History Podcasts

Coin of the Gauda King Shashanka

Coin of the Gauda King Shashanka


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Gauḍa (city)

Gauḍa (also known as Gaur, Gour, [1] Lakhnauti, and Jannatabad) is a historic city of Bengal in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, [2] and one of the most prominent capitals of classical and medieval India. Located on the border between India and Bangladesh, with most of its ruins on the Indian side and a few structures on the Bangladeshi side, it was once one of the most populous cities in the world. The ruins of this former city now straddle the international border and are divided between the Malda district of West Bengal and Chapai Nawabganj District of Rajshahi Division. The Kotwali Gate, formerly part of the citadel, now marks the border checkpoint between the two countries.

Gauda was the capital city of Bengal under several kingdoms. The Gauda region was also a province of several pan-Indian empires. During the 7th century, the Gauda Kingdom was founded by King Shashanka, whose reign corresponds with the beginning of the Bengali calendar. The Pala Empire, which ruled large parts of the northern Indian subcontinent, was founded in Gauda during the 8th century. Gauda became known as Lakhnauti during the Sena dynasty. [3] Gauda gradually became synonymous with Bengal and Bengalis. It was conquered by the Delhi Sultanate in 1204.

For a period of 115 years, between 1450 and 1565, Gauda was the capital of the Bengal Sultanate. In 1500, Gauda was the fifth-most populous city in the world, with a population of 200,000, [4] [5] as well as one of the most densely populated cities in the Indian subcontinent. The Portuguese left detailed accounts of the city. The Sultans built a citadel, many mosques, a royal palace, canals and bridges. Buildings featured glazed tiles.

The city thrived until the collapse of the Bengal Sultanate in the 16th century, when the Mughal Empire took control of the region. When the Mughal Emperor Humayun invaded the region, he renamed the city Jannatabad ("heavenly city"). Most of the surviving structures in Gauda are from the period of the Bengal Sultanate. The city was sacked by Sher Shah Suri. An outbreak of the plague contributed to the city's downfall. The course of the Ganges River was once located near the city, but a change in the river's course caused Gauda to lose its strategic importance. A new Mughal capital developed later in Dhaka.

Gauda was one of the most prominent capitals in the history of Bengal and the history of the Indian subcontinent, and a centre of stately medieval architecture. Gauda's ruins were depicted in the artwork of European painters during the 18th and 19th centuries. Colonial officials, such as Francis Buchanan-Hamilton and William Francklin, left detailed surveys of the former Bengali capital. [6]


Shashanka

Shashanka the first important king of ancient Bengal, occupies a prominent place in the history of the region. It is generally believed that he ruled approximately between 600 AD and 625 AD, and two dated inscriptions, issued in his 8th and 10th regnal years from Midnapore, and another undated inscription from Egra near Kharagpur have been discovered. Besides Shashanka's subordinate king of Ganjam (Orissa) Madhavavarma's copper plate (dated 619 AD), Harshavardhan's Banskhera and Madhuvan copper plates and the Nidhanpur copper plate of the Kamarupa king Bhaskara Varman contain information about Shashanka. Besides, Shashanka issued gold and silver coins. A number of independent rulers flourished in Bengal in the intervening period between the decline of the Guptas and the rise of Shashanka, and their existence is known from a few inscriptions and gold coins. Besides the seal-matrix of 'Shri Mahasamanta Shashanka' from Rohtasgarh and the contemporary literary accounts of Banabhatta and the Chinese pilgrim hiuen-tsang and the Buddhist text Aryamanjushrimulakalpa are important sources of information.

Very little information about the early life of Shashanka is known. It appears that he ruled for sometime as a chieftain (mahasamanta) of Rohtasgarh under the Gauda king of Karnasuvarna, who possibly belonged to the family of the Maukharis. However, Jayanaga, another king of Karnasuvarna, appears to be close to the date of Shashanka. In fact, Karnasuvarna was the capital of Shashanka and the famous metropolis was situated near Chiruti railway station close to rajbaridanga (ie the site of Raktamrttika-mahavihara or modern Rangamati) in Murshidabad district, West Bengal.

Shashanka has been described both in the inscriptions and literary accounts as the ruler of Gauda. In the narrower sense Gauda is the territory between the river Padma and Bardhamana region. But in course of time it embraced much wider area. In the Satpanchasaddeshavibhaga, the seventh patala of Book III, Shaktisangama Tantra Gauda is said to have extended from the vanga country up to Bhuvanesha (ie Bhubaneshwar in Orissa). It is not unlikely that the author had described the extension of Gauda country keeping in mind the kingdom of Shashanka, which also embraced a part of Orissa.

The decline and fall of the Gupta Empire coincided with considerable progress in the outlying regions. Many obscure areas, which were possibly ruled by tribal chiefs and were thinly settled, came into historical limelight. This applied to the red soil areas of West Bengal, north Orissa and the adjoining areas of Madhyapradesh, which formed part of the Chhotonagpur plateau and were difficult to cultivate and settle.

Under this perspective Shashanka attempted to extend his political influence in different parts of India. His first task was the redemption of Magadha from the clutches of the Maukharis. Shashanka with his ally Devagupta, the king of Malava, next waged war against Maukhari king Grahavarman, the son-in-law of the Pusyabhuti king Prabhakaravardhana. Grahavarman was killed by Devagupta. At this point Rajyavardhana a Buddhist by faith and eldest son of Prabhakarvardhana, who became king of Thaneshwar proceeded against Devagupta and defeated and killed him. But Rajyavardhana himself was killed in an encounter with Shashanka.

Most of the authorities admit the result of the encounter with Shashanka, but passes the blame of the murder of Rajyavardhana on the shoulders of Shashanka, the king of Gauda. According to Bana, Rajyavardhana, though routed the Malava army with ridiculous ease, had been 'allured to confidence by false civilities on the part of the king of Gauda, and then weaponless, confiding and alone, despatched to his own quarters'. The Chinese pilgrim has repeated the same story. A fair criticism of Shashanka's conduct is impossible in the absence of detailed information relating to the actual circumstances that led to his enemy's death. Both Banabhatta, whose feelings were deeply shaken at the death of his patron's brother and Hiuen Tsang, whose pro-Buddhist predilections and personal regard for Harsavardhana are well known, may have found it difficult to restrain their emotions in stating the fact concerning the affair.

