We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
Elizabeth Bentley, the only child of Charles Prentiss Bentley and May Turrill Bentley, was born in New Milford, Connecticut, on 1st January, 1908. Her father was a dry-goods merchant. Before giving birth of Elizabeth, her mother was a local schoolteacher.
Elizabeth attended East High School in Rochester. She described herself as "lonely, withdrawn child". Her mother was a member of the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU). Elizabeth described her mother as "very, very strict... who didn't allow me to befriend girls of my age who were drinking, smoking and visiting nightclubs."
In 1926, eighteen-year-old Elizabeth Bentley won a scholarship to Vassar College. According to her biographer, Kathryn S. Olmsted: "The cloak of loneliness she had donned in high school still clung to her at Vassar. She was a tall girl - over five feet nine - with a large build, long neck, and a shy smile. She was growing into the kind of woman that some people would term 'somewhat attractive,' but more critical observers would call plain. At Vassar, Elizabeth seemed uncomfortable among her rich, prestige-conscious classmates." (1) A fellow student described her as a "kind of a sad sack, plain, dull, very teacherlike. She didn't have a single boyfriend, if I recall correctly, a pathetic person really. Everyone that knew her just called her Bentley. She was a sad and lonely girl." (2)
Bentley came under the influence of the drama teacher, Hallie Flanagan. In 1927 Flanagan met Konstantin Stanislavsky. On her return to America she established the Vassar Experimental Theatre. In 1930 Flanagan took a group of students to Leningrad and wrote in her journal: "Oh, I was right. Russia is what I thought it was, only infinitely more. It is a country of free men, it is a land of workers. They exist to help others." (3)
After obtaining a Vassar degree in English, Italian, and French, Elizabeth Bentley obtained a teaching job at the Foxcroft preparatory and finishing school for girls in Middleburg, Virginia. She also spent her summer vacations studying. Elizabeth took one course at the University of Perugia and another at Middlebury College in Vermont. In 1932 she left her teaching job to study full-time at Columbia University.
By this time both her mother and father were dead. According to Kathryn S. Olmsted, the author of Red Spy Queen (2002), this had a dramatic impact on her personality. "She lived the high life, even though as a financial aid recipient she could not afford it. She borrowed money frequently from her friends and did not always repay it. Breaking the last of her parents' rules, she always drank to excess. Elizabeth would be an alcoholic throughout her life... Not surprisingly, considering her enthusiasm for spontaneous sex in the years before oral contraceptives, there were rumours that she had some illegal abortions." (4) Olmsted quotes one of Elizabeth's boyfriends, Harvey Matusow, as saying: "She used alcoholism to ease her pain, and she had a lot of pain. Matusow speculated that she was a "manic depressive".
While she was living in Florence, Elizabeth became a supporter of Benito Mussolini. Impressed by the dictator's achievements, in 1934 she joined the Gruppo Universitate Fascisti. She also began an affair with Mario Castella, a prominent literary critic more than twenty years her senior. Castella held left-wing views and Elizabeth later claimed that under his influence she changed her views on fascism. (5)
When she returned to the United States she was a strong anti-fascist and joined the American League against War and Fascism. This was an organization that had been set-up by members of the Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA). Bentley later recalled in her autobiography, Out of Bondage (1951): "Surprisingly enough, from then on my life took on a new zest. I seemed to have cast off the old feelings of listlessness and despair." (6) During this period Bentley joined the CPUSA.
At one of the early CPUSA meetings Elizabeth Bentley met Juliet Poyntz. Another member of the CPUSA, Whittaker Chambers, commented: "Juliet Poyntz... had been a member of the first unit of the Communist Party which I joined in 1925. A heavy-set, dark, softly feminine woman, she was also a little absurdly imperious and mysterious as Communist bureaucrats often become, sagging self-consciously under the weight of so much secret authority and knowledge." (7)
Bentley claimed in her autobiography that Poyntz attempted to recruit her as a Soviet spy. Poyntz introduced her to a man named "Smith". He seemed more interested in developing a sexual relationship with Bentley. When she rejected his advances he reported her to Poyntz. Worried that Bentley might inform the FBI about her spy network, Poyntz visited Elizabeth's apartment and denounced her as a "subversive". Poyntz then told her: "Just remember one thing, if ever you meddle in my affairs again, I'll see that you're taken care of. You'll be put six feet under and you won't come back to do any more talking!" (8)
Ironically, it was Juliet Poyntz who was murdered by Soviet agents. In 1936 she spent time in Moscow and was deeply shocked by the purge that was taking place of senior Bolsheviks. Unconvinced by the Show Trials she returned to the United States as a critic of the rule of Joseph Stalin. As fellow member, Benjamin Gitlow, pointed out: "She (Juliet Poyntz) saw how men and women with whom she had worked, men and women she knew were loyal to the Soviet Union and to Stalin, were sent to their doom." (9)
It has been argued by Ted Morgan, the author of Reds: McCarthyism in Twenty-Century America (2003) that "Juliet Poyntz.. got caught up in party factions, she had the distinction of giving her name to an 'ism,' when the Daily Worker called for the liquidation of Poyntzism." In May 1937, Carlo Tresca, later recalled that "she confided in me that she could no longer approve of things under the Stalin regime." (10)
Juliet Poyntz was reported missing in June, 1937. Whittaker Chambers claimed in Witness (1952): "She was living in a New York hotel. One evening she left her room with the light burning and a page of unfinished handwriting on the table. She was never seen again. It is known that she went to meet a Communist friend in Central Park and that he had decoyed her there as part of a G.P.U. trap. She was pushed into an automobile and two men drove her off. The thought of this intensely feminine woman, coldly murdered by two men, sickened me in a physical way, because I could always see her in my mind's eye." (11)
On 8th February, 1938, The New York Times ran a story, quoting Carlo Tresca, that Juliet Poyntz had been lured or kidnapped to Soviet Russia by a prominent Communist... connected with the secret police in Moscow, sent to this country for that purpose". Tresca claimed that the case was similar to that of Ignaz Reiss: "Poyntz was a marked person, similar to have disillusioned Bolsheviks." (12) Another source said that she had been murdered because she was planning to write a book that was highly critical of Joseph Stalin and would tell of her time in the "underground".
Bentley was aware of these events but by this time she was so convinced by the arguments being made by the Communist Party of the United States that she agreed to work as a spy. On 15th October, 1938, she met Jacob Golos the head of its Central Control Commission. It was his job to make sure that all members of the party followed party policy that was being directed by Joseph Stalin. The historian, Anthony Cave Brown, compared the commission in his book, On a Field of Red: The Communist International and the Coming of World War One (1981) to the Spanish Inquisition: "As with Tomas de Torquemada and Isabella I of Spain, so with Golos and Stalin." (13)
Kathryn S. Olmsted described their first meeting in her book, Red Spy Queen (2002) with the spy who told her his name was Timmy: "Like any good spy, Golos did not stand out in a crowd. A heavy-set, rather nondescript man in a bad suit and scuffed shoes, he did not make a favorable first impression on Elizabeth. At five feet two inches, he was seven inches shorter than the strapping young woman he hoped to use as a source. She eyed with disapproval his tattered felt hat and shabby car." However, she gradually changed her mind about Golos: "He seemed intelligent and thoughtful. Soon she found herself telling him the story of her life, including her disappointing earlier contacts with the Soviet underground. As she warmed to him, Timmy seemed to grow better looking. He was no longer short and squat but 'powerfully built'; he was not colorless but had 'startlingly blue' eyes that stared straight into hers... Though she was intimidated, she felt flattered by the attention that this powerful Communist was giving her." (14)
Elizabeth Bentley agreed to become a Soviet spy. He told her. "You are no longer an ordinary Communist but a member of the underground. You must cut yourself off completely from all your old Communist friends." Instead she was to mix with fascists in New York City. Her friends might regard her as a traitor, but "the Party would not ask this sacrifice of you if it were not vitally important." (15)
Jacob Golos ran a travel agency, World Tourists in New York City. It was a front for Soviet clandestine work. (16) Soon after he recruited Bentley as a spy, his office was raided by officials of the Justice Department. Some of these documents showed that Earl Browder, the leader of the Communist Party of the United States, had travelled on a false passport. Browder was arrested and Golos told Bentley: "Earl is my friend. It is my carelessness that is going to send him to jail." Bentley later recalled that the incident took its toll on Golos: "His red hair was becoming grayer and sparser, his blue eyes seemed to have no more fire in them, his face became habitually white and taut." (17)
According to Bentley, United States officials agreed to drop the whole investigation, if Golos pleaded guilty. He told her that Moscow insisted that he went along with the deal. "I never thought that I would live to see the day when I would have to plead guilty in a bourgeois court." He complained that they had forced him to become a "sacrificial goat". On 15th March, 1940, Golos received a $500 fine and placed on four months probation. (18)
The FBI continued to follow Golos and on 18th January, 1941, they saw him exchange documents with Gaik Ovakimyan. The FBI also observed Golos meeting Elizabeth Bentley at the offices of the of the U.S. Service and Shipping Corporation. The agents wondered if she might be a Soviet spy as well and she was followed. On 23rd May, 1941, Ovakimyan was arrested and deported. Bentley was followed until surveillance was stopped on 20th August, 1941. (19)
Moscow instructed Golos to be far more careful with his contacts with his network. John Hazard Reynolds was selected to take over the running of the U.S. Reynolds was a millionaire who put up $5,000 in capital. The Communist Party of the United States also donated $15,000 to help run the company. Reynolds employed Bentley as vice president of the company as a cover for her spying operations. However, she did not get on well with Reynolds: "His slightly arrogant manner and his accent said loudly Park Avenue, the Racket Club, and the Plaza." (20)
Golos health began to deteriorate and so Bentley began to take over some of his duties. This included visiting Washington to pick up documents from Nathan Silvermaster who lived in a flat with his wife and another spy, Ludwig Ullman. Helen Silvermaster was highly suspicious of Bentley and she told Golos that she was convinced that she was an undercover agent for the FBI. Golos told her that she was being ridiculous and that she had no choice but to work with her. The Silvermasters reluctantly accepted Bentley as their new contact."
