Ha-101 or Nakajima Ha-103 engines.
* Kawanishi Ki-85: Japanese Army heavy bomber. Four Mitsubishi Ha-111M engines.
* Crew: 7-10
* Length: 31.02 m (101 ft 9 in)
* Wingspan: 42.12 m (138 ft 2 in)
* Height: 8.4 m (27 ft 6 in)
* Wing area: 201.8 m² (2,171.37 ft²)
* Empty weight: 20,100 kg (44,300 lb)
* Loaded weight: 28,150 kg (62,060 lb)
* Max takeoff weight: 32,000 kg (70,528 lb)
* Powerplant: 4× Nakajima NK7A "Mamoru-11" 14-cylinder air-cooled radial four-blade constant-speed, 1395 kW (1870 hp) each
* Maximum speed: 420 km/h (227 kn, 261 mph)
* Cruise speed: 370 km/h (200 kn, 230 mph)
* Range: 4,260 km (2,302 nmi, 2,648 mi)
* Service ceiling: 7,450 m (24,442 ft)
* 2× 20 mm Type 99 cannons
* 4× 7.7 mm (0.303 in) Type 97 machine guns
* 2,000-4,000 kg (4,408-8,816 lb) bombs
Beriev Be-12 Tchaika
Together with the Japanese Maritime Self-Defence Force, the AV-MF (Soviet Naval Aviation) is the last major service to operate fleets of combat flying-boats and amphibians. Elsewhere, the role of the patrol flying-boat was taken over by long-range landplanes in the 1950s. The first test flight was made 18 October 1960 from a land aerodrome. While taking an experimental flight over the Azov sea, hear Zhdanov, the first prototype amphibian BE-12 suffered catastrophe and sank. Three members of the crew died.
The second experimental amphibian BE-12 was built only in 1962. The test were continued. The second and third amphibians were tested by the plant test-pilots M.Muhailov, I.Kuprianov, E.Lahmostov.
The Be-12 entered service with the Soviet Navy in the early 1960s in the maritime patrol role, and is one of the few amphibian aircraft still in military service in the world. Initially its role was ASW patrol, but when newer missiles enabled the United States Navy submarines to launch from further offshore, the Be-12 was converted to a search and rescue role (Be-12PS). Small numbers are still in service.
This process may continue, as no amphibious replacement for the Beriev Be-12 Tchaika (Seagull), codenamed ‘Mail’ by NATO, has been reported, and the AV-MF has introduced specialised landplanes for the anti-submarine role, the llyushin 11-38 ‘May’ and the Tupolev Tu-142 ‘Bear-F’.
The Beriev design bureau, based at Taganrog on the Sea of Azov, has been the main supplier of marine aircraft to the Soviet Navy since 1945, most of its aircraft going to the Northern and Black Sea Fleets. The origins of the Be-12 go back to the LL-143 prototype of 1945, which led in 1949 to the Be-6 ‘Madge’. This latter twin-engined flying-boat served with success until 1967.
Following the Be-6, the Beriev team carried out a considerable amount of research into jet-powered flying-boats, producing the straight-winged Be-R-1 of 1952 and the swept-wing Be-10 of 1960-1. The latter, powered by two Lyul’ka AL-7RVs (unaugmented versions of the Su-7 powerplant), established a number of seaplane records in 1961, but only three or four are believed to have been built.
The lessons learned in the design of the Be-R-1 and Be-10, however, were incorporated in the design of a much improved flying-boat based loosely on the Be-6 and identified originally by NATO as a re-engined version of the older type. In fact, the Be-12, designated M-12 in AV-MF service, bears little more than a general resemblance to the Be-6, sharing only the gull-wing layout and twin tail of its predecessor. The greater power and lighter weight of the turboprop engines have permitted a forward extension of the hull, with a new planing bottom similar to that of the Be-10. The prominent spray suppressor around the bows of the Be-10 is also a feature of the turboprop aircraft. The most significant change, however, was the addition of massive and sturdy retractable landing gear, making the Be-12 amphibious and thus considerably more versatile than the earlier Beriev designs. The turreted gun armament of the Be-6 has been deleted, being replaced by MAD (magnetic anomaly detection) gear in the tail, above the tailwheel well, while the search radar is carried in a long nose housing instead of the ventral retractable dustbin radome of the Be-6. One of the drawbacks of the high-wing layout, the excessive height of the engines above the ground, has been mitigated by the design of engine cowling panels which drop down to form strong working platforms.
The considerable weight-lifting capability of the Be-12 was demonstrated in a series of class records for amphibians set up in 1964, 1968 and 1970, suggesting a normal weapons load as high as 5000kg (11,023lb). The Be-12 can load on the water through large side hatches in the rear fuselage, and stores can be dropped through a watertight hatch in the hull aft of the step. Unlike land-based ASW platforms, a marine aircraft can, in reasonably calm conditions, settle on the water, and search with its own sonar equipment, rather than relying exclusively on sonobuoys. This assumes that the Be-12 has this capability.
With the increasing use of the Mil Mi-14 ‘Haze’ ASW helicopter and the llyushin II-38 ‘May’, there would seem to be a diminishing ASW role for the Be-12, although the type will certainly remain in service as a high-speed search-and-rescue (SAR) vehicle. It is also believed to have been used for mapping, geophysical survey and utility transport. By Soviet standards the type was not built in large numbers, only 95 being reported in service in the late 1980s.
Twin-engined maritime reconnaissance, anti-submarine warfare flying-boat.