In the opinion of some scholars it is likely that Rajyavardhana was prepared to enter into negotiation for peace with Shashanka, and for this purpose accepted an invitation in the enemy's camp. Shankara, a 14th century commentator of the Harsacharita, states that the Gauda king invited Rajyavardhana in connection with a proposal of marriage between him and the daughter of the former. How far this is true is difficult to say, as the source of his information is not disclosed. The information about Rajyavardhana's death, furnished by the Banshkhera copper plate inscription of Harsavardhana, is meagre, but the bad impression created by the accounts of Banabhatta and the Chinese traveller is considerably mitigated when it is related in this inscription that his brother lost his life in keeping with the truth (satyanurodhena) in the abode of his enemy, though the name of the enemy is not given. It appears that Rajyavardhana's death was a sequel to the unfinished peace-talk, but Shashanka's personal responsibility for this incident cannot be determined with certainty.

After this event Harsavardhana, the younger brother, who ascended the throne of Thaneshwar proceeded with a huge army to punish Shashanka and formed an alliance with Bhaskaravarman (Kumara of Bana), king of Kamarupa and eastern neighbour of Shashanka. According to Bana, Harsa entrusted Bhandi to lead the army, while he engaged himself in searching for her widowed sister Rajyashri in the Vindhya forest. It is mentioned in the Harsacharita (8th ucchvasa) that Harsha reunited the advancing army after rescuing his sister. Later, Harsavardhana became the ruler of Kanyakubja (Kanauj) with the consent of his sister Rajyashri. The progress of Bhandi's march is not known. But there can be no doubt that Shashanka continued to rule his empire vigorously, which included northern Orissa and southern deltaic regions of Bengal.

Towards the end of his career in 640-43 AD Harsa's authority in southeastern Bihar and Orissa was established and during the same time Bhaskarvarman appears to have conquered the capital Karnasuvarna. These events are likely to have occurred after the demise of Shashanka as nothing more is heard about him, and there was a decline of Gauda power. But the story of the defeat of Shashanka at the battle of Pundravardhana by Harsa and Shashanka's reign for 17 years etc, as suggested by the Buddhist text Aryamanjushrimulakalpa are not supported by any other contemporary accounts. Rather, Shashanka's newly discovered inscription from Southern Midnapur records the existence of Dandabhukti-Janapada, combining parts of Midnapur and Orissa.

Harsa, a Shaiva in his early years, gradually became a great patron of Buddhism. As a devout Buddhist he convened a grand assembly at Kanauj to publicise the Mahayana doctrines. It is here that Harsa is said to make a bloody suppression of a revolt by the Brahmanas. After Kanauj, he held a great assembly at Prayaga and both the assemblies were attended by Hiuen Tsang and all the tributary princes, ministers, nobles, etc. Hiuen Tsang is said to have made a remark that Harsa was born at the behest of the Bodhisattva to punish Shashanka, a hater of Buddhist religion. He also cited a few instances of Shashanka's anti-Buddhist activities. But it may be mentioned that the flourishing condition of the Buddhist University at nalanda, where Hiuen Tsang himself studied for some time, and the existence of a number of monasteries in Shashanka's kingdom including the Raktamrttika-Mahavihara near Shashanka's capital Karnasuvarna, goes against the evidence of Hiuen Tsang.

In other words, it appears that the Chinese pilgrim, who enjoyed the patronage of Harsa, became partisan in his attitude towards the adversary of his patron. The vituperative languages used by Bana, court poet of Harsa, against the 'Gaudadhipa' (the name of Shashanka, meaning Shiva, is never mentioned possibly Bana himself was a devout of Shaiva) as 'Gauda-bhujanga' or 'Gaudadhama' etc demonstrate his contempt for Shashanka. It is true that Shashanka was a strong champion of Brahmanical religion and a devout Shaiva, and had little sympathy for Buddhism which received patronage from wealthy mercantile classes and from no less than Harsavardhana himself, his sworn enemy. It is not unlikely that it wounded the sentiments of the Buddhists of his time.

On the contrary, Harsavardhana's pro-Buddhist and anti-Brahmanical attitude (the bloody suppression of a large number of Brahmanas during Kanauj assembly may be cited here) despaired the followers of Brahmanical religion who began to migrate to eastern India in large number. Hiuen Tsang mentioned of a large influx of learned Brahmanas in Kamarupa. A large number of Brahmanas were granted lands in Kamarupa by Bhaskaravarman for their settlement. The Kulaji texts also noted the influx of Kanauji Brahmanas into Bengal. The story of the migration of Graha-Vipras from the banks of the Sarayu river (in U P) to Bengal, possibly at the invitation of Shashanka, may be taken notice of in this connection. The impact of this large-scale migration though initially was welcomed both in Bengal and Kamarupa, told upon the socio-economic fabric of the respective countries. The social restrictions in behaviour, attitude and comingling among the different classes though not much felt under the rule of Buddhist Palas, became more and more acute under the Senas, who championed the Brahmanical religions, widened the gaps among different classes of people. The emergence of lowly untouchable classes and the antaja classes in the society became more and more pronounced. [PK Bhattacharyya]

Bibliography RC Majumdar (ed), History of Bengal, Dacca, 1943 Sudhir R Das, Rajbadidanga, Calcutta, 1962 RC Majumdar, History of Ancient Bengal, Calcutta, 1971 PK Bhattacharyya, 'Two Interesting Coins of Shashanka', Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, London, 2, 1979.


Royalties similar to or like Shashanka

Civilisational history of Bangladesh dates back over four millennia, to the Chalcolithic. The country's early documented history featured successions of Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms and empires, vying for regional dominance. Wikipedia

Territory located in Bengal in ancient and medieval times, as part of the Gauda Kingdom. The Arthashastra of Chanakya (around 350–283 BC) refers to it along with Vanga, Pundra and Kamarupa. Wikipedia

Early state during the Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, was (along with Davaka) the first historical kingdom of Assam. Absorbed by Kamarupa in the 5th century CE. Wikipedia

The capital of Gauda Kingdom during the reign of Shashanka, the first important king of ancient Bengal who ruled in the 7th century. The jayaskandhavara of Bhaskaravarman, the king of Kamarupa probably for a short period. Wikipedia

Intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions of South Asia and Southeast Asia. It includes modern-day Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and Assam's Karimganj district, located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, at the apex of the Bay of Bengal and dominated by the fertile Ganges delta. Wikipedia

About the pre-1947 history of the Indian subcontinent. For post-1947 history, see History of India (1947–present) Wikipedia