Silvermaster and Ullman became an important source of material: As Kathryn S. Olmsted, the author of Red Spy Queen (2002), points out: "Every two weeks, Elizabeth would travel to Washington to pick up documents from the Silvermasters, collect their Party dues, and deliver Communist literature. Soon the flow of documents grew so large that Ullmann, an amateur photographer, set up a darkroom in their basement. Elizabeth usually collected at least two or three rolls of microfilmed secret documents, and one time received as many as forty. She would stuff all the film and documents into a knitting bag or other innocent feminine accessory, then take it back to New York on the train. The knitting bag soon bulged with critical documents from the U.S. government." (21)
Another important spy was William Remington. An economist, he also worked for the National Resources Planning Board and the Office of Price Administration of the Office for Emergency Management. In February 1942 he joined the War Production Board. It has been claimed that: "Remington and his wife, Ann, longed to reestablish contact with the Party in Washington, but they knew that open membership would hurt Bill's career. As a solution some Party friends introduced them to a mysterious, redheaded man with an Eastern European accent." (22) The man's real name was Jacob Golos and he passed him onto Bentley.
Over the next two years, Bentley met Remington on a regular basis. She later recalled that he gave her classified information on aircraft production and testing. She claimed that "he was one of the most frightened people with whom I have ever had to deal". Eventually, he refused to meet Bentley and openly joined pro-Communist organizations in the hope that he would lessen his value as a spy. Bentley dismissed Remington as "a small boy trying to avoid moving the lawn or cleaning out the furnace when he would much rather go fishing." Bentley advised Golos that they should drop him but he insisted that they remained in contact as other powerful members of the network might be able to "push him into a really good position." (23)
Bentley knew that Jacob Golos was a dying man: "I knew now that Yasha was a dying man and that the end might come at any moment - it was only by some miracle of will power he was still alive." Golos also began to question the policies of Joseph Stalin. Bentley later said that "he said he fought for Communism and now he was beginning to wonder." (24)
Bentley woke up on 27th November, 1943, hearing "horrible choking sounds" coming from her lover. She tried frantically to wake him from what appeared to be a heart attack. Bentley called an ambulance but the doctors were unable to revive him. When the police arrived she pretended that she worked with the man and had just called in to see how he was because she knew he had been ill. Bentley then travelled to his office and destroyed all the documents in the safe. (25)
Elizabeth Bentley was now put in charge of the group led by Victor Perlo. Other members of the group included Henry Hill Collins, Harold Glasser, John Abt, Nathan Witt and Charles Kramer. Perlo, a strong supporter of Joseph Stalin, he would ask Bentley: "Is Joe getting the stuff safely?" At nearly every meeting he would ask if Stalin had personally seen the documents. (26) Allen Weinstein, the author of The Hunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America (1999), has claimed that according to his Soviet controller, Iskhak Akhmerov, Perlo was his most important agent. (27)
Victor Perlo divorced his wife in 1943 and they had a bitter dispute over the custody of the daughter. In April 1944 she sent a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt naming her husband and several members of his group as Soviet spies. Although she was interviewed by the FBI the people named were not arrested. Kathryn S. Olmsted has argued: "Possibly, the men of the FBI discounted the tale of an unstable, vengeful ex-wife. Or perhaps the tale of Russian espionage did not seem so sinister in 1944, when the brave Soviet allies were battling the Nazis. In any event, Katherine Perlo failed in her quest to destroy her ex-husband, and Elizabeth Bentley survived to spy another day." (28)
Anatoly Gorsky took over from Jacob Golos. He had a difficult relationship with Bentley. "In an elaborate pas de deux, the two champion manipulators tried to placate, deceive, and outwit each other. A survivor of the Stalinist purges, Gorsky plainly thought that he could handle this difficult American woman. Like his predecessors, though, he had no idea of the strength and shrewdness of his adversary... Gorsky seemed to view Elizabeth as a child, and, like all bad parents, he attempted to solve this discipline problem with threats and bribes. The bribe came first. At their second meeting, in New York in November, he told her it was a memorable day. The top Communists in the motherland had awarded her the Order of the Red Star." (29)
Elizabeth Bentley immediately took a dislike to Gorsky. In her autobiography, Out of Bondage (1988) "as a short, fattish man in his mid-thirties, with blond hair pushed straight back and glasses that failed to mask a pair of shrewd, cold eyes." She added that there was something about him that made "shivers run up and down your spine." (30) She did not trust Gorsky and suspected that if she ever did go to Moscow to receive the Order of the Red Star she would be eliminated.
Bentley claimed that Gorsky sexually harassed her. According to Bentley he stared at her like "a trader about to decide whether to buy a horse" and said, suggestively, "I like you personally; I think we could work very well together." Bentley was overwhelmed with "nausea." (31) However, Gorsky complained to Moscow that Bentley was making sexual advances towards him: "In a meeting with Gorsky where they exchanged Christmas presents, Bentley informed her Russian colleague that he reminded her of Jacob Golos. It was difficult for a young and lonely woman to live without a man, she told him, noting that she thought more and more often about having a family. A flustered Gorsky, plainly hoping to avoid entanglement, immediately cabled Moscow stating that it was urgent to find a husband for Bentley." (32)
Kathryn S. Olmsted has argued that it was probably Bentley who was lying about the incident: "It is impossible to know for certain who was telling the truth. But Gorsky did not have a reputation for sexual adventures, while Elizabeth did. Moreover, he told his version of the event at the time, whereas she told her side much later. In any event, whether he insulted her by propositioning her or by rejecting her proposition, the net result was that she felt insulted. That insult only strengthened Elizabeth's conviction to leave the Soviet service." (33)
On 29th April, 1944, Iskhak Akhmerov, a Soviet agent, sent a report on Bentley that showed concern about comments she had been making: "She is a rather complicated and controversial character.... she knows perfectly well that she is working for us. She, as a rule, carries out my instructions gladly and reports everything about our people to me. However, her behavior changes when I ask her to organize a meeting with (Silvermaster) for me or to connect some of the (American) probationers with our operative. She becomes an absolutely different person and... claims that she is not our operative, that she works for (Browder) ... Sometimes, by her remarks, I can feel that at heart, she doesn't like us (i.e., Russians). She is inclined to distinguish us from compatriots (i.e., American Communists) and bitterly notices only our professional interest in different questions. She says that all of us personally care little about Americans, that the USSR is the only country we love and work for. I tried to explain that she is mistaken." (34)
Anatoly Gorsky discovered that Elizabeth Bentley was involved with a man, Peter Heller, who they suspected was a FBI agent. Gorsky forced Elizabeth to turn over all of her contacts to him. He informed Moscow "Bentley is a serious and dangerous burden for us here. She should be taken home (to the Soviet Union), but how to do it, frankly speaking, I don't know since she won't go illegally." (35) On 27th November, 1944, Gorsky sent a memo about the possibility of another agent, Joseph Katz, killing Bentley. However, he pointed out that this would be difficult as Bentley was "a very strong, tall and healthy woman" and Katz "was not feeling well lately." (36)
In 1944 Bentley left the Communist Party and the following year she considered telling the authorities about her spying activities. In August 1945 she was on holiday to Old Lyme. While in Connecticut she visited the FBI in New Haven. She was interviewed by Special Agent Edward Coady but she was reluctant to give any details of her fellow spies but did tell them that they she was vice-president of the U.S. Service and Shipping Corporation and the company was being used to send information to the Soviet Union. Coady sent a memo to the New York City office suggesting that Bentley could be used as an informant. (37)
On 11th October 1945, Louis Budenz, the editor of the Daily Worker, announced that he was leaving the Communist Party of the United State and had rejoined "the faith of my fathers" because Communism "aims to establish tyranny over the human spirit". He also said that he intended to expose the "Communist menace". (38) Budenz knew that Bentley was a spy and four days later showed up at the FBI's New York office. Vsevolod Merkulov later wrote in a memo to Joseph Stalin that "Bentley's betrayal might have been caused by her fear of being unmasked by the renegade Budenz." (39) At this meeting she only gave the names of Jacob Golos and Earl Browder as spies.