Answers to Quiz
(1) Kawasaki Ki-61 Hien (2) Mitsubishi A6M Zero (3) Nakajima B6N Tenzan (4) Kawanishi N1K-J Shiden (5) Nakajima Ki-44 Shōki (6) Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate (7) Mitsubishi J2M Raiden (8) Nakajima B5N (9) Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa (10) Aichi B7A Ryūsei
Photos of perhaps the least widely known aircraft in the quiz. (Above) A Nakajima B6N2 Tenzan
(Heavenly Mountain, Judy) torpedo bomber and (below) the Aichi B7A2 Ryūsei (Shooting Star,
Grace) carrier-based attack attack that was tested in the United States after the war.
(Photos: [B6N] From July 1954 issue of The World’s Aircraft, used with the
permission of Hobun Shorin, Co., Ltd. [B7A] via Wikimedia).
The Co-Prosperity Sphere
Don't try Sealion. You will just offer Britain a morale boost when your operation inevitably fails (and it will), plus lose morale, men and material yourself. And it will just make Britain and the USA angry enough to fight to the death.
Even ITTL, there is no way for the ACP to do a successful Sealion. The RAF and USAF will still be hampering any landing efforts (no matter the cost for themselves, and even if the Luftwaffe gains the upper hand it won't be a total victory, and the ACP would need a total victory ie. the RAF is not even fighting anymore to secure a landing). The Royal Navy and USN will be there too, and even the combined navies of Europe likely won't be enough (only the Italians, French and Spaniards have significant navies in the ACP) and anyway Rome, Paris and Madrid won't want to risk their entire navies on that, and good luck to coordinate four different navies speaking four languages. The Royal Army and Home Guard, then, will be there. And the ACP don't have the landing craft (and can't build enough of them fast enough), and both the Channel and the British coast are difficult. And even assuming it works initially despite all of that, the British Army will retreat to Wales, northern England and Scotland, and the RN and RAF will still use those as bases too, and the British will destroy roads, stockpiles, railroads. on the way of the invaders.
And don't try Amerika Bomber. You will just anger the US populace into war to the death, instead of getting a negotiated peace. And lose material, men, and morale (again) as inevitably the USAF will take the upper hand rather quickly.
Of course it's in character for the ACP (we are talking about the Germans who want to annex Burgundy from their ally while expanding to the Urals, the Italians who see themselves as Roman Empire 2.0, the French who want their Napoleonic glories back, etc) but it should and likely will bite them in the ass.
Abba Shaul Geisinovich (later Abba Ahimeir) was born in Dolgi, a village near Babruysk in the Russian Empire (later White Ruthenia). From 1912 to 1914, he attended the Herzliya Gymnasium high school in Tel Aviv. While with his family in Babruysk for summer vacation in 1914, the First Great War broke out and he was forced to complete his studies in Russia. In 1917, he participated in the Russian Zionist Conference in Petrograd and underwent agricultural training as part of Joseph Trumpeldor's HeHalutz movement in Batum, Caucasia to prepare him for a life as a pioneer in the Land of Israel. In 1920, he left Russia and changed his name from Gaisinovich to Ahimeir (in Hebrew: Meir’s brother) in memory of his brother Meir who had fallen in battle that year fighting against Poles during a pogrom.
Ahimeir studied philosophy at the Liége University in Belgium and at the University of Vienna, completing his PhD thesis on Oswald Spengler's “The Decline of the West” in 1924 just before immigrating to the British Mandate of Palestine. Upon his arrival in the country, Ahimeir became active in the Labor Zionist movements Ahdut HaAvoda and Hapoel Hatzair. For four years, he served as librarian for the cultural committee of the General Workers Organization in Zikhrom Ya'akov and as a teacher in Nahalal and Kibutz Geva. During these years he regularly published articles in Haaretz and Davar, where he began to criticize the political situation in the Mandate of Palestine and of Zionism, as well as of the workers’ movement to which he belonged.
In 1928, Ahimeir, along with Yehoshua Yevin and famed Hebrew poet Uri Zvi Greenberg, became disillusioned with what they viewed to be the passivity of Labor Zionism and founded the Revisionist Labor Bloc as part of Ze'ev Jaboinsky's Revisionist Zionist Movement. Ahimeir and his group were regarded by Revisionist Movement leaders as an implant from the Left whose political Maximalism and revolutionary brand of nationalism often made the Revisionist old guard uncomfortable. In 1930, Ahimeir and his friends established the underground movement Brit HaBirionim (The Union of Zionist Rebels) named for the Jewish anti-Roman underground during the first Jewish-Roman War. Brit HaBirionim was the first Jewish organization to call the British authorities in Palestine a “foreign regime” and refer to the British Mandate over Palestine as “an occupation.” The group initiated a series of protest activities against British rule, the first of these took place on October 9, 1930, and was directed against the British Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, Drummond Shiels, when he was on a visit to Tel-Aviv. This was the first sign of rebellion in Palestine’s Jewish community against the British and the first time that Ahimeir was arrested in the country.
In 1933, Brit HaBirionim turned its activities against Nazi Germany. In May of that year, Ahimeir led his followers in a campaign to remove swastikas from the flagpoles of the German consulates in Jerusalem and Jaffa. Brit HaBirionim also organized a boycott of German goods. Brit Habirionim became fierce critics of the Haavara Agreemen and of its chief negotiator, Haim Arlosoroff. When Arlosoroff was killed in on a Tel-Aviv beach in June 1933, Ahimeir and two friends were arrested and charged with inciting the murder. Ahimeir was cleared of the charge before the trial even began but remained in prison and began a hunger strike that continued for four days. He was convicted of organizing an illegal clandestine organization and remained incarcerated in the Jerusalem Central Prison until August 1935. His imprisonment put an end to Brit HaBirionim.