The son and successor to the previous king of Gauda, Shashanka. The last recorded ruler of the dynasty and was likely deposed by Harshavardhana or Bhaskaravarman (King of Kamarupa). Wikipedia

Ethnic, linguistic and religious population who make up the majority in the Indian states of West Bengal, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Tripura. In Bangladesh, they form the largest minority. Wikipedia

State in the eastern region of India along the Bay of Bengal. Fourth-most populous state and the fourteenth-largest state by area in India. Wikipedia

One of the greater of the many petty kingdoms of the medieval Sylhet region. Founded by Gurak, off-shooting from the Kamarupa Empire's Jaintia Kingdom in 630 AD. Much of its early history is considered legendary or mythological up until Navagirvana who is mentioned in the Bhatera copper-plate inscriptions. Wikipedia

Indo-Aryan ethnolinguistic group native to the Bengal region in South Asia. Divided between the independent country Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and Assam's Barak Valley. Wikipedia

The hereditary ruler of Bengal Subah in Mughal India. Comparable to the European title of Grand Duke. Wikipedia

The Later Gupta dynasty ruled the Magadha region in eastern India between 6th and 7th centuries. No evidence connecting the two dynasties these appear to be two distinct families. Wikipedia

Bengali aristocrat from the Nawab family of Bengal and mother of Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal. The youngest daughter of Nawab Alivardi Khan, the Nawab of Bengal. Wikipedia

Most a powerful and formidable kingdom in Northeast India ruled by three dynasties from their capitals in Pragjyotishpura, Haruppeshwara and Durjaya. From these three capitals, its culture and influence spread over the entire region. Wikipedia

The son of Hemanta Sena, and succeeded him as a Sena dynasty ruler of Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent. This dynasty ruled for more than 200 years. Wikipedia

Geopolitical, cultural and historical region located in South Asia, specifically in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal, of what is now considered as Bangladesh and West Bengal. Made up by the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta system, the largest such formation in the world along with mountains in its north bordering the Himalayan states of Nepal and Bhutan and east bordering Burma. Wikipedia

List of rulers of Bengal. Split up into several independent kingdoms, completely unifying only several times. Wikipedia

Traditional Bengali sari, originating from the Bengal region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, and usually used by Bengali women. Traditionally made by the weavers from almost all over Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, and Assam's Barak Valley, but typically few places like Dhaka, Tangail, Narayanganj of Bangladesh and Murshidabad, Nadia, Hooghly of West Bengal are famous for tant sari weaving. Wikipedia

The history of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present. Based on the teachings of Siddhārtha Gautama. Wikipedia


While Shashanka was known and referred to as the Lord of Gauda, his kingdom included more than just that region. By the end of his reign, his domain stretched from Vanga to Bhuvanesha while in the east, his kingdom bordered Kamarupa. Prior to Shashanka, Bengal was divided into three regions, Banga, Samatata and Gauda and was ruled by a feeble ruler belonging to the later Gupta dynasty, Mahasenagupta. Shashanka was one of his chieftains who rose to power taking the advantage of the weak ruler. After the death of Mahasenagupta, Shashanka drove the later Guptas and other prominent nobles out of the region and established his own kingdom with a capital at Karnasubarna.

Banabhatta described Shashanka as the "vile Gauda serpent", and elaborated that Shashanka has destroyed the Buddhist stupas of Bengal and declared an award of hundred gold coins for the head of every Buddhist monk in his kingdom. However Ramesh Chandra Majumdar attempted to acquit Shashanka and the Brahmins of his reign of such deeds because Xuanzang and Banabhatta were patronised by Shashanka's enemy, Harsha, and that Xuanzang was a Buddhist. [1] Despite this, the only evidence for the justification of conflict between Shashanka and Harsha is Xuanzang, who explained that Harsha's campaign against Shashanka was to "raise Buddhism from the ruin into which it had been brough by the king of Karnasuvarna" and that Shashanka wished to replace Buddhism with Shaivism. [2] As such, Radhagovinda Basak claims that there is no reason not to believe that Shashanka carried out a violent anti-Buddhist persecution. [3] Majumdar's opinion is further called into question in his denial of the anti-Buddhist persecutions reported in the last chapter of the Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa, which Kashi Prasad Jayaswal had deemed to indicate a serious attempt by Shashanka to destroy Buddhism in the spirit of "orthodox revivalism", [4] when he wrote that it is "unsafe to accept the statements recorded in this book as historical," and his minimization of the Sena persecutions of Buddhists. [5]


The First King of Bengal

Before the tribes and kingdoms of pre-medieval Bengal could unanimously elect Gopala king in 750 CE, they had to endure a hundred years of utter lawlessness, infighting and bloodshed. This period is called the Matsyanyaya (a time when big fish indiscriminately swallow the small). While we know how the Gopala’s Pala Dynasty heralded a golden era in Bengal, little is known about the dark age, and what came before.

Before the Matsyanyaya, we find in the lower Gangetic plains many distinct kingdoms and janapadas (e.g. Vanga, Samatata, Pundra, Harikela, Gaur/Gauda, Magadha, Kalinga etc.) – each flourishing as the powerful Gupta Empire faded away. Within the next hundred years, these kingdoms would develop feudalist traits, and coagulate to make up a familiar geopolitical bloc: Bangla, Bihar, and Odisha (dubbed ‘Bengal’ in this essay).

For all latest news, follow The Daily Star's Google News channel.

In the light of what we know: during the beginning of the 7 th century, a Shaiva, Brahmin king of Gaur named Shashanka started bringing large tracts of the lower Gangetic plains under his control. He led military campaigns against mighty kings and armies in every direction, and established his dominion over a considerable part of the former Gupta Empire.

The earliest mention of Shashanka is found in a seal matrix in the Rohtas Fort in Bihar. In the seal, he is referred to as a mahasamanta – i.e. a veteran feudatory chief or tribal king. Oddly, the sprawling hill fort offers no other clues for historians. Therefore, conclusions must be drawn based on what little information is at hand.

Rohtasgarh was a strategic hilltop fortress on the western edges of Magadha – connected to important cities through roads and waterways. It controlled access to all of east India and Bengal. So crucial was its position that, centuries later, Sher Shah Suri and then Moghul Emperor Akbar would use it as a strategic garrison for territorial control.

That Shashanka’s seal was found in Rohtasgarh, means that he wasn’t ‘just a feudatory’ as some suggest. Rather it seems the most crucial fortification in Bihar was placed under his command, an honor typically bestowed upon top feudatory chiefs and governors.