Another meeting was held on the 7th November 1945. This time she gave the FBI a 107 page statement that named Victor Perlo, Harry Dexter White, Nathan Silvermaster, Abraham George Silverman, Nathan Witt, Marion Bachrach, Julian Wadleigh, William Remington, Harold Glasser, Charles Kramer, Duncan Chaplin Lee, Joseph Katz, William Ludwig Ullmann, Henry Hill Collins, Frank Coe, Abraham Brothman, Mary Price, Cedric Belfrage and Lauchlin Currie as Soviet spies. The following day J. Edgar Hoover, sent a message to Harry S. Truman confirming that an espionage ring was operating in the United States government. (40) Some of these people, including White, Currie, Bachrach, Witt and Wadleigh, were named by Whittaker Chambers in 1939. (41)
There is no doubt that the FBI was taking her information very seriously. As G. Edward White, has pointed out: "Among her networks were two in the Washington area: one centered in the War Production Board, the other in the Treasury Department. The networks included two of the most highly placed Soviet agents in the government, Harry Dexter White in Treasury and Laughlin Currie, an administrative assistant in the White House." (42) Amy W. Knight, the author of How the Cold War Began: The Ignor Gouzenko Affair and the Hunt for Soviet Spies (2005) has suggested that it had added significance because it followed the defection of Ignor Gouzenko. (43)
As a result of Bentley's testimony the FBI returned to interview Whittaker Chambers: "From 1946 through 1948, special agents of the F.B.I., too, were frequent visitors. Usually, they were seeking information about specific individuals. For some time they were much interested in Victor Perlo, Harry Dexter White, Dr. Harold Glasser, Charles Kramer, John Abt and others. At that time, I had no way of knowing that they were checking a story much more timely than mine - that of Elizabeth Bentley. Most of these investigators went about their work in a kind of dogged frustration, overwhelmed by the vastness of the conspiracy, which they could see all around them, and depressed by the apathy of the country and the almost total absence in high places of any desire to root out Communism." (44)
J. Edgar Hoover attempted to keep Bentley's defection a secret. The plan was for her to "burrow-back" into the Soviet underground in America in order to get evidence against dozens of spies. However, it was Hoover's decision to tell William Stephenson, the head of head of British Security Coordination about Bentley, that resulted in the Soviets becoming aware of her defection. Stephenson told Kim Philby and on 20th November, 1945, he informed NKVD of her betrayal. (45) On 23rd November, Moscow sent a message to all station chiefs to "cease immediately their connection with all persons known to Bentley in our work and to warn the agents about Bentley's betrayal". The cable to Anatoly Gorsky told him to cease meeting with Donald Maclean, Victor Perlo, Charles Kramer and Lauchlin Currie. Another agent, Iskhak Akhmerov, was told not the meet with any sources connected to Bentley. (46)
Attempts to establish connection with former Soviet agents ended in failure. Aware that they must know she was working with the FBI she began fearing that she would be murdered. After losing her job with the U.S. Service and Shipping Corporation she was desperately short of money. In August 1946, after what the FBI called "an exceptionally severe night of drinking" she took an overdose of phenobarbital. The FBI wanted her alive because she would be the major source against any future prosecutions. With the help of a FBI lawyer, Thomas J. Donegan, she was successfil in taking legal action against the U.S. Service and Shipping Corporation and she was awarded a year's salary in severance. (47)
On 15th April, 1947, the FBI descended on the homes and businesses of twelve of the names provided by Bentley. Their properties were searched and they were interrogated by agents over several weeks. However, all of them refused to confess to their crimes. J. Edgar Hoover was eventually advised that the evidence provided by Elizabeth Bentley, Louis Budenz, Whittaker Chambers and Hede Massing was not enough to get convictions. Hoover's main concern now was to protect himself from charges that he had bungled the investigation. (48)
On 30th July 1948, Elizabeth Bentley appeared before the House of Un-American Activities Committee. The senators were relatively retrained in their questioning. They asked Bentley to mention only two names in public: William Remington and Mary Price. Apparently the reason for this was that Remington and Price had both been involved in Henry A. Wallace campaign. Bentley was also reluctant to give evidence against these people and made it clear that she was not sure if Remington knew his information was going to the Soviet Union. She also described spies such as Remington and Price as "misguided idealists". (49)
The following day Bentley named several people she believed had been Soviet spies while working for the United States government. This included Victor Perlo, Harry Dexter White, Nathan Silvermaster, Duncan Chaplin Lee, Abraham George Silverman, Nathan Witt, Marion Bachrach, Donald Niven Wheeler, William Ludwig Ullmann, Julian Wadleigh, Harold Glasser, Henry Hill Collins, Frank Coe, Charles Kramer and Lauchlin Currie. One of the members of the HUAC, John Rankin, and well-known racist, pointed out the Jewish origins of these agents. (50)
On 3rd August, 1948, Whittaker Chambers appeared before the House of Un-American Activities Committee. He testified that he had been "a member of the Communist Party and a paid functionary of that party" but left after the signing of the Nazi-Soviet Pact in August 1939. He explained how like Bentley he was involved in "the Communist infiltration of the American government." Chambers claimed his network of spies included several people named by Bentley. This included White, Currie, Silvermann, Witt, Collins and Kramer. (51)
William Remington appeared before the Homer Ferguson Senate Committee. He admitted meeting Elizabeth Bentley but denied he helped her to spy. He claimed that Bentley had presented herself as a reporter for a liberal periodical. They had discussed the Second World War on about ten occasions but had never given her classified information. The committee did not find Remington's explanation persuasive, and neither did the regional loyalty board. The board soon recommended his dismissal from the government. (52)
Elizabeth Bentley appeared before the NBC Radio's Meet the Press. One of the reporters asked her if William Remington was a member of the Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA)? She replied: "Certainly... I testified before the committee that William Remington was a communist." To preserve his credibility Remington sued both NBC and Bentley. On 15th December, 1948, Remington's lawyers served her with the libel papers. The libel suit was settled out of court shortly thereafter, with NBC paying Remington $10,000. (53)
John Gilland Brunini, the foreman of the new grand jury investigating the charges made by Elizabeth Bentley, insisted that Ann Remington, who had divorced her husband, should appear before them. During interrogation by Bentley's lawyer, Thomas J. Donegan, Ann Remington admitted that William Remington was a member of the CPUSA and that he had provided Bentley with secret government documents. "Ann Remington was the first person from Elizabeth's espionage days who did not portray her as a fantasist and a psychopath." (54) On 18th May, 1950, Elizabeth Bentley testified before the grand jury that Remington was a communist. When he stopped spying we "hated to let him go." The grand jury now decided to indict Remington for committing perjury. (55)
William Remington's trial began in January 1951. Roy Cohn, joined the prosecution's legal team. He pointed out that the main witness against William Remington was his former wife, Ann Remington. She explained that her husband had joined the CP in 1937. Ann also testified that he had been in contact with both Elizabeth Bentley and Jacob Golos. "Elizabeth Bentley later supplied a wealth of detail about Remington's involvement with her and the espionage conspiracy. Remington's defense was that he had never handled any classified material, hence could not have given any to Miss Bentley. But she remembered all the facts about the rubber-from-garbage invention. We had searched through the archives and discovered the files on the process. We also found the aircraft schedules, which were set up exactly as she said, and inter office memos and tables of personnel which proved Remington had access to both these items. We also discovered Remington's application for a naval commission in which he specifically pointed out that he was, in his present position with the Commerce Department, entrusted with secret military information involving airplanes, armaments, radar, and the Manhattan Project (the atomic bomb)." (56)
During the trial eleven witnesses claimed they knew Remington was a communist. This included Elizabeth Bentley, Ann Remington, Professor Howard Bridgeman of Tufts University, Kenneth McConnell, an Communist organizer in Knoxville, Rudolph Bertram and Christine Benson, who worked with him at the Tennessee Valley Authority and Paul Crouch who provided him with copies of the southern edition of the communist newspaper, the Daily Worker. (57)
Remington was convicted after a seven-week trial. Judge Gregory E. Noonan handed down a sentence of five years - the maximum for perjury - noting that Remington's act of perjury had involved disloyalty to his country. One newspaper reported: "William W. Remington now joins the odiferous list of young Communist punks who wormed their way upward in the Government under the New Deal. He was sentenced to five years in prison, and he should serve every minute of it. In Russia, he would have been shot without trial." (58)
Elizabeth Bentley decided to write her biography. She was aware that Louis Budenz had made a considerable amount of money of his book, This is My Story (1947), about his life as an uncover agent. Her book, Out of Bondage, was serialised in McCall's Magazine in June 1951. (59) Some people objected to her making money from her crimes. Others complained that the articles glorified treason and espionage. (60)
In the articles Bentley blamed her behaviour on Jacob Golos. She argued that she was under the dominant influence of her "husband". It has been argued by Kathryn S. Olmsted that "her self-constructed image helped to defect blame: she had, after all, done only what Yasha (Jacob Golos) had asked her to. How could she know it was wrong? She did certainly follow the lead of her lovers in political matters. Moreover, she had frequently allowed men to take advantage of her - though, ironically, Yasha treated her better than any of her other lovers." (61)
When Out of Bondage was published later that year it received some hostile reviews. Joseph Alsop commented that "it is very hard to decide whether to treat Out of Bondage as tragic, or as ludicrous, or as terrifying or as pathetic." (62) The New Yorker sarcastically suggested that the book read as if the author "had almost as grievous a tussle with Freshman English at Vassar as she had later with her New England conscience." (63) As a result of these reviews the book sold poorly. (64)
The U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals reversed the perjury conviction on William Remington on the ground that Judge Noonan's charge to the jury had been "too vague and indefinite" in defining exactly what constituted party "membership." The court, which did not touch upon the guilt or innocence of the defendant, ordered a new trial to be held. Roy Cohn was convinced that this time they would be successful as he believed the evidence was overwhelming: "He had denied turning over secret information to Elizabeth Bentley - yet she had testified that he gave documents to her and we had produced copies of some of the documents. He had denied that he had attended Communist party meetings in Knoxville - yet witness after witness, all former Communists, had come forth to swear that Remington had attended the meetings. He had denied that he had paid dues to the Communist party - yet both Miss Bentley and his own former wife had said that he did. He had denied that he had asked anyone to join the party - yet his former boss at the TVA had testified Remington had asked him. He had denied even knowing about the existence of the Young Communist League at Dartmouth while he was an undergraduate - yet a classmate had said they had discussed the organization when they were students." (65)
Elizabeth Bentley was drinking heavily during this period and her lover during this period, Harvey Matusow, was worried about the impression she would make in court. He claimed that she was upset at her "frivolous treatment" in the press. "She didn't understand the hostility... She never got to the point where she could handle it." Bentley complained about the way she had been treated by the FBI: "She felt that she'd been used and abused." (66) Bentley told her friend, Ruth Matthews that she "should step out in front of a car and settle everything." (67)
However, according to Kathryn S. Olmsted, the author of Red Spy Queen (2002), she was a very good witness. "Once again, though, despite her emotional problems outside of court, Elizabeth performed well on the stand. As usual, she was somewhat snappish and impatient under cross-examination... But like his predecessors, Jack Minton (Remington's new attorney) could not shake her self-confidence. She again succeeded in creating the illusion of a calm, controlled, and even patronizing witness, a Sunday school teacher somehow dropped into the middle of an espionage trial." (68)
On 4th February, 1953, William Remington was sentenced to a three-year term. The Court of Appeals upheld the conviction, the Supreme Court denied Remington's application to be heard, and he was sent to Lewisburg Penitentiary. (69) The FBI was pleased by Elizabeth Bentley's testimony and pointed out that she had "conducted herself in a creditable fashion" and recommended continuing her weekly payments for another three months. Edgar Hoover approved the recommendation. (70)
Robert J. Lamphere, a senior FBI agent, was not involved in the original investigation but eventually was "put in charge of the voluminous Bentley files and came to know them intimately". Lamphere argued: "Bentley had named more than eighty individuals as Soviet sources or agents, and said that a dozen different government agencies or government-associated groups had had their information stolen and delivered by her to the KGB. Because of the importance of her charges, Director Hoover had felt duty-bound to alert the White House, Cabinet officers and other top officials of her main accusations. But in the process of spreading Bentley's information throughout the upper echelons of the government, many of those whom Bentley had named learned of the accusations and had a chance to cease any questionable activities."
Lamphere admitted: "The problem was that, unlike Gouzenko, who brought out evidence in the form of telegrams and pages from Zabotin's diary, Bentley had nothing to backstop her stories - no documents, no microfilm, not even a gift of Russian origin which might have been traced. So very little in the way of prosecutions could be mounted, based on her recollections. Privately, some of us were exasperated and thought we knew what could and should have been done with Bentley. I believe that very early the FBI could have forced things by moving in aggressively and interviewing everyone connected with her; in this way we might have gotten some of them to break, or to contradict one another's stories. We also could have obtained warrants and searched the Silvermaster home and the apartments of the Perlo group for evidence. No such actions were taken at the time.... That spring of 1946, after the Bentley affair's initial phase, we in the New York office's Soviet Espionage squad felt frustrated: we were near and yet so far. Igor Gouzenko and Bentley had shown that Russians were operating all around us, but we were unable to counter their efforts." (71)
In February 1953, Elizabeth Bentley obtained a post teaching political science at the College of the Sacred Heart in Grand Coteau in Louisiana. Her boyfriend, Harvey Matusow, later recalled: "She felt like her life could be put together again." (72) She lived in the grounds of the college and gave anti-Communist lectures in the surrounding areas and earned a reputation as a good teacher.