Upon his release, Ahimeir married Sonia née Astrachan and devoted himself to literary work and scholarship. His articles in the newspaper Hayarden led to his re-arrest at the end of 1937 and three months in the Acre Prison together with members of the Irgun Zvai Leumi and other prominent Revisionist activists. When the coup happened in Germany that put a end to Nazi rule and the new German Empire got rid of the anti-Jewish laws and politics, Ahimeir visited Berlin, Colonia, Breslau, Frankfurth and Suttgart to hold speeches. He argued that despite this changes towards Jews in Germany their true home remained a future Israel. Still he argued that National Monarchism or Fascist Royalism had now proven not to pe generally bad for Jews with this new change in Germany and that parts of this ideology could benefit the Jewish own goals and ideals.
Because Ahimeir regarding Zionism as a secular, territorial phenomenon. He was the first to speak of "revolutionary Zionism," and call for a revolt against the British administration in Palestine. His worldview generally placed the contemporary political situation into the context of Jewish history, specifically the Second Temple Period, often casting himself and his friends as anti-imperialist freedom fighters, the British administration as a modern incarnation of ancient Rome and the official Zionist leadership as Jewish collaborators. Ahimeir's views had a profound influence on the ideology of the Irgun and Lehi undergrounds who later initiated an urban guerrilla war against the British. Ahimeir described himself as a fascist during the late 1920s and early 1930s, and wrote a series of eight articles in the Hebrew Doar HaYom newspaper in 1928 entitled "From the Notebook of a Fascist," few of his contemporaries took these leanings seriously. Ze’ev Jabotinsky, who consistently maintained that there was no room for Fascism within his Revisionist movement, dismissed Ahimeir’s rhetoric and argued that he and his Maximalist followers were merely playacting to make a point and were not serious in their professed Fascist beliefs.
In the October 7, 1932, edition of "Hazit Ha'am", Jabotinsky wrote:
Such men, even in the Maximalist and activist factions, number no more than two or three, and even with those two or three – pardon my frankness – it is mere phraseology, not a worldview. Even Mr. Ahimeir gives me the impression of a man who will show flexibility for the sake of educational goals… to this end he has borrowed some currently fashionable (and quite unnecessary) phrases, in which this daring idea clothes itself in several foreign cities."
Ahimeir’s fascist royalist/ national monarchist sympathies however, were only encouraged, as the Axis Central Powers began the Second Great War with the Allies (France and Great Britain) as their main enemies.
When Wilhelm, the King of White Ruthenia, the younger brother of German Emperor Wilhelm III even invited Jews into his newly formed nation and kingdom, Ahimeir started to speak there too, in hopes to gain further support from local Jews (now liberated from Polish oppression and Soviet atheism) for his own movement. Ahimeir realized that the vision King Wilhelm had could be molded to support his own vision, he directly and active supported the Jewish immigration into White Ruthenia (albeit not in the same degree as those Jewish Immigrants to the Mandate of Palestine) and hoped that with hard work and a show of loyalty the White Ruthenian Jews could not only build up a economic and financial, but also a political power base in the new state, from where they could pursuit overall Axis Central Powers (mainly the Neo-Ottoman Empire's) opinion to support a Jewish State of Israel in the Mandate of Palestine (either fully independent, or at least internally independent by all means and once again a save heaven and home for Jews all around the world. While Ahimeir rose to a prominent adviser (speaking both White Ruthenian and Russian) for White Ruthenian king Wilhelm, he clashed with one of his other advisers and government members, Vincent Hadleuski, a right-wing conservative and Christian advocate for a majorly Catholic White Ruthenia. Ahimeir supported many political economical and even military Jewish Movements in White Ruthenia and the Axis Central Powers, who would fight in the Eastern Crusade against Russia, in hopes to gain favor in their political governments for his people by doing so.
But because of his constant fights and arguing with Hadleuski, Ahimeir and some of his closest allies and friends turned southeast and offered their service as well as that of Jewish volunteers forces and soldiers to the Caliph Abdulmejid II. Ahimeir hoped that by supporting the Caliph's advance trough Syria and conquering Israel's territory from the British oppressors, the Caliph would be eager to liberate them to a Jewish nation state. As Caliph Abdulmejid II already had planned to use Jews as the new population for the region, instead of the rebellious and traitorous Arabs who had betrayed the Ottoman Empire to the British, he welcomed Ahimeir and his ideas with open arms. While the two became close allies and had a common enemy in the British, Ahimeir's dream of Israel in the end hoped for more then just full internal autonomy to be honest, just in full independence, Jewish freedom, the Jewish people and the Jewish Nation could be strong enough to prevent any future annexation, diaspora, pogroms and other horrors they had endured since they had lost their homeland. Caliph Abdulmejid II however dreamed of recreating the Ottoman Empire to it's lost glory and aim for territorial expansion once again, as the Turks had already planned during the First Great War.
As their American submarine slowly emerged from the waves, Officer Taylor Richards asked himself how their local trip to this Indonesian island could do much for the Allied war effort in Southeast Asia. Officer Petrick Wilson also questioned what the dutch civilian Professor Simon van Westerling was doing here accompanying them.
“So what exactly are we doing here?” questioned Officer Wilson interested in the exact circumstances of their secret mission.
“That's easy, we supply some local tribes with weapons to fight the Japs.” grinned Officer Richards who was here on order of the British Military intelligence. He was referring to the Dayak (also known as Dyak or Dayuh), the native people of Borneo. The name however was a loose term for over 200 riverine and hill-dwelling ethnic subgroups, located principally in the central and southern interior of Borneo, each with its own dialect, customs, laws, territory and culture, although common distinguishing traits are readily identifiable. Dayak languages were categorized as part of the Austronesian languages in Asia. The Dayak were animist in belief however, many converted to Islam and since the 19th century there has been mass conversion to Christianity. This missionary work had helped the Dutch Linguist Simon van Westerling to establish contact with some of this tribes and study them, their culture and language. Using a small rubber boat to travel from the submarine inland along one of the rivers of Borneo, the small group and their weapons bypassed the Japanese Garrison and the local Brunei Sultanate forces.