Now, this mountainous region was under the Gupta kings till the 5 th century, and was later controlled by the Maukhari dynasty. Therefore, it is probable that Shashanka (and/or his predecessor Jayanaga) were feudatories, under Late Guptas first, and then under the Maukharis. The Gupta connection could explain how Shashanka managed to make an ally out of the Late Gupta king Devagupta.

The title ‘mahasamanta’ is instructive too. In ancient Indian empires administrators had been imposed from above by royal decree. But by the sixth century, ‘samanta’s were chosen from existing tribal kings, who were made to plead allegiance to the sovereign king (Kulke 1986). For sovereign kings, this was an easy way to control powerful regional kings and chiefs. The more samantas a king had, the more powerful the king was thought to be.

So, had Mahasamanta Shashanka then emerged as a king of the ancient mountain tribes of Kaimur? Well …it does not appear so. Firstly, many historians, including BP Sinha, categorically label Shashanka as a ‘Gaur’. Secondly, Shashanka’s immediate predecessor, as per numismatic (coinage-related) evidence, appears to be Jayanaga of Gaur (and not a tribal chief). Thirdly, the mountain tribes of Kaimur have historically worshipped forest deities and mother goddesses like Shitala. On the other hand, Shashanka is identified as a staunch Shaiva (Shiva worshipper) Brahmin, who made land grants to Brahmins and used Shiva’s imagery in his coins.

But then, why was his seal found in the Rohtas Fort? Well, considering the strategic role of the fort in guarding the entryway to Magadha, it is probable that Shashanka was stationed there to defend sovereign territory against rogue invaders. But it does not seem like he was a native of Kaimur hills.

Shashanka can be better placed as hailing from further east, in the Gaur region, potentially from Karnasubarna (near Rajshahi). Nagendranath Basu, in his encyclopedic work ‘Bonger Jatiyo Itihash’ posits that Shashanka is the son of the Raja Karnadeva, who founded the city of Karnasubarna. Mention of the Karna Raja is found in folklore as well, the supposed ruins of his palace being a minor tourist attraction in Karnasubarna till this day.

While we cannot pinpoint Shashanka’s birthplace for certain, fragmentary facts and anecdotes seem to bind Shashanka to Karnasubarna together. Karnasubarna is where he eventually established his capital. History of medieval India tells us that most samanta rajas emerged and ruled from within native territories, and over their own people. Therefore, it may be surmised that Karnasubarna in Gaur was Shashanka’s true home, and the ultimate seat of his power.

Shashanka’s reign bears all the hallmarks of late Classical kings of India, having started with tremendous conquests or digvijay. In 595 CE, Gupta king Mahasenagupta and the Gaur army jointly attacked Kamarupa (Assam). Inscriptions testify that Shashanka – whether as king or feudatory – was leading this Gaur Army.

King Susthitavarman was killed in this battle. In the second battle, his two sons were captured and brought to Gaur as prisoners. Shashanka later freed the princes, and probably reinstated them as feudatories. Next he took on the Maukhari army and freed Magadha from their control. His familiarity with Rohtasgarh and the surrounding region probably informed his military tactics.

At the same time, Gaur influence was also extending towards the Bay of Bengal. It is thought that, one by one, he subdued the kings of Pundra, Vanga, and possibly Harikela. Even Samatata, which had evaded the advances of the great Samudragupta, came under his control – as suggested by his gold dinars issued from Samatata (the coins can be seen at the Bangladesh National Museum). Historian Sailendra Nath Sen (1998) confirms, “[Shashanka] brought the whole of Bengal under his sway.”

Next came Odisha, possibly up to the beaches of Puri. To the west, Benaras came under his control. In his own country, he built temples, granted lands and patronized local crafts e.g. pottery. By this point, Shashanka was a full-fledged king, with his own feudatories, ruling over a prosperous kingdom. It is in reference to this point in history that many analysts and commentators use ‘Gaur’ and ‘Bengal’ interchangeably.

In 605 CE, Late Gupta king Devagupta occupied Kannauj and killed the ruling Maukhari king. The latter’s allies in Thanesar quickly mobilized a massive army. Now, Shashanka was in an alliance with Devagupta. So in Devagupta’s defense, Shashanka was drawn into the war as well.

It is said that Shashanka requested to meet King Rajyavardhana of Thanesar, and killed him under murky circumstances. Buddhist accounts accuse him of using falsehood and deceit to lure Rajyavardhana into his camp. R.C. Majumdar opines that Rajyavardhana as a veteran king is unlikely to have fallen for such a trap.

The details of Rajyavardhana’s death, and Shashanka’s role in it, are not known. However, if one were to assume that Shashanka was versed with Kautilyan principles of warfare – then the use of deceit isn’t surprising. It may be noted that the township closest to Rohtasgarh contains one of King Ashoka’s minor edicts. So Shashanka was likely to be aware of Mauryas, and their tactics.

Either way, Shashanka went on to defeat the Thanesar battalions, and occupy Kannauj. The conquest of Kannauj marks the height of Gaur’s expansion. But it was a short-lived zenith. Shashanka had to withdraw soon: the avenging force of the Thanesar army under new King Harshavardhana was pressing at the gates. Harsha, younger brother to slain Rajyavardhana, had sworn to either make Shashanka pay, or jump into a pit of fire.

Harsha is said to have launched multiple attacks on Gaur. But till 619 CE, Shashanka not only defended his territory, but also issued copper-plate inscriptions and gold dinars from Karnasubarna. It is only after his death, that Harsha made inroads into Gaur territories.

Once Shashanka died, the Gaur Kingdom followed. Soon large tracts of were gobbled up by Harsha and the Kamarupa king (one of the princes earlier freed by Shashanka). And thus the ephemeral reality of a sovereign kingdom in Bengal came to fruition, even if for a short while.

As mentioned before, what followed is sheer anarchy. In the absence of a unifying overlord, tribal states and kingdoms started attacking each other, pillaging whatever gold they could, occupying whatever land they could.

It is from this chaos – the Matsyanyaya – that a new order emerged. The tribes and kingdoms elected Gopala king. The Palas, like the Gupta kings, came from the Varendra region of Bengal. They became known for the development of the proto-Bengali language and script, and early literature. Palas adhered to political boundaries established by Shashanka. The preeminent Bengal historian R.C. Majumdar wrote, “[Shashanka] was the first historical ruler of Bengal who not only dreamt imperial dreams, but also succeeded in realising them. He laid the foundations of the imperial fabric in the shape of realized hopes and ideals on which the Palas built.”