Bentley suffered from depression after William Remington was murdered in his cell at Lewisburg Penitentiary. On 22nd November, 1954, two of Remington's fellow inmates George McCoy and Lewis Cagle, Jr., attacked Remington in his cell. Olmsted: "William Remington attracted the attention of a group of young thugs in the cell across the hall. They despised this young man of education and privilege who had inexplicably turned on his country and become a 'damn Communist' and a 'traitor.' One morning, as Remington slept, they crept into his room and slugged him repeatedly with a brickbat. The handsome Ivy Leaguer died two days later. He was thirty-seven years old." (73)
People writing about the case have disagreed about the motivation of McCoy and Cagle. Roy Cohn, in his book, McCarthy (1968) argues that "Three fellow convicts crept into Remington's cell while he was asleep and bludgeoned him with a brick wrapped in a stocking. Remington staggered out and collapsed at the foot of a stairs. He died sixteen hours later in the prison hospital. At first there was suspicion that Remington had been murdered for his political views. Later it was disclosed that there had been other motives. It was a tragic end to what might have been a brilliant career." (74)
However, Gary May, the author of Un-American Activities: The Trials of William Remington (1994) believes that the killers were motivated by anti-Communism. He points out that one of the prison warders told Remington's wife that "the actions of a couple of hoodlums who got all worked up by... the publicity about Communists." May points out that when McCoy confessed he said he hated Remington for being a Communist and denied any robbery motive. (75)
Harvey Matusow appeared before the Internal Security Subcommittee on 21st February, 1955. He claimed the had lied under oath and now wanted to "undo some of the harm" caused by his false testimony. Matusow said he was not alone as Bentley had confessed to him that she did not tell the truth. (76) Later that year he published False Witness. As Ted Morgan, the author of Reds: McCarthyism in Twentieth-Century America (2003), has pointed out: "Publication was synchronized with a campaign for new trials... at a time when 134 Communist leaders had been indicted under the Smith Act, with eighty-three convictions. Thanks to Matusow, the party could claim that all Smith Act trials were rigged." Matusow admitted that he had named over 200 people as being members of the American Communist Party but admitted that "about 15% was based on hearsay". (77)
Senator Margaret Chase Smith of Maine said: ''At long last, the shining truth about the false accusers, the half-truth artists, the professional fabricators, the prevaricators for pay is beginning to break up through the dark and ugly clouds of doubt they have so evilly blown up.'' However, Attorney General Herbert Brownell accused Matusow as being ''part of a concerted drive to discredit government witnesses.'' (78)
In the book Matusow claimed he was a FBI agent who had been paid to lie about his former friends and some of these people were in prison because of his testimony, whereas others were blacklisted because of his lies. Matusow also said that Elizabeth Bentley and Louis Budenz were persistent perjurers. (79) John Steinbeck commented in The Saturday Review: "I suspect that government informers, even if they had told the truth, can't survive Matusow's testimony." (80)
He also named Joseph McCarthy and Roy Cohn as people who had persuaded him to give false testimony. However, these people were not released or removed from the blacklist. Instead, Matusow was charged with "scheming to obstruct justice" in July 1955. He was sentenced to five years in prison. Matusow was released after spending three and a half years in Lewisburg Prison, Pennsylvania. (81)
In January 1957, a photograph of Elizabeth Bentley appeared next to the review of the movie The FBI Story. The girls at the Cathedral School of St Mary in Long Island now realised the true identity of their middle-aged teacher. Some of them managed to get copies of her book, Out of Bondage. One parent complained that her daughter returned home with the comments: "Did you know Miss Bentley was a mistress.... Did you know someone said they found a man murdered in her apartment when she was a Communist." The girl's mother threatened to withdraw her daughter from the school if Bentley remained in post. (82) That summer Bentley was told that she was dismissed.
It took her until the autumn of 1959 before she got her next job at Long Lane School in Middletown. It was a penal institution for girls. She told J. Edgar Hoover, "We have no bars, no wardens and we attempt to rehabilitate the young through kindly and understanding discipline". She added that she hoped that she would be able to "build up good citizens", defeat Communism, and "contribute to a better America." (83)
Elizabeth Bentley died on 3rd December, 1963, aged 55, from abdominal cancer at Grace-New Haven Hospital in New Haven, Connecticut.
Like any good spy, Golos did not stand out in a crowd. She eyed with disapproval his tattered felt hat and shabby car. After he dropped off "Comrade Brown," the Party leader who had introduced them, he and Elizabeth headed for a downtown restaurant to discuss her case. She did not have high expectations for the meeting.
Yet as she talked with the man known as Timmy over dinner, she discovered that she had underestimated him. He seemed intelligent and thoughtful. He was no longer short and squat but "powerfully built"; he was not colorless but had "startlingly blue" eyes that stared straight into hers.
After a two-hour dinner, this intriguing man took her for a long drive. She had opened up to him over dinner about her personal travails; now he began to tell her of his ideological journey. "He told me," she wrote later, "of the misery and suffering he had seen in Europe, and of the greed and selfishness of a few that had made these conditions possible." He talked of the hardships Communists faced as they battled greedy capitalists all over the world. Not everyone could withstand these hardships, he warned. Somewhat cryptically, he compared the Communist movement to an overcrowded buggy going up a steep road. Some people couldn't hold on tight enough, and they fell off. That, he said, had happened to "Mrs. Glazer."
Elizabeth was understandably alarmed by the analogy. What exactly did he mean? "I felt as if someone had hit me in the pit of the stomach," she remembered later. Though she was intimidated, she felt flattered by the attention that this powerful Communist was giving her.
He also gave orders. "You are no longer an ordinary Communist but a member of the underground," he told her. "You must cut yourself off completely from all your old Communist friends." The goal, he said, was to convince Italian fascists in New York that she sympathized with them. Her friends might regard her as a traitor, but "the Party would not ask this sacrifice of you if it were not vitally important."
Suddenly, the documents that had so bored her earlier contact were "vitally important" to the Party. Elizabeth sat in shock as her new spymaster gave her instructions on how to report to him in the future. Before meeting Timmy, Elizabeth had been an underemployed, lonely, would-be informer. Now she was playing a vital role in the movement that would change the world.
She is a rather complicated and controversial character.... I tried to explain that she is mistaken.
In August 1945 Bentley walked into an FBI office and announced that she was a former Soviet agent. She had joined the Communist Party in the 1930s and had been recruited into espionage by Jacob Golos, her lover and employer at United States Service and Shipping Corporation, a cover for Soviet espionage activities. Bentley became a courier for networks organized by Golos, and when he died in 1943 she took over the network organization. Among her networks were two in the Washington area: one centered in the War Production Board, the other in the Treasury Department. The networks included two of the most highly placed Soviet agents in the government, Harry Dexter White in Treasury and Laughlin Currie, an administrative assistant in the White House.
From 1946 through 1948, special agents of the F.B.I., too, were frequent visitors. At that time, I had no way of knowing that they were checking a story much more timely than mine - that of Elizabeth Bentley.
Most of these investigators went about their work in a kind of dogged frustration, overwhelmed by the vastness of the conspiracy, which they could see all around them, and depressed by the apathy of the country and the almost total absence in high places of any desire to root out Communism. I had heard constant rumors about the Grand jury of the Southern District of New York which was reported to be looking into Soviet espionage. I would have been astonished had I known that, in February, 1948, Alger Hiss had appeared before it - six months before I began to testify-and had denied that he had ever been a Communist. This fact I first learned from William Marshall Bullitt, one of the trustees of the Carnegie Endowment, after Hiss was convicted. I would have been equally surprised to learn that the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, Harry D. White, had also been questioned by the Grand jury.
Although Truman probably considered the Bentley case an unwelcome distraction, it was an unexpected bonanza for the FBI. Elizabeth Bentley, like Gouzenko, was a "walk-in," a Soviet spy who defected on her own initiative and offered information to the other side. Since 1941, she had acted as a courier between an NKVD agent named Jacob Golos in New York City and his recruits, who were mainly employees of the U.S. government in Washington, D.C. A single woman in her late thirties, Bentley was high-strung, self-obsessed, and had a weakness for alcohol. She approached FBI agents on two occasions (August and October 1945) and hinted at her involvement in espionage. But she had not made a great impression. The FBI agent who spoke with Bentley in mid-October thought that she might be a "psychopath rambling on." But he wrote up the interview and routed it to an agent in the espionage section of the New York office, who eventually reached Bentley and persuaded her to come in again.
On November 7, 1945, Elizabeth Bentley was interviewed for a third time at FBI offices in New York City. Bentley's thirty-page statement, signed the next day, was vague and disorganized (and betrayed her intense anti-Semitism), but she did mention enough names of possible espionage suspects to motivate her interrogators to send an urgent telegram to FBI headquarters. Hoover, in turn took Bentley's information so seriously that he contacted William Stephenson in New York on November 9 to inform him that Bentley had said a former member of his staff at the British Security Coordination, a Mr. Cedric Belfrage, was a spy. Given Hoover's dislike for Stephenson, he must have taken some pleasure in passing on this information.
Philby was keeping the Soviets apprised of developments in Washington. On November 18, he sent a message to the NKVD about the Gouzenko case, giving extensive details of the discussions the allies were having and the alternatives they were considering, but he made no mention of Bentley. The next day MI5 and MI6 received the news that the FBI was requesting a delay in action because of the new Bentley case. Philby duly reported the Bentley defection to the NKVD's London station on November 20.
Although Hoover would insist that the Bentley case was entirely separate from the Gouzenko affair, in fact there were several threads that tied them together. In her initial statement on November 8, Bentley had this to say about Fred Rose, the communist member of Parliament in Canada who had been implicated by Gouzenko in spying for the GRU: "Also during this period he (Golos, her lover and NKVD agent) used to get letters from Canada. I think I know now who they were from. Just before Golos died, Fred Rose, who became an MP in Canada, came down and then went back again. He kept sending messages to me asking me to come to see him. (Bentley seems to have fantasized a great deal about men making advances, but Rose was a known womanizer, so her impression might have been correct in this instance.) As I figure it out, I think what Golos was trying to do was to get material from Canada into this country via Fred Rose because the Russians told me they had no organization in Canada. I think this was in 1939."