“When we enter the village, let me do the talking.” said Simon, not only because he was the only one of the group to understand parts of their language, but also because these Savages could kill foreigners on the spot if they felt offended or angered in any way he had heard and seen.
“Look at this primitives, how would they be able to help us?” questioned Officer Wilson seriously worried at this native tribesman they passed with a troubling look.
“They are skilled warriors and hunters, expert in this jungles and this island is their home, they are exactly what we are looking for.” was Officer Richard convinced hat these people would serve their purpose quit well.
“If we manage to unify some of the Dayak tribes as a guerrilla force against the Japs, maybe they can distract them.” agreed Officer Wilson, but he was not convinced that they would be able to do anything more.
“And that's the plan.” smiled Petrick Wilson with a grin. “It doesn't matter if this primitives fight good or bad against the Japs.” knew the Officer from similar experience and use of native scouts, guerrilla warriors and tribesman in Papua alongside American, Australian, British, Dutch and New Zealand forces. “As long as they attack local Malayan towns and villages, they tie down Japanese and Co-Prosperity forces that can't fight us anywhere else.” advised Officer Wilson knowingly that that was the best strategy at the moment to tie down the Japanese advance and resources.
“Please don't look directly at the warriors and avoid all unnecessary possible provocations.” advised the Linguist Simon van Westerling once again warning.
“Pffft, it is not as if they simply kill and eat us right?” grinned Officer Wilson amused at his own little joke, but as the other two next to him just stared frightened and serious, he gulped loudly. That would be the last time the young Officer talked along the trip until they were back again, safely inside the submarine. In the longhouse he tried to avoid the many skulls visible there and tried his best not to be suspicious, disrespectful, or in any other way provocation to these native primitives tribal warriors and their chiefs. The forces they would unleash as a united tribal federation agains Japanese and Brunei Malayan people on Borneo would soon be known as the Dayak Independence Army, fighing to expell the Japanese invaders and the Malayan colonists and settlers coming from the Siam/Thai annexed Malayan Peninsula.
Nervous the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and it's Premier lay awake at night. Joseph Stalin had underestimated the Germans time needed to prepare a attack on Russia and he had underestimated the possibility of Japan attacking later, forcing him into a two-front war. The new Russian Empire was a ideological and moral competition swaying the minds of the local minorities and Russians together with the other Axis Central Powers, posing a real tread to his rule and ideology. This meant that he even thought about lifting some restriction's on local minorities and even inviting the churches back, until the chief of the Soviet security and secret service (NKVD) Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria reassured him that with more control and terror the situation would be quickly back under control, not leaving them and their rule weakened in Russia once the ACP were beaten. With fresh troops from Siberia, Stalin had ordered the defence of Moscow, that came under Axis Central Powers attack on 2 September 1941. Refusing to leave the city, Stalin made his final stand, ready to stop the invasion right before it would rule supreme over the Soviet Union.
The Battle of Moscow (also known as the Moscow Miracle in Soviet Russia, lasting from 2 September 1941 – 7 December 1941) would lead to a military campaign that consisted of two periods of strategically significant fighting on a 600 km (370 mi) sector of the Eastern Crusade Front during the Second Great War. With a whole Soviet Army tied down in Georgia and cut off from the rest of the Soviet Front, Caucasian Oil Fields under German control and the northern harbors occupied by Finland, Germany or the United Baltic Duchy, Stalin was grateful that his compromises with Japan's Co-Prosperity Sphere in Manchuria and Mongolia had given him time to concentrate westwards and secure the Far East against a possible Japanese attack, allowing desperately needed allied supplies to reach the Soviet Union. British oil from Iraq and Persia (over a extended long eastern Iranian and Central Asian trade route) additionally kept his tank, mechanized and motorized divisions mobile and a danger to the ACP for now.
The Soviet defensive of Moscow effort frustrated Emperor Wilhelm's and Tsar Vladimir attack on the capital and largest city of the Soviet Union. Moscow was one of the primary military and political objectives for Axis Cnetral Power forces in their Eastern Crusade against the Soviet Union. The German strategic offensive, named Operation Tsar Coronation (German: Kaiserkrönung/ Zarenkrönung), called for two pincer offensive, one to the north of Moscow against the then severed Moscow-Leningrad railway towards the northern Soviet front by two German Panzer (Tank) Armies, and another to the south of Moscow Oblast against the Soviet Union's Western Front south of Tula, by another Panzer Army (a Austria-Hungarian one) with another German Army advanced directly towards Moscow from the west. The Axis Central Powers offensive towards the Soviet capital was nothing less than an all-out attack. It would not be exaggeration to state that the outcome of the Second Great War hung in the balance during this massive attack and Stalin knew so too.
Initially, the Soviet forces conducted a strategic defence of the Moscow Oblast by constructing three defensive belts, deploying newly raised reserve armies, and bringing troops from the Siberian Military District, ready and trained to fight in the cold winter. Stalin was heavily criticized for not retreating the whole government with himself further east and some Soviet leaders and institutions already evacuated east, while preparations for the defence of Moscow were made and further defence positions were about to be established. As the German offensives were halted, a Soviet strategic counter-offensive and smaller-scale offensive operations forced the German armies back to the positions around the cities of Oryol, Vyazma and Vitebsk, and nearly surrounded two German and one Tsarist Russian army. It was a major setback for the Axis Central Powers, the end of the idea of a fast victory in the USSR. Some German generals were afterwards excused from their command and replaced by others, often their direct military planning rivals, who had argued for a new Caucasian offensive to crush the Soviet forces there and secure the oil fields to the north and the Ukrainian grain fields to the east.