We see that Shashanka ruled independently over his territory and population, with ministers and feudatories to advise him. He formed strategic alliances and waged wars to expand his kingdom. He collected taxes and probably used some form of treasury function to finance his coinage, construction and campaigns. His Gaur army remains venerated for its war-elephants and naval force. These fulfill the seven Kautilyan preconditions for a state or kingdom.

To add to that: following his death, his kingship passed to his son, Manav – establishing that Shashanka had held a dynastic position. So, looking back 1400 years into the past, it wouldn’t be wrong to posit that Shashanka of Gaur was the first king of Bengal.

In spite of all this, King Shashanka remains a footnote in mainstream Indian history. He is evoked not as a great king – but as the thorny opponent of a great king. In fact, the only reason we even know of Shashanka is because of his rivalry with the much-adulated King Harsha of Thanesar.

An important historical text on Shashanka is Harsha’s biography, composed by court poet Bana. In it, Harsha’s martial skills, artistic sensibilities and ethical vegetarianism are masterfully eulogized. Shashanka, on the other hand, is likened to a serpent.

Another primary source is the Chinese monk Hsuan Tsang who, with Harsha’s patronage, traveled through 7 th century India, and compiled important historical records of the period. Framing “She-Shang-Kia” as ‘hostile to Buddhists’, he accused the Brahmin king of ordering the indiscriminate killing of monks and the destruction of Buddhist holy sites.

Yet Tsang ended up in Nalanda (in Shashanka-ruled Magadha), under the tutelage of the famous Bengali abbot Silabhadra of Samatata. At that time, Nalanda alone had 1500 Buddhist teachers! Bhattacharya (2008) remarks that this hardly sounds like suppression and persecution of Buddhism. Tsang’s description rather speaks of a flourishing Buddhist center. Eventually, Tsang managed to take Silabhadra’s teachings back to China, and thus expose the Sino-Japanese belt to Indian Buddhist thought.

Through such accounts, readers come to perceive Shashanka as a source of trouble. They find him a brute atop demolished monasteries, and a coward on fleeing war-boats on the Ghaghara River. More often than not, he emerges from the pages of History as a lying, unscrupulous murderer, especially when Harsha’s court poet hands him the bloody dagger after the murder of King Rajyavardhana.

That Shashanka’s mentions and chronicles emerge mostly from political opponents and adversarial sources – considerably shapes his image and legacy in modern history. Such motivated and monolithic characterization, in turn, justifies his place (or lack thereof) in history. Critically, it also leaves us somewhat reluctant to redeem Shashanka from the villainous and insignificant role cast for him over the centuries.


King Shashanka – Bengali t shirt

He was the first ruler of Bengal who didn’t just boast about Bengali Asmita, he made them a reality. It was Raja Shashanka who first carved the independent state of Bengal.

Ten classic colours and five sizes to choose from

Women’s Round Neck T-shirt

Size Guide

Sizes may rarely vary in the range of +/-0.5 inches

King Shashanka | The First King of Bengal

What comes to mind first when you think of Bengal as a political kingdom? Siraj ud Daulah, Nawab? Clive Robert? Hastings, Warren? Was there no native hero who made Bengal and its people proud of themselves?

To be honest, there was one, but few people knew who he was. Ruler of the Gauda dynasty, and named after Bhagwan Shiva, also known as Shashank Shekhar, King Shashanka emerged from the ruins of the once glorious Gupta Empire. From 590 to 625 AD, he controlled the autonomous state of Bengal.

King Shashanka was a contemporary of the famed Pushyabhuti ruler, Samrat Harshavardhana from Thanesar, Kannauj, as well as Samrat Pulakeshin II of the Chalukyan dynasty. His capital was at Karnasubarna, the same city where the capital of the once famed Anga kingdom of Mahabharata’s Karna once stood, and which is now a part of the modern-day city of Murshidabad in the Indian state of West Bengal.

It was Raja Shashanka who first carved the independent state of Bengal. Not did he assert his identity in the eastern India with fanfare, like Pulakeshin II, he also kept the advance of Samrat Harshavardhana in check. It is under his guidance that the Bengali calendar, used as the national calendar by our neighboring nation Bangladesh, as well as some of the Indian states like West Bengal, Tripura etc., was created in his reign.
If we really need to credit someone for establishing the identity of Bengal throughout India, it has to be Raja Shashanka, who not only created a mark of his own with his astute administration, but also saved his kingdom from intern squabblings, as well as incessant invasions.

King Shashanka T-shirts collection:

The most widely used piece of clothing today is a T-shirt that forms an integral part of your wardrobe – be it for your morning run, Gym, Friday dressing at office, a campout with friends or maybe getting to bed! tfi-store offers a wide range of Indian warriors t-shirts featuring Devbhasha Sanskrit Collection in the form of various quotes and graphics and historical warriors like Rani Lakshmibai and Lachit Borphukan from every corner of India, catering to Men, Women, Kids and Toddlers. TFI pays a humble tribute to the glorious Bangla ruler through their Raja Shashanka collection of T shirts in TFI Store.

TFIStore from the house of The Frustrated Indian is trying to make Indian culture cool with its unique Historical Heroes and Sanskrit apparel collection. Now wear your History with pride and flaunt Devbhasha Sanskrit on your half sleeves t-shirt.

PURE COTTON

100% combed cotton with single jersey to make it wrinkle-free and smooth. Doesn’t let you feel hot!


Raja Shashanka | The First King of Bengal

He was the first ruler of Bengal who didn’t just boast about Bengali Asmita, he made them a reality. It was Raja Shashanka who first carved the independent state of Bengal.

Ten classic colours and eight sizes to choose from

Men's Round Neck T-shirt

Size Guide

Sizes may rarely vary in the range of +/-0.5 inches

Raja Shashanka : The First king of Bengal

When you think of Bengal as a political kingdom, what comes first to your mind? Nawab Siraj ud Daulah? Robert Clive? Warren Hastings? Was there no indigenous hero who made Bengal and its citizens feel proud of themselves?

To be honest, there was one, not that many people have heard of him. Ruler of the Gauda dynasty, and named after Bhagwan Shiva, also known as Shashank Shekhar, Raja Shashanka emerged from the ruins of the once glorious Gupta Empire. He ruled the independent state of Bengal from 590 to 625 AD.