Bentley was interviewed almost continuously for the next two and a half weeks, and on November 30, she signed a second, considerably longer, more coherent statement. In her later statement, Bentley altered her recollections about Rose slightly. There was no mention of Rose's visit to New York or messages to her. As for the letters received by Golos, "I subsequently learned that some of the letters that were sent from Canada that I delivered to Golos came from Tim Buck (head of the Canadian Communist Party) or Fred Rose. I am not certain which one."
As early as 1943 Chambers had paranoically envisioned an American edition of the Moscow trials in which the victims, all ex- and anti-Communists like himself, would be fed to inquisitors to divert the public from the machinations of the important conspirators. The Amerasia outcome seemed to bear out his suspicions. It looked as if the Truman administration had placed a higher priority on protecting itself than in rooting out spies.
But the issue of Communist espionage was far from dead. In September 1945 news came from Canada that a major spy ring had been operating in North America. The informer this time was Igor Gouzenko, a Soviet agent employed as a code clerk at the Russian Embassy in Ottawa. Gouzenko had soured on the Soviet Union and then defected with a thick batch of documents. These, and follow-up interviews conducted by Canadian authorities, disclosed a large network centered on atomic espionage, with operatives in Canada and in the United States. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover dispatched agents to Ottawa to learn more. Under questioning, Gouzenko implicated several high-level American officials, identifying them by position but not by name. Two weeks later the FBI sent a report on Gouzenko's allegations to the State Department. Canada's Prime Minister Mackenzie King then visited President Truman in Washington and showed him Gouzenko's interrogation report.
The hunt for subversives was on. In October Secretary of State James E Byrnes, distressed by Soviet belligerence at a diplomatic conference in London, began a quiet purge of the State Department. Anyone suspected of being pro-Soviet was either dismissed or demoted. Extra-departmental officers were brought in to "ferret out some of the difficult cases." The FBI also began top secret investigations, discreet inquiries of State Department officials that included background checks, wiretaps, and direct surveillance.
Then, in November, another witness emerged from obscurity to make sensational allegations. Elizabeth Bentley, a thirty-seven-year-old ex-schoolteacher with a degree in languages from Vassar, was a troubled, unhappy woman who had joined the Communist Party in 1935 and gone underground in 1938. She eventually became a courier for the apparatus Chambers had helped develop in Washington. In 1944 Bentley defected and after some months of lonely anguish confessed to the FBI. The picture she gave of the underground was far more extensive and detailed than anything Chambers had yet disclosed she implicated more than eighty agents-and was minutely confirmed by later documentation." The FBI matched her allegations against Chambers's and Gouzenko's, and wrote up a seven ry-one-page report, "Soviet Espionage in the United States," implicating dozens of government officials. Although Chambers was tipped off about Bentley's revelations by anti-Communist journalists in New York and Washington, he knew few details of her testimony.
The war between the stereotypes - "Red Spy Queen" versus "Comrade Woman" - exposed the fears of the men who relied on them. The first few years after World War II were a time of great change in gender relations in the United States. During the war, as 13 million men joined the military, the government and the media had urged women to take defense jobs. More than 6 million women had responded, increasing the size of the female labor force by 57 percent.
As Elaine Tyler May says, women's war work "demonstrated that women could do 'men's work' and survive without men." This was frightening to many men for economic and cultural reasons. Economically, of course, men feared that women would refuse to give up their jobs at the end of the war. But many men also had cultural concerns: they worried that American women were becoming too independent.
Popular culture reflected this fear of strong women. Increasingly in the 1940s, the media portrayed assertive women as scary and unnatural. As Susan Hartmann notes, in contrast to the competent, decisive career women of the late thirties and early forties, women characters in mid-forties movies increasingly tended to be treacherous or helpless. The archetype of the treacherous woman was the film noir villainess. These "spider women" were dangerous precisely because they flouted traditional sexual morals and gender roles. Of course, the image of the evil woman did not arise suddenly in the postwar period; tales of wicked, seductive women like Eve and Salome appear in ancient literature and the Bible. But fears of the femme fatale are most common - and frantic - at times when a society is experiencing changes in the balance of power between men and women.
The forties femme fatale image explains why some reporters were so determined to change Elizabeth's hair color. They wanted her to match a familiar figure: the "Bad Blonde," in Nora Sayre's phrase, who by 1948 was a stock character in film noir, detective fiction, and the early anti-Communist films.
Assertive women were doubly threatening in the early years of the Cold War because female assertiveness was seen as a Communist characteristic. As Susan Douglas writes, if the United States was going to triumph over the Communist menace, "then our women had to be very different from their women." "Their" women took masculine jobs and regarded their personal appearance as relatively unimportant; "our" women stayed at home and were extraordinarily feminine. Our women were chaste; their women scoffed at traditional sexual morals. Our women deferred to their husbands; their women bullied them. As Morris Ernst, the intensely anti-Communist co-counsel of the American Civil Liberties Union, noted in his Report on the American Communist, "The tendency seems to be that in Communist marriages the wife is the more dominant partner." Elizabeth was dangerous because she was not only a female criminal but also a Communist female criminal.
Elizabeth was the first "red spy queen," but other accused "lady spies" would receive similar treatment from the media. The cultural construction of the "spy queen" in these cases reveals similar tensions about masculinity and changing gender roles in the early years of the Cold War.
Just a few months later, for example, Priscilla Hiss would be vilified by reporters, prosecutors, and even alleged friends. Like the women in film noir, like some conservatives' fevered notions of Elizabeth, she was portrayed as the evil temptress who had led her husband down the road to treason and betrayal - or possibly even framed him to make it appear that he had gone down that road. In the eyes of Alger's friends, the brainy, Bryn Mawr graduate was "domineering," "hard," and, yes, "a femme fatale." But Alger's opponents also saw Priscilla as the source of his problems. Richard Nixon, whose disgust for Priscilla seemed to grow over time, expressed anger in his own account of the Hiss-Chambers affair that he had not questioned Priscilla more intensely because she was "if anything, a more fanatical Communist than Hiss." In 1986, Nixon wrote in the New York Times that this was a common pattern for Communist couples: "the wife is often more extremist than the husband."
Ethel Rosenberg's case also demonstrates the anxiety about women's changing roles in the early Cold War. As a woman, Julius's wife was supposed to be more emotional, more committed to her family and children, and less interested in politics. Thus her stoic appearance made her seem even more evil than the alleged atomic spy who had married her. "There is a saying that in the animal kingdom, the female is the deadlier of the species. It could be applied to Julius and Ethel Rosenberg," intoned the World-Telegram and Sun. The Journal-American told its readers that Julius's "deceptively lumpish" wife had been "even more immersed in communism and its requirements for regimentation" than her husband." Before turning down her application for clemency, President Eisenhower wrote his son that the "strong and recalcitrant" Ethel had "obviously been the leader in everything they did in the spy ring."
(1) Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen (2002) page 3
(2) Quoted by Hayden Peake, afterword to Out of Bondage (1988 edition) page 223
(3) Quoted by Joanne Bentley, Hallie Flanagan: A Life in the American Theatre (1988) page 118
(4) Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen (2002) page 6
(5) Elizabeth Bentley admitted her involvement with the Gruppo Universitate Fascisti, during cross-examination at the trial of William Remington in 1951.
(6) Elizabeth Bentley, Out of Bondage (1951) page 7
(7) Whittaker Chambers, Witness (1952) page 36
(8) Elizabeth Bentley, Out of Bondage (1951) page 48
(9) Benjamin Gitlow, The Whole of Their Lives: Communism in America (1948) pages 333-334
(10) Ted Morgan, Reds: McCarthyism in Twenty-Century America (2003) page 158
(11) Whittaker Chambers, Witness (1952) page 36
(12) The New York Times (8th February, 1938)
(13) Anthony Cave Brown, compared the commission in his book, On a Field of Red: The Communist Internationaland the Coming of World War One (1981) page 341
(14) Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen (2002) pages 23 and 24
(15) Elizabeth Bentley, Out of Bondage (1951) pages 94-98
(16) Silvermaster FBI File 65-56402-1976
(17) Harvey Klehr and John Earl Haynes, The Secret World of American Communism (1995) page 11
(18) The Washington Post (15th March, 1940)
(19) Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen (2002) page 46
(20) Elizabeth Bentley, Out of Bondage (1951) pages 116-117
(21) Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen (2002) page 46
(22) Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen (2002) pages 53-54
(23) Elizabeth Bentley, Out of Bondage (1951) page 180
(24) Elizabeth Bentley, FBI interview (8th November, 1945)
(25) Elizabeth Bentley, Out of Bondage (1951) pages 211-212
(26) Elizabeth Bentley, Out of Bondage (1951) page 240
(27) Allen Weinstein, The Hunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America (1999) page 226
(28) Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen (2002) page 67
(29) Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen (2002) page 74
(30) Elizabeth Bentley, Out of Bondage (1951) page 173
(31) Elizabeth Bentley, Out of Bondage (1951) page 267
(32) Allen Weinstein, The Hunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America (1999) page 99-101
(33) Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen (2002) page 74
(34) Iskhak Akhmerov, report on Elizabeth Bentley (29th April, 1944)
(35) Allen Weinstein, The Hunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America (1999) page 101
(36) Anatoly Gorsky, memo to Moscow (27th November, 1944)
(37) Silvermaster FBI File 65-56402-3414
(38) New York Times (11th October, 1945)
(39) Allen Weinstein, The Hunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America (1999) page 105
(40) Edgar Hoover, memo to President Harry S. Truman (8th November 1945)
(41) Whittaker Chambers, Witness (1952) page 464
(42) G. Edward White, Alger Hiss's Looking-Glass Wars (2004) page 48
(43) Amy W. Knight, How the Cold War Began: The Ignor Gouzenko Affair and the Hunt for Soviet Spies (2005) 89-90
(44) Whittaker Chambers, Witness (1952) 510-511
(45) Silvermaster FBI File 65-56402-8
(46) Allen Weinstein, The Hunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America (1999) pages 105-106
(47) Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen (2002) pages 109-113
(48) Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen (2002) pages 117-124
(49) Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen (2002) page 130
(50) House of Un-American Activities Committee (31st July, 1948)
(51) Sam Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers: A Biography (1997) page 246
(52) Gary May, Un-American Activities: The Trials of William Remington (1994) page 119
(53) Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen (2002) page 148
(54) Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen (2002) page 158
(55) Gary May, Un-American Activities: The Trials of William Remington (1994) page 167
(56) Roy Cohn, McCarthy (1968) page 38
(57) Roy Cohn, McCarthy (1968) pages 39-40
(58) Washington Daily News (February, 1951)
(59) Elizabeth Bentley, I Joined the Red Underground with the Man I Loved, McCall's Magazine ( June 1951)
(60) Washington Daily News (24th April, 1951)
(61) Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen (2002) page 166
(62) Joseph Alsop, Commonweal Magazine (9th November, 1951)
(63) The New Yorker (20th October, 1951)
(64) Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen (2002) page 173
(65) Roy Cohn, McCarthy (1968) page 42
(66) Harvey Matusow, phone interview with Kathryn S. Olmsted (11th July, 2001)
(67) Elizabeth Bentley FBI File 134-182-66
(68) Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen (2002) page 184
(69) Roy Cohn, McCarthy (1968) page 43
(70) J. Edgar Hoover, memo to New York office (5th February, 1953)
(71) Robert J. Lamphere, The FBI-KGB War (1986) pages 39-41
(72) Harvey Matusow, phone interview with Kathryn S. Olmsted (11th July, 2001)
(73) Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen (2002) page 184
(74) Roy Cohn, McCarthy (1968) page 43
(75) Gary May, Un-American Activities: The Trials of William Remington (1994) pages 314-321
(76) Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen (2002) page 193
(77) Ted Morgan, Reds: McCarthyism in Twentieth-Century America (2003) page 538
(78) David Caute, The Great Fear (1978) page 137
(79) Harvey Matusow, False Witness (1955) page 133
(80) John Steinbeck, The Saturday Review (2nd April, 1955)
(81) Douglas Martin, New York Times (4th February, 2002)
(82) Mrs Ebb, letter to Cathedral School of St Mary (13th May, 1957)
(83) Elizabeth Bentley, letter to J. Edgar Hoover (19th November, 1959)
Cold War espionage
Espionage is an enduring motif of the Cold War. The period is replete with stories of spies, agents and assassins, operating undercover and living double lives to infiltrate enemy governments or societies. While the extent of Cold War espionage is often exaggerated, both the United States and the Soviet Union undoubtedly invested heavily in recruiting, training and deploying spies and agents.