Stalin on the other hand, while victorious had faced many arguing and incompetence by some of his Commanders and Marshalls, as well as political Commissars and Government members, leading to his growing mistrust and paranoia against his own Command Staff and Government, that was secretly further fueled with false rumors of other disloyalty and even a coup by Beria and the NKVD for their own purpose. As even some Moscow civilians protested Stalin's regime in the streets and waved the illegal Tsarist/ Russian Empire flags, they were quickly shot according to martial law, before the situation escalated further. Ever since then, Stalin had been unsure of who to truly trust inside the Soviet Union, as many (even military high ranking) defectors to Tsar Vladimir and his Russian Empire proved him right. When Japan and the Co-Prosperity Sphere then attacked the Soviet Far East and managed to encircle and destroy some of the Soviet Armies there, Stalin was happy to stop them in Mongolia and at the front before Ulan-Ude. Still he was unable to recognize his own fault for not anticipating the Japanese assault just like he did not manage to anticipate the German one before. Instead Stalin blamed it on his Generals and Marshall's, giving him the wrong advise and on his spies, feeding him the wrong information's. This lead to some executions and a increasingly steady growing paranoia by Stalin. After all thanks to the now two-front war, the last Soviet Reserves were nearly completely exhausted and the only Western Allied supply still reaching him had to come over Central Asia and Iran on sometimes primitive roads. While the Soviets and Allies hastily build new roads and railroads there, Stalin knew without another miraculous Soviet Army offensive, his days could be numbered. With his forces lacking oil and supplies, as well as running out of reserves now, he needed to enlist or enforce even more Russian manpower, throw poorly trained masses at the enemy to stop their continuous assaults and conquests once and for all.
Stalin slept less and started to smoke and drink more ever since, as all the stress proved his own regime was not only bad for the health of his own people and government members in fear under him, but for himself too. While the later so called First Battle of Moscow was a Soviet victory and ACP defeat, it would ultimately lead to the fall of the Soviet Union, the final nail in Stalin's and the Soviet's coffin. It would start a rethinking in German and Axis Central Powers military operations and lead to the disastrous ACP Caucasus Campaign (25 June 1942 – 11 August 1942) that nearly annihilated the Soviet Unions Southern Front and would lead to the disastrous Soviet counter-offensives with 10 field, 1 tank and 4 air armies, called Operation Uranus.
The Kwantung Army in Manchuria wished a great autonomy for itself and the new state from the very beginning. That was one of the main reasons they heavily invested in mines, infrastructure and industry in the region. Other member states of the Co-Prosperity Sphere would later follow their example and build their own Armored Cars, Tankettes, Self-propelled Guns and Tanks, as well as airplanes and ship types, instead of just buying Japanese models. After Khalkhin Gol, Manchukuo designed most of his tanks after Japanese one, but also a few on western bought models, as well as captured Soviet ones. Much like in Co-Prosperity Sphere Burma later many of the Manchurian tank designs could operate on both the roadway and railway lines, to better secure the state against local partisans and guerrilla wars. To many western historians, this was when the confusion about the Co-Prosperity Sphere tanks began.
The Japanese Tank naming system was arranged around the Army Imperial Year System. The Imperial Year was used as the standard for designating the type, based on the mystical founding of Japan in 660 BC. The accepted practice was to use the last two numbers of the year as a type number, as in the Type 89 medium tank of 1929, with Type 100 for items accepted in 1940. Beginning after 1940 only the last digit was used, so Type 2 equipment was accepted in 1942.Each tank is given a separate name, based on the order in adaption, the Order System. The Type 89 medium tank was the “I-Go”, or “first car/model” while the Type 95 light tank was the “Ha-Go”, or “third car/model” (no second model has been identified). Starting from the Type 97 Chi-Ha, the naming system was changed to incorporate the classification of the tank. Each tank would get a two letter name, with the first letter standing for the type of tank and the second for the order in which the tanks were developed.
The majority of tanks fell into three categories – Chi, Ke and Ho, or Medium, Light and Gun, with Chi and Ke used as single character abbreviations for Chiu (or Chui) and Kei. There seems to have been a category for Heavy (O, short for Oo), but this is only "confirmed" in the sense that it was the unofficial name given to the 120 ton tank O-I. The overall end system was Car (Shi), Light (Ke), Medium (Chi), Gun Tank (Ho), Heavy (Ju) and Super Heavy (O, or Oo). The numbering system used was based on the Iroha, a Japanese poem. This used every character from the Japanese syllabary once, and for a long time was used to put those characters in order (in a rather poetic version of the ABC). The first two lines of the poem, transliterated in roman letters, ran:
i ro ha ni ho he to
chi ri nu ru wo
That meant that I or Yi was 1, Ro was 2, Ha was 3, Ni was 4, Ho was 5, He was 6, o was 7, Chi was 8, Ri was 9, Nu was 10, Ru was 11 and O or Wo was 12. To give an medium tank example:
Chi-I (Medium First): None (most likely Experimental Type 1 Tank)
Chi-Ro (Medium Second): Type 89 I-Go
Chi-Ha (Medium Third): Type 97 Chi-Ha
Chi-Ni (Medium Fourth): Type 97 Chi-Ni (never got out of prototype status)
Chi-Ho (Medium Fifth) Type 98 Chi-Ho (never got out of prototype status)
Chi-He (Medium Sixth): Type 1 Chi-He
Chi-To (Medium Seventh): Type 4 Chi-To
Chi-Ri (Medium Ninth): Type 5 Chi-Ri
Chi-Nu (Medium Tenth): Type 3 Chi-Nu
This numbering system was adapted by all of the Co-Prosperity Sphere members and this is where the confusion truly began. Manchuria the first to introduce the system, started their counting for Types not in 660 BC, but in 1636, the beginning of the Qing (Manchu) Dynasty rule over China, as their continuation Puyi saw his new empire. This Manchurian system was used for both, tanks and equipment bought from Japan, as well as their own produced ones. However, the Japanese dated the creation and liberation of Manchukuo in 1932 as the starting date for solely in Manchuria (Made in Manchuria) produced goods and equipment of all kind. The Manchurian tanks focused on Light and Medium first, but started to create Heavy and Super Heavy tanks after their terrifying encounter with superior Soviet tanks during Hokushin-ron.