Raja Shashanka was a contemporary of the famed Pushyabhuti ruler, Samrat Harshavardhana from Thanesar, Kannauj, as well as Samrat Pulakeshin II of the Chalukyan dynasty. His capital was at Karnasubarna, the same city where the capital of the once famed Anga kingdom of Mahabharata’s Karna once stood, and which is now a part of the modern-day city of Murshidabad in the Indian state of West Bengal.

It was Raja Shashanka who first carved the independent state of Bengal. Not did he assert his identity in the eastern India with fanfare, like Pulakeshin II, he also kept the advance of Samrat Harshavardhana in check. It is under his guidance that the Bengali calendar, used as the national calendar by our neighboring nation Bangladesh, as well as some of the Indian states like West Bengal, Tripura etc., was created in his reign.

If we really need to credit someone for establishing the identity of Bengal throughout India, it has to be Raja Shashanka, who not only created a mark of his own with his astute administration, but also saved his kingdom from intern squabblings, as well as incessant invasions.

Raja Shashanka T-shirts collection:

The most widely used piece of clothing today is a T-shirt that forms an integral part of your wardrobe – be it for your morning run, Gym, Friday dressing at office, a campout with friends or maybe getting to bed! tfi-store offers a wide range of Indian warriors t-shirts featuring Devbhasha Sanskrit Collection in the form of various quotes and graphics and historical warriors like Rani Lakshmibai and Lachit Borphukan from every corner of India, catering to Men, Women, Kids and Toddlers. TFI pays a humble tribute to the glorious Bangla ruler through their Raja Shashanka collection of T shirts in TFI Store.

TFIStore from the house of The Frustrated Indian is trying to make Indian culture cool with its unique Historical Heroes and Sanskrit apparel collection. Now wear your History with pride and flaunt Devbhasha Sanskrit on your half sleeves t-shirt.

PURE COTTON

100% combed cotton with single jersey to make it wrinkle-free and smooth. Doesn’t let you feel hot!


The First King of Bengal

Before the tribes and kingdoms of pre-medieval Bengal could unanimously elect Gopala king in 750 CE, they had to endure a hundred years of utter lawlessness, infighting and bloodshed. This period is called the Matsyanyaya (a time when big fish indiscriminately swallow the small). While we know how the Gopala’s Pala Dynasty heralded a golden era in Bengal, little is known about the dark age, and what came before.

Before the Matsyanyaya, we find in the lower Gangetic plains many distinct kingdoms and janapadas (e.g. Vanga, Samatata, Pundra, Harikela, Gaur/Gauda, Magadha, Kalinga etc.) – each flourishing as the powerful Gupta Empire faded away. Within the next hundred years, these kingdoms would develop feudalist traits, and coagulate to make up a familiar geopolitical bloc: Bangla, Bihar, and Odisha (dubbed ‘Bengal’ in this essay).

In the light of what we know: during the beginning of the 7th century, a Shaiva, Brahmin king of Gaur named Shashanka started bringing large tracts of the lower Gangetic plains under his control. He led military campaigns against mighty kings and armies in every direction, and established his dominion over a considerable part of the former Gupta Empire.

The earliest mention of Shashanka is found in a seal matrix in the Rohtas Fort in Bihar. In the seal, he is referred to as a mahasamanta – i.e. a veteran feudatory chief or tribal king. Oddly, the sprawling hill fort offers no other clues for historians. Therefore, conclusions must be drawn based on what little information is at hand.


Rohtasgarh was a strategic hilltop fortress on the western edges of Magadha – connected to important cities through roads and waterways. It controlled access to all of east India and Bengal. So crucial was its position that, centuries later, Sher Shah Suri and then Moghul Emperor Akbar would use it as a strategic garrison for territorial control.

That Shashanka’s seal was found in Rohtasgarh, means that he wasn’t ‘just a feudatory’ as some suggest. Rather it seems the most crucial fortification in Bihar was placed under his command, an honor typically bestowed upon top feudatory chiefs and governors.

Now, this mountainous region was under the Gupta kings till the 5th century, and was later controlled by the Maukhari dynasty. Therefore, it is probable that Shashanka (and/or his predecessor Jayanaga) were feudatories, under Late Guptas first, and then under the Maukharis. The Gupta connection could explain how Shashanka managed to make an ally out of the Late Gupta king Devagupta.

The title ‘mahasamanta’ is instructive too. In ancient Indian empires administrators had been imposed from above by royal decree. But by the sixth century, ‘samanta’s were chosen from existing tribal kings, who were made to plead allegiance to the sovereign king (Kulke 1986). For sovereign kings, this was an easy way to control powerful regional kings and chiefs. The more samantas a king had, the more powerful the king was thought to be.

So, had Mahasamanta Shashanka then emerged as a king of the ancient mountain tribes of Kaimur? Well …it does not appear so. Firstly, many historians, including BP Sinha, categorically label Shashanka as a ‘Gaur’. Secondly, Shashanka’s immediate predecessor, as per numismatic (coinage-related) evidence, appears to be Jayanaga of Gaur (and not a tribal chief). Thirdly, the mountain tribes of Kaimur have historically worshipped forest deities and mother goddesses like Shitala. On the other hand, Shashanka is identified as a staunch Shaiva (Shiva worshipper) Brahmin, who made land grants to Brahmins and used Shiva’s imagery in his coins.

But then, why was his seal found in the Rohtas Fort? Well, considering the strategic role of the fort in guarding the entryway to Magadha, it is probable that Shashanka was stationed there to defend sovereign territory against rogue invaders. But it does not seem like he was a native of Kaimur hills.

Shashanka can be better placed as hailing from further east, in the Gaur region, potentially from Karnasubarna (near Rajshahi). Nagendranath Basu, in his encyclopedic work ‘Bonger Jatiyo Itihash’ posits that Shashanka is the son of the Raja Karnadeva, who founded the city of Karnasubarna. Mention of the Karna Raja is found in folklore as well, the supposed ruins of his palace being a minor tourist attraction in Karnasubarna till this day.

While we cannot pinpoint Shashanka’s birthplace for certain, fragmentary facts and anecdotes seem to bind Shashanka to Karnasubarna together. Karnasubarna is where he eventually established his capital. History of medieval India tells us that most samanta rajas emerged and ruled from within native territories, and over their own people. Therefore, it may be surmised that Karnasubarna in Gaur was Shashanka’s true home, and the ultimate seat of his power.