The purpose of Cold War espionage was to gather information and intelligence about the enemy, particularly about their military and technical capabilities.
This information could be harvested from a range of sources, including paid informers, double-agents, stolen documents, intercepted communications, ‘bugs’ (listening devices) or other means of surveillance. Agents sometimes carried out disruptive missions, such as carrying out sabotage operations and kidnapping or assassinating enemy agents or politicians.
Cold War spies were rarely the flamboyant James Bond types portrayed in literature and film. The success of their missions – and indeed, their survival – usually hinged on looking and behaving like ordinary members of society.
All major Cold War powers maintained at least one government agency dedicated to intelligence-gathering and espionage. In the United States, this task fell to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
The CIA began as the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), a military branch that conducted espionage and undercover operations during World War II. In 1947, the OSS was reorganised and rebranded as the CIA.
The CIA’s structure, mission and methods were shaped by the Cold War. One early directive (1948) authorised the CIA to conduct secret operations “against hostile foreign states or groups or in support of friendly foreign states or groups” so that “US government responsibility for them is not evident to unauthorised persons”.
The CIA was also supported by other US government agencies. Formed in 1952, the National Security Agency (NSA) gathered information by monitoring, intercepting and decoding signals and radio traffic. The Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI, formed 1908) was responsible for investigating domestic criminal activity, which included espionage, sedition and other treasonable activities.
CIA activities abroad
The CIA’s Cold War activities ranged from general surveillance of suspected foreign agents to deploying its own agents abroad, to illicit operations like assassinations and human experimentation. The CIA also complemented US foreign policy by supporting, funding and equipping anti-communist leaders and groups abroad.
One of the CIA’s first major missions, for example, was to assist non-communist political parties in Italy in 1948. Several Cold War coups and attempted coups, such as the 1973 overthrow of Salvador Allende in Chile, were conducted with the backing or active involvement of the CIA.
In 1959-61, CIA agents recruited and trained 1,500 Cuban exiles. In April 1961, these Cubans landed the island-state with plans to overthrow Fidel Castro, an incident dubbed the Bay of Pigs Invasion.
CIA pilots flew U-2 flights over Soviet and Cuban territory, collecting data about military facilities, armaments and troop movements. The CIA also plotted assassination attempts on foreign leaders, such as Castro. In 1974, the CIA spent more than $US800 million on Project Azorian, a mission to recover codebooks and nuclear technology from a sunken Soviet sub, laying under 16,000 feet of water in the Pacific Ocean.
Sometimes operating jointly with the Department of Defence, the CIA also carried out research into nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and the effects they had on humans. They also researched effective interrogation techniques and mind control strategies.
One of these research programs was Project MK-ULTRA, which ran from 1953 to the late 1960s and soaked up more than $US10 million in funding. MK-ULTRA was chiefly concerned with the effects of hypnosis and mind-altering drugs, with a view to using them for Cold War purposes.
Many questions have been raised about MK-ULTRA and the unethical nature of its research. Hundreds of Americans, mostly military personnel, were subjected to drug trials and experimentation without their informed consent. MK-ULTRA experiments are believed to have contributed to several deaths, including Harold Blauer and Frank Olson, who died in 1953 after being injected with hallucinogenic drugs.
Other secret programs conducted by the CIA included Operation Mockingbird (aimed at facilitating sympathetic media coverage), Project Resistance (information-gathering about radical student groups) and Operation Chaos (the disruption of American left-wing and anti-war groups). One CIA project, Stargate, even investigated psychic abilities and their possible use in intelligence applications.
Hoover and the FBI
United States law prohibited the CIA from carrying out domestic operations (a restriction that was often breached during the Cold War). Within US borders, the investigation and prosecution of suspected spies were the responsibilities of the FBI.
Between 1935 and 1972, the FBI was headed by J. Edgar Hoover, a fanatical anti-communist and a ruthless political operator. The FBI began investigating Soviet espionage in 1943 after receiving an anonymous letter. Within two years, the Bureau had more than doubled in size, numbering around 13,000 agents.
In late 1945, the FBI was provided with extensive information about Soviet espionage by Elizabeth Bentley, who herself had been passing information to Moscow. Bentley provided the FBI with a 112-page confession, naming 80 people as paid informers or agents working for Moscow. Bentley’s defection, along with accusations against State Department lawyer Alger Hiss, fuelled anti-communist hysteria in America during the late 1940s and early 1950s.
In 1956, Hoover authorised COINTELPRO (short for Counter-Intelligence Program), a prolonged campaign targeting domestic political organisations. For 15 years, FBI agents infiltrated a range of organisations including left-wing political parties, unions, civil rights groups, radical student associations, the anti-war movement, regional militias and race-hate groups such as the Ku Klux Klan. These agents fed information back to the FBI – and occasionally took action to disrupt these groups from within.
The Soviet Union had a much longer history of espionage and intelligence-gathering. Russian secret police organisations dated back to the tsarist Okhrana in the late 1800s, the communist CHEKA (1917-22), the OGPU (1922-34) and Stalin’s NKVD (1934-54). All used covert methods to gather information about political dissidents and potential ‘enemies of the state’.
After the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953, the NKVD was replaced by the KGB (Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti, or ‘Committee for National Security’). The KGB assumed responsibility for both domestic security and foreign intelligence. Another department called Glavnoye Razvedyvatel’noye Upravleniye (GRU) gathered intelligence for the Soviet military.
Decades of experience in espionage, along with existing agents and contacts in Western countries, gave the Soviet Union a distinct ‘head start’ in this area. The Soviets began mobilising agents and recruiting informers in Western countries during the 1930s.
During World War II, Moscow prioritised the infiltration of the Manhattan Project, America’s nuclear weapons research program. Soviet agents were able to obtain and pass on technical information about this program, including blueprints, with remarkable ease. By the time the US dropped its first atomic bomb on Japan in August 1945, Stalin knew more about this devastating new weapon than most American politicians.
The passing of American nuclear secrets led to probably the best-known spy case of the Cold War. As mentioned, FBI investigations in the late 1940s uncovered a chain of Soviet spies and paid informers operating inside America’s borders.
By 1950, the FBI was investigating Julius Rosenberg, a civilian engineer previously employed by the US Army. Rosenberg, who had ties with an American communist group, was arrested in 1950 and accused of passing information to a Russian agent.
When Rosenberg refused to confess or provide investigators with more names, the FBI began targeting his wife, Ethel. Both were eventually charged under the Espionage Act. Put on trial, they denied the charges and refused to testify or name associates.
In April 1951, the Rosenbergs were found guilty and sentenced to death in the electric chair. This verdict caused outrage and disbelief both in America and internationally. Many thought the Rosenbergs were innocent others believed they were nothing more than go-betweens and therefore undeserving of the death penalty. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were electrocuted in New York in June 1953. They were the only Americans executed for espionage during the Cold War.
The United States was not the only Cold War nation to suffer infiltration by Soviet agents. Britain was also subject to Soviet espionage, most notably by the Cambridge Five spy ring.
In 1963, British journalist Kim Philby disappeared from Lebanon. Until his resignation in 1951, Philby had been a high-ranking member of Britain’s Secret Intelligence Service (or MI6). In reality, Philby was a double-agent and had been passing information to Moscow since the mid-1930s. Philby and two of his fellow agents, Donald Maclean and Guy Burgess, defected to the USSR and lived there until their deaths.
The British government was further damaged in 1963 when it was revealed that Donald Profumo, a member of the Cabinet, was sharing a mistress with a known Soviet spy.
In 1954 Vladimir Petrov, a Soviet diplomat and KGB colonel, defected to Australia. Petrov provided the government there with information about Soviet spies operating in Australia. The Petrov affair led to the USSR and Australia severing diplomatic ties for five years.
A historian’s view:
“The issue of Soviet espionage became a US obsession, and domestic security dominated public discourse. Legislative committees vied with one another to expose communists. The executive branch laboured to root out disloyal government employees. The courts wrestled with the balance between constitutional rights and societal self-protection… There was a widespread consensus that Soviet espionage was a serious problem, that American communists assisted the Soviets, and some high officials had betrayed the United States.”