Mengjiang hat the same numbering problem, as the Japanese started their count for the Khanate in 1933, while the Mengjian Khanate started their count in the year 1206 with their foundation date, as the Empire of Genghis Khan. The Empire of Yankoku had the same problem, as the Japanese counted the creation of the state in 1935, while the government viewed the first Yan State in the 11th century BCE as their starting point for the counting system and their own history. Han China was even more complicated, as some companies used the Qin State in 9th century BC as their numbering systems, others began with the Han Dynasty in 202 BC and a few started with the Republic of China in 1912. The same chaos was true for all other military equipment and most other member states for the Co-Prosperity Sphere that mostly not started with the Japanese liberation of of their homelands, but with the year their sates or dynasties were formed.
They all used mostly the same method for renumbering the Japanese and other bought vehicles too. While the members of the Co-Prosperity Sphere knew what to refer to when one of the other member states military used their own classifications, it was pure hell for Allied and Soviet code-breakers and spies, who refereed to the Japanese models solely. This was because they believed that all used the same classifications the Japanese had introduced, causing many false reports and confusions during the Asian and Pacific Theaters of the Second Great War. A similar chaos erupted with Airplanes and Ships, because even when they used the same models or variations of these, every member state of the Co-Prosperity Sphere used his own classifications.
After the Germans beat the Soviet forces trapped in Caucasus, and the counter-offensive (Uranus) fails, the Red Army will have even less reserves (and will be litterally reduced to conscripts), will be demoralized, and Stalin will likely do more and more purges (either because of his growing paranoia, or because he's furious about defeats and wants scapegoats, or because there are more real opponents) which will further cripple the Red Army and push more civilians, conscripts and officers to defect, desert or mutiny. While the ACP forces launch another offensive towards Moscow, and the city finally falls. Then, Soviet Union will likely finally crumble (either as all soldiers desert en masse or defect to the Czar en masse, or the Red Army leaders launch a coup, or Beria launch a coup, etc).
Then, at some point, the Allies will likely try to land in Europe. They might even rush it, wanting to try their landings "while Germans are still engaged on the Eastern Front" (right after Soviet collapse). and will likely fail horribly.
Karl Hermann Frank (born 24 January 1898) was born in Karlsbad, Bohemia, in Austria-Hungary and taught by his father (a proponent of Georg Ritter von Schönerer's policies) about nationalist agitation. Frank attempted to enlist in the Austro-Hungarian Army in the First Great War, but he was rejected due to blindness in his right eye. He spent a year at the law school of the German language Charles University in Prague and worked as a tutor to make money. An extreme advocate of the incorporation of the Sudetenland into Germany, Frank joined the German National Socialist Worker' Party (Deutsche Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei DNSAP) by 1923 and was involved in setting up several DNSAP chapters in northern Bohemia and Silesia. In 1925, Frank opened a book store which specialized in National-Socialist literature. Frank joined and helped organize the Sudeten-German Homeland Front (SdH) in 1933, which officially became the Sudeten German Party (SdP) in 1935. He then worked in the SdP public relations and propaganda department. In 1935, Frank became deputy leader of the SdP and was elected a member of the Czechoslovak Parliament. Coming to represent the most radical National Socialists in the SdP, Frank was made Deputy Statthalter (Stadtholder) of German-Bohemia (German: Deutsch-Böhmen) when it became part of Austria-Hungary again with the integration of the former states of Czech and Slovakia. Disappointed that Hitler had not chosen to annex Austria after the military coup had happened in Germany, Frank knew that there were other ways to improve German powers and positions in this two-Empire-solution of 1938. As the Statthalter of Deutsch-Böhmen (German Bohemia – former Sudetenland in Bohemia), Frank promoted a further Germanisation of the area with new German settlers in Deutsch-Böhmen as well as Deutsch-Mähren (German Moravia – former Sudetenland in Moravia and Schlesien) to increase both states over time and to force the Czechs back into Böhmen (Bohemia proper – former Czech Protectorate), as a Czech Reservation of sorts.
His Austrofascistmonarchist ideological group believed rightly, that the fall of the former Austria-Hungary was caused by dividing nationalism and that the best way to stop a repeating of the same situation, was to increase the German population in the Austrian part of the Dual-Monarchy, until it would become a solid majority. While in the south of Austria, Slovenes, Italians and Serb-Croats were a majority in the regions, their overall number paled compared to the Austrian Provinces. Some Italians were even relocated to Italy, to prevent a further border dispute over ethnic groups between both Empires. In the north, the situation wasn't as easily to manage as in the south. While the Sudeten German Party (SdP) got 1,249,534 (15.2%) of the votes and became the strongest of all parties in all of Czechoslovakia and had won about 68% of the German votes, thus surpassing the German Social Democratic Workers Party, the German Christian Social People's Party and the Farmers' League, this was not enough for the dreams of a true German Bohemia after the re-integration into Austria-Hungary. The division in the new Austria-Hungarian Diet had weakened the German lead in this provinces out of the not unreasonable fear, that a united Czech political front could otherwise outmatch them heavily. In the new state of Deutsch-Böhmen the former SdP (now Bohemian German Party, German: Böhmendeutsche Partei, abbreviated BdP) gained the majority of the votes, making Frank the new Statthalter (Governor) of the region. In Deutsch-Mähren however, the former SdP (now Moravian German Party, German: Mährendeutsche Partei, abbreviated MdP) gained the majority of votes, making Konrad Ernst Eduard Henlein, the former leader of the SdP the Statthalter there. Both dreamed about increasing the number of children for ethnic Germans in these areas with financial government substitution and special honors. They dreamed about one day having a purely German Böhmen und Mähren (Bohemia and Moravia proper – former Czech Protectorate), with a German majority and a administration composed entirely of the German officials. They had very close ties to the Galician German Party (German Galiziendeutsche Partei) in West-Galizien (polish populated West Galicia) and Ost-Galizien (Ukrainian populated East Galicia), as well as close ties to Franz Karmasin's Carpathian German Party (German: Karpatendeutsche Partei, abbreviated KdP) in the State of Hungary (more precisely the Slowakenland, or former Slovakian Protectorate).