The Egra copper plate inscription with a seal enumerates an account of a land grant at the time of Shashanka. It contains 20 lines on the obverse and 17 lines on the reverse. The copper plate datable to circa 7th century C.E. is supposed to have been recovered from Egra, East Medinipur of West Bengal.

***
Shashanka’s reign bears all the hallmarks of late Classical kings of India, having started with tremendous conquests or digvijay. In 595 CE, Gupta king Mahasenagupta and the Gaur army jointly attacked Kamarupa (Assam). Inscriptions testify that Shashanka – whether as king or feudatory – was leading this Gaur Army.

King Susthitavarman was killed in this battle. In the second battle, his two sons were captured and brought to Gaur as prisoners. Shashanka later freed the princes, and probably reinstated them as feudatories. Next he took on the Maukhari army and freed Magadha from their control. His familiarity with Rohtasgarh and the surrounding region probably informed his military tactics.

At the same time, Gaur influence was also extending towards the Bay of Bengal. It is thought that, one by one, he subdued the kings of Pundra, Vanga, and possibly Harikela. Even Samatata, which had evaded the advances of the great Samudragupta, came under his control – as suggested by his gold dinars issued from Samatata (the coins can be seen at the Bangladesh National Museum). Historian Sailendra Nath Sen (1998) confirms, “[Shashanka] brought the whole of Bengal under his sway.”

Next came Odisha, possibly up to the beaches of Puri. To the west, Benaras came under his control. In his own country, he built temples, granted lands and patronized local crafts e.g. pottery. By this point, Shashanka was a full-fledged king, with his own feudatories, ruling over a prosperous kingdom. It is in reference to this point in history that many analysts and commentators use ‘Gaur’ and ‘Bengal’ interchangeably.

In 605 CE, Late Gupta king Devagupta occupied Kannauj and killed the ruling Maukhari king. The latter’s allies in Thanesar quickly mobilized a massive army. Now, Shashanka was in an alliance with Devagupta. So in Devagupta’s defense, Shashanka was drawn into the war as well.

It is said that Shashanka requested to meet King Rajyavardhana of Thanesar, and killed him under murky circumstances. Buddhist accounts accuse him of using falsehood and deceit to lure Rajyavardhana into his camp. R.C. Majumdar opines that Rajyavardhana as a veteran king is unlikely to have fallen for such a trap.

The details of Rajyavardhana’s death, and Shashanka’s role in it, are not known. However, if one were to assume that Shashanka was versed with Kautilyan principles of warfare – then the use of deceit isn’t surprising. It may be noted that the township closest to Rohtasgarh contains one of King Ashoka’s minor edicts. So Shashanka was likely to be aware of Mauryas, and their tactics.

Either way, Shashanka went on to defeat the Thanesar battalions, and occupy Kannauj. The conquest of Kannauj marks the height of Gaur’s expansion. But it was a short-lived zenith. Shashanka had to withdraw soon: the avenging force of the Thanesar army under new King Harshavardhana was pressing at the gates. Harsha, younger brother to slain Rajyavardhana, had sworn to either make Shashanka pay, or jump into a pit of fire.

Harsha is said to have launched multiple attacks on Gaur. But till 619 CE, Shashanka not only defended his territory, but also issued copper-plate inscriptions and gold dinars from Karnasubarna. It is only after his death, that Harsha made inroads into Gaur territories.

Once Shashanka died, the Gaur Kingdom followed. Soon large tracts of were gobbled up by Harsha and the Kamarupa king (one of the princes earlier freed by Shashanka). And thus the ephemeral reality of a sovereign kingdom in Bengal came to fruition, even if for a short while.

As mentioned before, what followed is sheer anarchy. In the absence of a unifying overlord, tribal states and kingdoms started attacking each other, pillaging whatever gold they could, occupying whatever land they could.

It is from this chaos – the Matsyanyaya – that a new order emerged. The tribes and kingdoms elected Gopala king. The Palas, like the Gupta kings, came from the Varendra region of Bengal. They became known for the development of the proto-Bengali language and script, and early literature. Palas adhered to political boundaries established by Shashanka. The preeminent Bengal historian R.C. Majumdar wrote, “[Shashanka] was the first historical ruler of Bengal who not only dreamt imperial dreams, but also succeeded in realising them. He laid the foundations of the imperial fabric in the shape of realized hopes and ideals on which the Palas built.”

We see that Shashanka ruled independently over his territory and population, with ministers and feudatories to advise him. He formed strategic alliances and waged wars to expand his kingdom. He collected taxes and probably used some form of treasury function to finance his coinage, construction and campaigns. His Gaur army remains venerated for its war-elephants and naval force. These fulfill the seven Kautilyan preconditions for a state or kingdom.

To add to that: following his death, his kingship passed to his son, Manav – establishing that Shashanka had held a dynastic position. So, looking back 1400 years into the past, it wouldn’t be wrong to posit that Shashanka of Gaur was the first king of Bengal.

In spite of all this, King Shashanka remains a footnote in mainstream Indian history. He is evoked not as a great king – but as the thorny opponent of a great king. In fact, the only reason we even know of Shashanka is because of his rivalry with the much-adulated King Harsha of Thanesar.

An important historical text on Shashanka is Harsha’s biography, composed by court poet Bana. In it, Harsha’s martial skills, artistic sensibilities and ethical vegetarianism are masterfully eulogized. Shashanka, on the other hand, is likened to a serpent.

Another primary source is the Chinese monk Hsuan Tsang who, with Harsha’s patronage, traveled through 7th century India, and compiled important historical records of the period. Framing “She-Shang-Kia” as ‘hostile to Buddhists’, he accused the Brahmin king of ordering the indiscriminate killing of monks and the destruction of Buddhist holy sites.

Yet Tsang ended up in Nalanda (in Shashanka-ruled Magadha), under the tutelage of the famous Bengali abbot Silabhadra of Samatata. At that time, Nalanda alone had 1500 Buddhist teachers! Bhattacharya (2008) remarks that this hardly sounds like suppression and persecution of Buddhism. Tsang’s description rather speaks of a flourishing Buddhist center. Eventually, Tsang managed to take Silabhadra’s teachings back to China, and thus expose the Sino-Japanese belt to Indian Buddhist thought.

Through such accounts, readers come to perceive Shashanka as a source of trouble. They find him a brute atop demolished monasteries, and a coward on fleeing war-boats on the Ghaghara River. More often than not, he emerges from the pages of History as a lying, unscrupulous murderer, especially when Harsha’s court poet hands him the bloody dagger after the murder of King Rajyavardhana.