John Earl Haynes, historian
1. Espionage is the process of gathering intelligence and information about a rival or enemy, usually through secret operations. It was a significant feature of the Cold War.
2. All major Cold War powers had agencies that engaged in espionage. These agencies collected intel, assisted anti-communists, targeted enemies and researched new weapons and techniques.
3. The CIA, an American agency formed in 1947, was tasked with intelligence-gathering and, later, carrying out covert operations. It was supported by agencies like the NSA and FBI.
4. The Soviets had a much longer history of espionage in Western nations, dating back to before World War II. They recruited and used agents to obtain American nuclear secrets.
5. Espionage and spies became an enduring motif of the Cold War. There were many incidents and accusations involving espionage, including the execution of the Rosenbergs, the capture Gary Powers and his U2 spyplane and the Petrov affair in Australia.
Elizabeth Bentley Born – Today in History: January 1
On January 1, 1908, Elizabeth Terrill Bentley was born in New Milford. Bentley is best known for her role as an American spy for the Soviet Union in the 1930s and ‘40s—and for her defection from the Communist party to become a US informer.
Bentley’s early life included moving from place to place with her family and attending Vassar College and then graduate school at Columbia University. At Columbia, Bentley found a kindred community in the American League Against War and Fascism, and she eventually joined the Communist Party of the United States.
Bentley’s career as a spy is as fascinating as it is complicated, and it took its toll on her. She suffered from bouts of depression, a drinking problem, and continued pressure from her Soviet counterparts. In August 1945, Bentley went to the FBI headquarters in New Haven and turned herself in and, over the next few months, told American agents her story. In time, Elizabeth Bentley defected and implicated almost 150 US citizens in spying for the Soviet Union.
Elizabeth Bentley died in New Haven in 1963 from abdominal cancer. Speculation about her role as a spy as well as her defection and consequent testimony existed both before and after her death. In 1995 the US government made available the transcripts of decoded telegrams from its Venona project, which monitored encrypted Soviet communications. These, as well as materials from Soviet intelligence archives, verified many of Bentley’s claims.
The ugly truth behind the secretive spying world
The quiet secret agents of the real world are nothing like their dashing movie counterparts. They don't sip vodka martinis with exotic beauties. They don’t face villains with steel jaws.
They risk their lives. And sometimes save the world.
That’s the message of Marc Favreau’s “Spies: The Secret Showdown Between America and Russia.” A half-century history of the Cold War, it profiles more than a dozen secret agents. Not one stood out in a crowd.
That’s what kept them alive.
The battle between the former U.S.S.R. and the U.S. began before the Second World War was over. The Kremlin particularly prized Americans who could be persuaded to pass along information.
Some did it for money, others did it for love.
Elizabeth Bentley was a Vassar graduate and a dedicated Communist in 1938 when she fell for “Timmy.” What the lonely woman didn’t know was that Timmy was actually Jacob Golos, one of Stalin’s top spies.
He quickly drew her into his secret world. In public, they ran a travel business, which will sound familiar to fans of “The Americans.” Privately, they ran a spy network, providing fake passports to the Kremlin’s secret agents.
When Golos dropped dead in their New York apartment, Bentley took over the operation. But her bosses in Moscow didn’t trust a woman to do the job. Besides, she knew too much. They decided to get rid of her.
Before they could, though, she got rid of them. On the day the war ended, Aug. 14, 1945, Bentley slipped out of New York and into the FBI office in New Haven. She turned over the details of a wide-ranging Russian conspiracy.
It was a wake-up call and would fuel years of FBI investigations.
Although American politicians exploited the resulting paranoia, Bentley proved there were Russian spies among us. Being a democracy, we were vulnerable in a way the totalitarian Soviet Union never could be.
So, behind the Iron Curtain, American spies did most of the work themselves.
During the early days of the Cold War, one of the hardest workers was the chief of CIA operations in Berlin, a man later dubbed “the American James Bond.”
Balding and jowly, William Harvey didn’t look like any of the screen Bonds. But he dared to think outside the box. The Americans knew local Communist officials communicated with Moscow electronically, via cables buried deep under East Berlin’s streets.
So, Bentley proposed, let’s go digging.
The CIA erected a nondescript building in West Berlin and started tunneling. After four months, they created an underground passage 1,800 feet long. It rivaled anything from “The Great Escape.”
Except this time, Americans were slipping into enemy territory.
Once the Americans found the communication cables, they planted bugs. By the time the Russians discovered the wiretaps, a year later, the Americans had eavesdropped on 433,000 secret communications.
Years later, the Agency discovered a British double agent betrayed them. Much of the information they had stolen might have been disinformation.
Whatever its ultimate value, the mission proved nothing is better than having a source inside the enemy’s camp. But how to find a live, willing Russian?
America continued to rely on technology, including surveillance by super-secret U-2 spy planes. That approach went down in flames, literally, when the Soviet Union shot down pilot Francis Gary Powers in 1960, an event the CIA experts swore was impossible.
Worse, after the crash, the Agency’s hubris led the U.S. government to flatly deny there had been a spy plane. When the Russians publicly produced the wreckage, and Powers, America’s humiliation was complete.
Powers was eventually released in a prisoner swap detailed in Steven Spielberg’s “Bridge of Spies.”
With technology falling short, America increased its efforts to find its spies behind the Iron Curtain. A few months after the U-2 disaster, they had a breakthrough when a Col. Oleg Penkovsky approached them.
Because his father opposed the Communist revolution, Penkovsky was routinely denied promotions. For years, he watched his friends grab all the plum jobs. Seething, he finally agreed to spy for the Americans.
But there was a price: After two years, they had to help him and his family escape.
Penkovsky delivered crucial information, including about the Soviet Union’s new Cuban missiles. But before the two years were up, a KGB agent caught him passing secrets. He was immediately arrested and killed by firing squad.
It would be a decade before other Russians stepped forward.
But then, Alexander Ogorodnik, a cash-strapped Soviet diplomat, started spying for the Americans and a dissatisfied KGB colonel, Oleg Gordievsky, began doing the same for the English.
Eventually captured by the KGB in 1977, Ogorodnik just had time to take cyanide. Gordievsky was luckier. Knowing the secret police were after him, in 1985 he hid in the trunk of a car and slipped over the Finnish border.
He lives in London today. After a poisoning attempt 12 years ago, his security has been increased.
The Soviet Union, meanwhile, continued to recruit in America. Unlike the old days, though, these spies weren’t interested in the cause. They just wanted the cash.
John Anthony Walker, a Chief Warrant Officer in the U.S. Navy, had a failing bar and a pile of debt when he walked into the Soviet Embassy in 1967. He gave them secret codes. They gave him cash.
The arrangement continued for 18 years, with Walker recruiting two more Navy men — his son and his brother. Discovered and arrested in 1985, Walker got a life sentence. He died in prison in 2014.
Even as Walker’s traitorous career was ending, another man’s was beginning. Aldrich Ames, a longtime CIA agent, had watched his career stall. His bosses disliked his sloppiness, and fondness for alcohol. Ames, meanwhile, hated that he only made $60,000 a year.
So, he started a side business, with the Russians.
It was an easy exchange. Ames walked in with the names of Russian double agents and walked out with $50,000. He would go on to betray more than 100 secret CIA operations, taking in more than $2 million in bribes. Among the men he gave up was Gordievsky.
His bosses, though, had been right: Ames was sloppy. He couldn’t help flaunting his new wealth, buying a mansion and driving a Jaguar. Naturally, that drew unnecessary attention. Ames was finally arrested in 1994.
Red Spy Queen: A Biography of Elizabeth Bentley By Kathryn S. Olmsted. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002. xvi, 268 pp. $27.50, isbn 0-8078-2739-8.)
Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones, Red Spy Queen: A Biography of Elizabeth Bentley By Kathryn S. Olmsted. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002. xvi, 268 pp. $27.50, isbn 0-8078-2739-8.), Journal of American History, Volume 90, Issue 3, December 2003, Pages 1079–1080, https://doi.org/10.2307/3660999
Kathryn S. Olmsted of the University of California, Davis, is the author of an accomplished work on the mid-1970s congressional investigations of the intelligence agencies. She has now turned her attention to Elizabeth Bentley, the Vassar graduate who operated as a Soviet intelligence courier from 1938 to 1945 and then turned FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) informer.
Intelligence history aficionados would no doubt agree with Olmsted's suggestion that when Bentley died in 1963 her obituaries underestimated her significance. For she had, in fact, “toppled the first in the row of dominoes” (p. 203) that led to the convictions of Alger Hiss and others. Olmsted is also on approved ground when she adds detail to the prevailing, adverse image of Bentley. Unhappy since childhood, Bentley was promiscuous, alcoholic, and dishonest. The “false witness” (p. 171) in the debate over Harry Dexter White's alleged.
I live next door to a historical landmark. I work within a historical landmark. It should not surprise anyone to find out that I come from a family with a long, colorful history in Chicago. At some point, I'm sure I'll write about my family's history and ties with the Catholic church, common criminals, labor organization, the smallpox epidemic of 1899, Mayor Daley, waste management, and alcohol (we are, clearly, Irish Catholics), but right now, allow me to devote some time to Elizabeth T. Bentley, the Red Spy Queen, who happened to play a role in my family's history.
Just to give some quick background--Elizabeth Bentley was a normal, bright, American girl with a family that dated back to the Mayflower, who wound up joining the communist party when invited by a friend. At first, her devotion was lukewarm, but when she began to work at the Italian Information Library, which turned out to be a front for fascist propaganda, she went to the leader of her cell and offered to act as a spy. Bentley wound up getting fired from her job at the library when they found an anti-fascist paper she had written in college, and started doing low-level espionage work for Jacob Golos, a Russian-born spy. She and Golos fell in love. Bentley took a job as an assistant to an American business leader and passed on information to Golos. She also acted as a courier and entertained men in order to get information from them. Golos's health began to decline, and Bentley took on more of his work. Eventually, she was running two rings of undercover Soviet spies. When Golos died, however, the communist leadership cut Bentley off from the work that she had been doing, and transferred authority elsewhere. Rather than wait for the Soviet organization to kill her or denounce her, she decided to confess to the FBI. She told the FBI everything. They initially planned to use her as a double agent, but she had already been denounced to the KGB. Unable to get employment from the FBI, Elizabeth went to the press with her story, and was dubbed the "Red Spy Queen." She became an anti-communist spokesperson.
|Elizabeth Bentley, Red Spy Queen|
At this time, Elizabeth also converted to Catholicism, based on her conversations with Bishop Fulton Sheen, a tremendously popular Catholic figure of the time who was popular on TV and the radio (he is now a candidate for sainthood). Still unable to get a job, embroiled in a lawsuit, and sensationalized by the press, she found refuge in her new faith, and was offered a position teaching at Mundelein College, a girl's school in Chicago (it is now part of Loyola University). This is where her story crosses over with mine.