Frank and Henlein, who as the Statthalter now both wielded great power in the former protectorates of Czech, started to be encouraged by each others goals and ideology. They controlled the police apparatus in the state regions, including the police, security, intelligence and military branches. As Statthalter (Governor and chief of police), Frank and Henlein pursued a policy of harsh suppression of dissident Czechs and pushed for the arrest of Bohemia and Moravia's Statthalter, Alois Eliás (who maintained contact with the Czechslovak government-in-exile). These actions by both were countered by the Austrian Emperors "soft approach" to the Czechs thereby encouraging anti-German resistance by strikes and sabotage. This frustrated Frank and Henlein, leading them to secretly working to discredit the Emperor's weak, anti-German policy in favor of their own party and their German-Austria-Coalition.
They decision to adopt a more radical approach in Bohemia and Moravia. They tried to enforce a more pro-German policy, fight resistance to the Austria-Hungarian (mainly Austrian in this part of the Dual-Monarchy) government, and keep up production quotas of Czech motors and arms that were extremely important to the Austria-Hungarian war effort". The working relationship between Frank and Henlein was a good one as they both were ambitious and brutal. They launched a reign of terror in the German-Bohemian and German-Moravian states, arresting and killing opponents and ramping up the deportation of Czechs to relocate them into Bohemia or further east. Between 4,000 and 5,000 people were arrested and between 400 and 500 were executed by February 1942. However their power ended in their states and much to their disappointment their power did not extend to all of Bohemia and Moravia. Henlein and Frank therefore used the Czech Resistance and their bombings and killings in the German-Bohemian and German-Moravian states to justify harsh counter-measures. One of their orders stated to shoot all the men, send all the women to reeducation camps, and place those few children considered worthy of "Germanization" in the care of purely German families, with the rest being murdered. With nearly 14,000 soldiers they crossed the border into Bohemia and Moravia state, claiming to raid against local partisans in a anti-partisan warfare. This de facto made Henlein and Frank the most powerful officials in the former Czech Protectorate. They executed civilians suspected of supporting the partisans, but in the end were unable to destroy the partisan brigades, as their harsh and hateful policy against some rebels and partisans, brought further support on the Czech public against the Austria-Hungarian Empire.
Despite his work, Frank believed to be rightfully fighting a traitorous insurgence, supported by Socialists, Communists, Comintern and Pan-Slavic groups as Stattalter Karl Frank believed. Frank was married twice. On 21 January 1925 he married Anna Müller (born 5 January 1899 in Karlsbad). The couple had two sons Harald, born 20 January 1926, and Gerhard, born 22 April 1931. They divorced on 17 February 1940. On 14 April 1940 Frank remarried a physician, Karola Blaschek (born 13 August 1913 in Brüx). The couple had three children together, two daughters Edda, (born 16 August 1941) and Holle-Sigrid (born later on 8 March 1944), and two sons Wolf-Dietrich (born 20 August 1942) and Gunther (born 17 May 1946). While Frank loved his own daughters and sons greatly, he had little empathy for the children of traitors who worked against the Austrian-Hungarian Empire and his dream to further Germanizate the states of Austria within Austria-Hungary.
The Green Hell Handbook, a Guide to Burma and Niugini/Niu Gini Warfare
- Himura Kano
“It is best to advice our forces, to make a practice of using various types of defensive positions, according to the terrain, the time available for construction, and the strength of the enemy. On Guadalcanal and parts of New Guinea, we frequently established our defenses on low, jungle-covered ground, in preference to high ground. In Burma, where less jungle is encountered, we usually established our positions on terrain heights and near the crests of heights.”
“Our defenses in one area are of two types, temporary and permanent. The temporary types were small self-contained, cleverly concealed squad posts, 30 feet in diameter and situated some 300 yards apart. They usually contained 10 men. These posts, designed for all-around defense, served as hideouts from which our patrols could operated at night. The so-called permanent-type defenses, or main positions, instead are sited on natural obstacles. They contained mortars, for which the temporary squad positions serves as observation posts. Several of the this positions will best be situated along the edges of woods, and others were located from 30 to 40 yards inside the woods.”
“It is best to cut fire lanes for most of our positions. This lanes, extending out from the positions in different directions, usually were 15 to 30 feet long and never more than 2 feet wide. We should depend largely upon foxholes and individual weapon pits for defense positions in his forward area. Most of the positions will have to be well camouflaged with natural foliage, and most of the foxholes should be covered, with lids resembling trap doors. Our soldiers would keep these lids down except for short periods of observation. Some of these positions are 4 feet deep. Around the top of each position was a bundle of brushwood, about 2 feet high and tied together with wire. One of these posts contained three grenades, a rifle, an individual cooker, and an ammunition box full of rice and various papers, evidence of the self-contained nature of our individual defense positions.”
“Many of our deeper defense trenches on the front are T-shaped or L-shaped. A large number of trenches were not occupied. These extras were dug to allow us to shift from one position to another, for reasons of security. It is not a exaggerated to say that our soldiers must have spent most of their time digging. Usually our defending soldiers would hold their fire until the attacking forces launched an assault, sometimes from a distance as close as 50 yards. In accordance with previously stated defense doctrine, our soldiers, if driven front their positions, will soon launch a counterattack. This attack should start with a shower of grenade-discharger shells and is followed immediately by a charge with automatic-weapon support.”