That Shashanka’s mentions and chronicles emerge mostly from political opponents and adversarial sources – considerably shapes his image and legacy in modern history. Such motivated and monolithic characterization, in turn, justifies his place (or lack thereof) in history. Critically, it also leaves us somewhat reluctant to redeem Shashanka from the villainous and insignificant role cast for him over the centuries.


See also [ edit ]

  1. ^ For a map of the territory, see Schwartzberg, Joseph E. (1978). A Historical atlas of South Asia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p.𧆒, map XIV.2 (b). ISBN  0226742210 .
  2. ^
  3. "Egra Copper Plate Inscription". Indian Museum (Kolkata). Indian Museum, Kolkata . Retrieved 14 September 2019 .
  4. ^
  5. Jan Gyllenbok (2018). Encyclopaedia of Historical Metrology, Weights, and Measures. 1. Birkhäuser. p.𧈄. ISBN  978-3-319-57598-8 .
  6. ^ ab
  7. "Shashanka". Banglapedia . Retrieved 23 November 2016 .
  8. ^ ab
  9. Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermund (1998), A History of India, ISBN  0203443454
  10. ^
  11. Sinha, Bindeshwari Prasad (1977). Dynastic History of Magadha. India: Abhinav Publications. pp.𧆃–133 . Retrieved 16 September 2019 .
  12. ^
  13. Basu, Nagendranath (1937). Bonger Jatiya Itihash (Kayastha Kando). India. p.㺿 . Retrieved 26 September 2019 .
  14. ^
  15. "Indian Antiquary". Journal of Oriental Research (Ed. J.A.S. Burgess). Popular Prakashan. VII: 197. 1878 . Retrieved 16 September 2019 .
  16. ^
  17. Raj, Dev. "Deluge drowned mighty Guptas: Study". The Telegraph. Kolkata . Retrieved 14 September 2019 .
  18. ^
  19. Sinha, Bindeshwari Prasad (1977). Dynastic History of Magadha, Cir. 450-1200 A.D. India: Abhinav Publications. pp.𧆁–131 . Retrieved 15 September 2019 .
  20. ^
  21. Sen, N. S. (1999). Ancient Indian history and civilization (Second ed.). India: New Age International. ISBN  81-224-1198-3 . Retrieved 15 September 2019 .
  22. ^
  23. Middleton, John (2015). World Monarchies and Dynasties. Routledge. p.𧉊. ISBN  9781317451587 . Retrieved 15 September 2019 .
  24. ^
  25. Sircar, D C (1990). Political History, in Barpujari, H K (ed.), The Comprehensive History of Assam (Vol-1). Guwahati, India: Publication Board, Assam. pp.㻞–171.
  26. ^
  27. Sircar, Dineschandra (1971). Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India. India: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p.𧅼. ISBN  9788120806900 .
  28. ^ ab
  29. Bakker, Hans (2014). The World of the Skandapurāṇa. BRILL. p.㻚. ISBN  9789004277144 .
  30. ^
  31. Sinha, Bindeshwari Prasad (1977). Dynastic History of Magadha, Cir. 450-1200 A.D. India: Abhinav Publications. pp.𧆁–131 . Retrieved 15 September 2019 .
  32. ^CNG Coins
  33. ^ ab
  34. "Gauda Kingdom". World History Encyclopedia . Retrieved 15 September 2019 .
  35. ^
  36. Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization (second ed.). India: New Age International (P) Limited. p.𧈔. ISBN  9788122411980 . Retrieved 15 September 2019 .
  37. ^
  38. "Kulinism". Banglapedia . Retrieved 16 September 2019 .
  39. ^
  40. Keith, Arthur Berriedale (1993). A History of Sanskrit Literature. Motilal Banarsidass Publishe. p.㺼. ISBN  9788120811003 .
  41. ^
  42. Sircar, Dineschandra (1971). Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p.𧅽. ISBN  9788120806900 .
  43. ^
  44. Basak, Radhagovinda (1967). The History of North-Eastern India Extending from the Foundation of the Gupta Empire to the Rise of the Pala Dynasty of Bengal (c. A.D. 320-760). Sambodhi Publications. p.𧆛.
  45. ^
  46. Sharma, R. S. (2005). India's Ancient Past. Oxford University Press. p.𧈄. ISBN  978-0-19-566714-1 .
  47. ^https://archive.org/details/wonderthatwasind00alba/page/266/mode/2up&lang=en
  48. ^
  49. Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra (1943). History of Bengal. Dacca: University of Dacca. pp.㻉–74.
  50. ^
  51. Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra (1943). History of Bengal. Dacca: University of Dacca. p.㻀.
  52. ^
  53. Basak, Radhagovinda (1967). The History of North-Eastern India Extending from the Foundation of the Gupta Empire to the Rise of the Pala Dynasty of Bengal (c. A.D. 320-760). Sambodhi Publications. p.𧆆.
  54. ^
  55. Chatterjee, Ratnabali (2002). The Making of History: Essays Presented to Irfan Habib (First ed.). United Kingdom: Wimbledon Publishing Company. p.𧋹. ISBN  1843310538 . Retrieved 16 September 2019 .
  56. ^
  57. Ganesan, V. B. (27 January 2014). "Exploring Bengal's medieval history in the ruins of Gaur". The Hindu. N. Ravi . Retrieved 16 September 2019 .
  58. ^
  59. "Matsyanyayam". Banglapedia . Retrieved 15 September 2019 .
  60. ^
  61. Maity, Atanunandan. "A Note on Sarasanka Dighi" (PDF) . Chitrolekha International Magazine on Art and Design . Retrieved 16 September 2019 .
  62. ^
  63. Nanda, J.N. (2005). Bengal: The Unique State. ISBN  9788180691492 . Retrieved 15 March 2020 .
  64. ^
  65. Bhattacharjee, Rupnarayan (8 August 2015). বাংলার বৃহত্তম দীঘির গল্প . Eisamay Blog (in Bengali). indiatimes.com . Retrieved 16 September 2019 .
  66. ^
  67. Bhattacharya, Asok K. (1999). Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay. Sahitya Akademi. p.㻅. ISBN  8126008482 . Retrieved 16 September 2019 .


Watch the video: #Shashanka #Assamhistory part8 #APSC #PNRD #ASSAMSECRETARIAT #ASSAMSTATEEXAMS (May 2022).