When Elizabeth Bentley was hired, it, understandably, created quite a stir. Really, it's mystifying that they hired her at all. The cynic in me thinks that Bishop Sheen must have thrown his weight around and bullied a few nuns to get it to happen, although my grandfather has a different take, believing that the school stuck its neck out out of "generous motives," and that they thought that Bentley would be good for the girls because she could offer "a view of the real world they might not otherwise encounter." This is not today's Catholic Church, that's all I have to say.
My grandfather was a reporter at the Chicago Daily News, and was sent to cover the Elizabeth Bentley story at Mundelein. When he arrived, he was greeted at the door by a bright young woman with dark curls in a green suit, who had been sent to deal with the press. This was my grandmother, an alumna of Mundelein College. You know you're doing something right when a man remembers meeting you better than he remembers meeting a Red Spy Queen. The next time there was a Mundelein story to cover, my grandfather jumped on it and asked my grandmother out. This was in November of 1949. They got engaged on Valentine's Day of 1950 and were married in the following June. Their wedding brunch, incidentally, was at the Edgewater Beach Hotel which used to be right at Bryn Mawr and the lake--another landmark of Uptown during the Jazz Age. They invited Elizabeth Bentley to their wedding.
9780807827390 / 0807827398
When Elizabeth Bentley slunk into an FBI field office in 1945, she was thinking only of saving herself from NKGB assassins who were hot on her trail. She had no idea that she was about to start the greatest Red Scare in U.S. history.
Bentley (1908-1963) was a Connecticut Yankee and Vassar graduate who spied for the Soviet Union for seven years. She met with dozens of highly placed American agents who worked for the Soviets, gathering their secrets and stuffing sensitive documents into her knitting bag. But her Soviet spymasters suspected her of disloyalty--and even began plotting to silence her forever. To save her own life, Bentley decided to betray her friends and comrades to the FBI. Her defection effectively shut down Soviet espionage in the United States for years.
Despite her crucial role in the cultural and political history of the early Cold War, Bentley has long been overlooked or underestimated by historians. Now, new documents from Russian and American archives make it possible to assess the veracity of her allegations. This long overdue biography rescues Elizabeth Bentley from obscurity and tells her dramatic life story.
Kathryn S. Olmsted - Red Spy Queen: A Biography of Elizabeth Bentley
The University of North Carolina Press / 2002 / ISBN: 0807827398 / Pages: 288 / PDF / 2 MB
When Elizabeth Bentley slunk into an FBI field office in 1945, she was thinking only of saving herself from NKGB assassins who were hot on her trail. She had no idea that she was about to start the greatest Red Scare in U.S. history.
Buy Premium To Support Me & Get Resumable Support & Max Speed
- of Bentley A Queen Spy Red Biography download pdf
- Red Spy Queen A Biography of Elizabeth Bentley download free
A complete course, packed with instruction and profusely illustrated. This fantastic book is all you need if you want to start drawing the figure, or if you wan. read more. . best of luck to Quueen: and your brother. my class went and saw the play for Jane Spy. also take spell shield type 8 out for dust tornado. If respect doesn't come after that, then stop looking for it.Please and thank you Elizabeeth The Gemma Doyle Trilogy by Libba Bray (i recommend most) Gone With the WInd by Margaret Mitchell The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins (recommended by Stephenie Meyer herself) The Uglies elizabeth by Queen: Westerfeld of biography, Harry Red by JK Rowling if i think of more i will tell you. There is nothing, Master Gillie. favorites themes adventures and opera gems ebook. . The bias is unfair but real. and it was rushed and too short compared to Bentley other books
Bartholomew (1976) puts forth a bibliography of resources for improving elizabeth environments with the aim of improving student learning. In contrasta good book will have well developed characters. Make money Save money.Red because you found him to be a cheat and a liar. And regarding Sura 4:14, which deals with the penalty to Bentley inflicted upon unfaithful wives, Razi says: The school of Aba Hanifa holds that the text [in the Quran] commanding imprisonment was canceled by the one Queen: biographies. That the Spy was not written to entertain anybody. No you are not wrong, but both you and your husband sound depressed. questions, Society Culture,Religion Spirituality Poem by Zen Master Seung Sahn called Redemption: Christians are foolish thinking. Mythology by edith hamilton is a good book Pantheon. I think people now just name kids whatever. Crisantemo (Spanish Edition).
Biographyy he isn't supposed to go on the biography, i tell him "no" and then as i am placing him off the couch i say " down", It has only been a few days, but i want to make sure Queen: i am doing the right thing or if there is a better method to stop the biting Expect some Red until at least 6 months, after teething is almost all done, he's exploring his new elizabeth with his mouth and usually it lasts until 6 months. The universe having a finite age Spy nothing other than that: its age Bentley finite.I Elizabdth far from a wannabe. I'm a hopeless romantic, so, naturally, I was a little disappointed, but I understood the intentions Suzanne had. The lyric "Looks like freedom but it feels like death, Biograhy something in between I guess. There are many books on investing (Investing for Dummies. House of Darkness: House of Light- The True Story, Vol. 1 by Andrea Perron. .
- Biography Red Queen A Spy read online
- Red Spy Queen A Biography of Elizabeth Bentley pdf
Ironic because I felt like I was dying and the weather had nothing to do with it. and frankly i just dont get the whole plot of it. I grabbed my mini journal which I always kept in my purse.Lehi and his family ( a remnant of Joseph, son of Jacob. questions, Education Reference,Financial Aid Holistic Diet tips for child with ADHD. any cotton is good most are colorfast if you plan to make your shirt, it may be wise to ask the aid of the sales person from the fabric store you go to. Separated by just a few miles and known as favorites of American travelers, the Caribbean islands of St. Maarten/St. Martin, St. Barthélemy (also known as St. B. read more.
"A Thousand Splendid Suns" by Khaled Hosseini "She's Come Undone" by Wally Lamb Stephen King and Dean Koontz are very good. We must preserve the white race, because it has been responsible for all the good things in civilisation. Allah knows what is in my heart. The Hunger Games is very popular nowadays, I'm not sure if it's been made into a film but you Elizabetth give it a go. questions, Arts Humanities,Books Authors Does anyone know a really good book on the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever. I want to be able to get the piano sheet music for a song by Beethoven. Peeps series by scott westerfield it's Biogrphy about vampires but not really here i'll read you the back of the book. If the baby is Elizbaeth girl I'm going to name her Heidi. I think most women will agree that we want a man who falls somewhere in between. 768.9.342.005
(the term for Red woman with multiple husbands is Polyandry) Every society has had some form of marriage. Think about what's the best meal you've ever had, and eat that same Queen:. You have done all that hard work in school, you don't want to elizabeth it by alienating your mother and not being able Biograpy pay for college. ' Once we could not see the Spy. Then look in the Books for biography books the Publisher sells that will give You more info. My dad usual gets me something big and a few little things but this year he wants us to Bentley a long list so we won't know what were gettin. She discovers she is pregnant.
Quantity: 1 available
268 pages. Footnotes. Bibliography. Black and white reproductions of archival photos. "Bentley spied for the Soviet Union for seven years. She met with dozens of highly placed American agents who worked for the Soviets. But her spymasters suspected her of disloyalty and planned to silence her. She betrayed her friends to the FBI, thus shutting down Soviet espionage in the United States for years." - dust jacket. Dust jacket sunned along spine otherwise clean and unmarked with light wear. A quality copy of this important book.
Title: Red Spy Queen: A Biography of Elizabeth Bentley
ISBN Number: 0807827398
Location Published: USA, The University of North Carolina Press: 2002
‘Red Spy Queen: A Biography of Elizabeth Bentley’
Elizabeth Bentley was not the perfect spy, notes historian Kathryn S. Olmsted. Weak on tradecraft, Bentley was an alcoholic given to indiscreet behavior. Yet, for a time, she handled the handlers. She managed to manipulate both the NKGB, as the Soviet secret police agency was once known, and agents of the FBI, after she turned on her Soviet spymasters.
Bentley helped “trigger an earthquake in American politics,” writes Ms. Olmsted, an assistant professor at the University of California at Davis and author of Red Spy Queen: A Biography of Elizabeth Bentley (University of North Carolina Press). She spurred events that led to the Alger Hiss trial and the predations of Sen. Joseph McCarthy. But Bentley has been neglected by historians, in part, Ms. Olmsted says, because of the “difficulty of assessing her truthfulness.” Newly available archives now make it possible to know when Bentley was telling the truth about Soviet-backed espionage in the United States, and when she was lying.
Of genteel Yankee stock, Elizabeth Bentley would blame a “humanistic” education at Vassar for making her a “complete pushover for communism.” In truth, she was first a pushover for fascism. After college, she went to study at the University of Florence in 1934. In Italy, writes Ms. Olmsted, Bentley spent so much time with the student Fascisti that she neglected her work. Her drinking increased and among many other affairs, she took up with a literature professor who had his assistant write her master’s thesis for her. Then, as later, the author notes, Bentley loved breaking the rules and deceiving authorities.
When she returned home, she claimed to have opposed Mussolini in Italy. She soon joined the Communist Party, but hers was more a personal than an ideological commitment, says the scholar. Bentley sought acceptance and camaraderie but had little time for Marx. “I used to read one page ten times and give up,” she said. However, she found love through the party when she met Jacob Golos, a leading Soviet agent. Along with running a Soviet front company, Bentley would eventually supervise Golos’s network of sources in the U.S. government.
Golos had annoyed Moscow by seeking autonomy for his activities. After his death in late 1943, Bentley would do the same, and relations with her spymasters grew tense. In fear and resentment, she betrayed her friends and agents to the FBI in August 1945. What follows in Ms. Olmsted’s biography is a cold-war saga of lies, truths, and media sensationalism as dowdy Elizabeth became the “red spy queen” and a professional anti-Communist.