“Our foxholes in one area of the front were 2 1/2 feet deep, and did not contain well-developed machine-gun positions. The foxholes were in two rings around the top of a hill, one just below the crest and the other spaced around the top of the hill. Additional foxholes, of a different construction, were found at the bottom of the hill.”
“We have been reluctant to disrupt interlocking cross fire plans for their light machine guns when the guns were attacked from the front by infantry. Almost invariably we will have to sacrifice even a good light machine-gun target if firing would give away the location of a strategic observation post.”
“While being shelled or bombed, we could fled our frontline defence posts, to the dugout, secure that we could abandon our light machine-gun posts without being assaulted while the shelling was actually in progress. In one or more trees, that affords a view of all approaches to the position, we will built a combination sniper's nest and sentry post. One of our soldiers will have to keep watch during the daytime while the others slept or relaxed, allowing a 24-hour guard.”
“Animals (like Cattle) left behind by the enemy fleeing the combat zone will be driven by our soldiers into places where they could be conveniently watched from under concealment. When natives bent on looting— (usually a few men traveling together) tried to steal the groups of cattle back, our soldiers will pop out and arrest them. The captives then will be taken before one of our officer and questioned about the opposing forces. If the natives could not supply sufficient information, one of them will be released to go back to the enemy lines and find out more, while his friends were held as hostages. If the released native did not return by a given date, the remainder of his group were shot for stealing. Since the native released would often be separated from his family by us if he failed to return, he will generally came back with some information because it was the easiest way out, both for himself and his fellow looters.”
“While it is efficient to use local allies and support from natives, so save our supply rations for longer campaigns, we can not solely rely on these alone. To save our own ammunition we must therefore advice our soldiers to hunt local animals with bow and arrows like natives tribesman and other locals.”
“Our patrols could always be counted upon to do the unexpected. They should often withdrew from our own held areas while these were being scouted by patrols of opposing forces. When the latter patrols reported back with the information that the enemy had fled, our own forces would simply reoccupy the area with a strong force. When the opposition moved a considerable force into the area, we can then opened up on them with a murderous fire at close range.”
“We are particularly keen about using all sorts of ruses to draw mortar and automatic fire. One or a few of our individual soldiers, waving a flag, running out into open spaces for this purpose, should do the trick. When automatic fire is opened on him/them, he/they will drop to the ground while other soldier of us, secretly following him/them, under cover, observed the enemies location of the automatic weapon or weapons doing the firing, so they could open up on it a short time later.”
“At night our forces can send a man toward our lines with a machine gun and tracer ammunition. This gunner should fire in short bursts at places believed to be occupied by the opposing forces. When he was fired upon, he ducked to the ground while his pals in the rear tried to locate the positions of automatic weapons firing at our machine gunner. If our gunner failed to receive fire from a suspected position he would move on to another, all the time closing in on opposing positions until someone eventually fired at him with their weapons.”
“To escape detection, our mortars often began firing either immediately after our guns had fired or just after impact of our mortar bombs.”
“In some areas of he front, our soldiers put up dummy men in an effort to fool the opposing forces, believing we had larger numbers, or to fire upon false positions. These dummies (often even with dummy equipment) were sometimes mannequin (even self-made ones), but were sometimes also corpses, or tied up enemy prisoners. With some small changes and buildings unto our rifles and a water bucked, we can use the dripping water to fire these rifles, creating the illusion that these positions even fire upon the enemy. ”
“To confuse the enemy, our forces should fire signals, or use lightning signals similar to their own, shortly after they had used theirs, but with different meaning and pointing at different directions.”
“It appears to be wise, to copy some of the local tribesman and warriors ideas of natural camouflage in the surrounding areas, while moving or in any any form of position.”
“As we have learned from experience in the Jungle, the old concept of Fake Trees and Fake Rocks/ Fake Mountain Bunkers (with concrete) is to be encouraged among our fortified lines, bunkers and positions. This well hidden and natural looking ares can either be used to ambush the enemy when he attacks, or already had pushed past them. These positions could then open fire from his side, or even behind later, or serve as well covered entrenches for underground tunnels and bunkers. From there our reserves and bypassed forces can push out and wreak havoc among the enemies back, his supply lines and even his front-line defences from behind.”
“Self-made improvised additions to our standard equipment can greatly increase our strength and possibilities. When we equip our snipers with small shields that allow to protect them, our snipers can camouflage this shields with additional dirt and tree branches to hide behind secure positions. His sniper positions and nests will also function as sentry posts.”
Later developments [ edit ]
By 1944, Japan was to rely heavily on the Nippon-German Technical Exchange Agreement, obtaining manufacturing rights, intelligence, blueprints, and in some cases, actual airframes for several of Germany's new air weapons. These included the Me 163 Komet (developed as the Mitsubishi J8M Shusui), the BMW 003 axial-flow jet engine (which was reworked to Japanese standards as the Ishikawajima Ne-20), information on the Me 262 which resulted in the Nakajima J9Y Kikka), data on the Fiesler Fi-103R series (which culminated in the development of the Kawanishi Baika), and even data on the Bachem Ba 349 Natter point-defense interceptor. [ citation needed ]
Nakajima Kikka [ edit ]
While the Nakajima Kikka bore some resemblance to the German Me 262, it was only superficial, even though the Ne-20 engines which powered the Kikka were the Japanese equivalent of the German BMW 003 engine which initially powered the Me 262 prototype. Also, the Kikka was envisioned from the outset not as a fighter, but as a special attack bomber and was only armed with a bomb payload. It is wrongly considered that this aircraft registration was J9Y or J10N, although this aircraft was never registered.