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Israel profile - Timeline

1917- Britain seizes Palestine from Ottomans. Gives support to "national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine through the Balfour Declaration, along with an insistence that "nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities".

1920 - San Remo Allied Powers conference grants Palestine to Britain as a mandate, to prepare it for self-rule. European Jewish migration, which increased in the 19th century, continues.

1922 - Britain separates Transjordan from Mandate Palestine, forbids Jewish settlement in former.

1939 - British government White Paper seeks to limit Jewish migration to Palestine to 10,000 per year, excepting emergencies.

1940s - Nazi Holocaust of the Jews in Europe prompts efforts at mass migration to Palestine. Jewish armed groups in pursuit of independent Jewish state fight British authorities.

1947 - United Nations recommends partition of Palestine into separate Jewish and Arab states, with international control over Jerusalem and its environs.

Israel Science and Technology Directory

Written by: Israel Hanukoglu, Ph.D.

  • Note: An earlier version of this article is available in PDF format:
    "A Brief History of Israel and the Jewish People" published in the Knowledge Quest magazine.

Quote from Charles Krauthammer - The Weekly Standard, May 11, 1998

"Israel is the very embodiment of Jewish continuity: It is the only nation on earth that inhabits the same land, bears the same name, speaks the same language, and worships the same God that it did 3,000 years ago. You dig the soil and you find pottery from Davidic times, coins from Bar Kokhba, and 2,000-year-old scrolls written in a script remarkably like the one that today advertises ice cream at the corner candy store."

The people of Israel (also called the "Jewish People") trace their origin to Abraham, who established the belief that there is only one God, the creator of the universe (see Torah). Abraham, his son Yitshak (Isaac), and grandson Jacob (Israel) are referred to as the patriarchs of the Israelites. All three patriarchs lived in the Land of Canaan, which later became known as the Land of Israel. They and their wives are buried in the Ma'arat HaMachpela, the Tomb of the Patriarchs, in Hebron (Genesis Chapter 23).

The name Israel derives from the name given to Jacob (Genesis 32:29). His 12 sons were the kernels of 12 tribes that later developed into the Jewish nation. The name Jew derives from Yehuda (Judah), one of the 12 sons of Jacob (Reuben, Shimon, Levi, Yehuda, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Yisachar, Zevulun, Yosef, Binyamin)(Exodus 1:1). So, the names Israel, Israeli or Jewish refer to people of the same origin.

The descendants of Abraham crystallized into a nation at about 1300 BCE after their Exodus from Egypt under the leadership of Moses (Moshe in Hebrew). Soon after the Exodus, Moses transmitted to the people of this newly emerging nation the Torah and the Ten Commandments (Exodus Chapter 20). After 40 years in the Sinai desert, Moses led them to the Land of Israel, which is cited in The Bible as the land promised by G-d to the descendants of the patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (Genesis 17:8).

The people of modern-day Israel share the same language and culture shaped by the Jewish heritage and religion passed through generations starting with the founding father Abraham (ca. 1800 BCE). Thus, Jews have had a continuous presence in the land of Israel for the past 3,300 years.

Before his death, Moses appointed Joshua as his successor to lead the 12 tribes of Israel. The rule of Israelites in the land of Israel started with the conquests and settlement of 12 tribes under the leadership of Joshua (ca. 1250 BCE). The period from 1000-587 BCE is known as the "Period of the Kings". The most noteworthy kings were King David (1010-970 BCE), who made Jerusalem the Capital of Israel, and his son Solomon (Shlomo, 970-931 BCE), who built the first Temple in Jerusalem as prescribed in the Tanach (Old Testament).

In 587 BCE, Babylonian Nebuchadnezzar's army captured Jerusalem, destroyed the Temple, and exiled the Jews to Babylon (modern-day Iraq).

The year 587 BCE marks a turning point in the history of the Middle East. From this year onwards, the region was ruled or controlled by a succession of superpower empires of the time in the following order: Babylonian, Persian, Greek Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine Empires, Islamic and Christian crusaders, Ottoman Empire, and the British Empire.

After the exile by the Romans in 70 CE, the Jewish people migrated to Europe and North Africa. In the Diaspora (scattered outside of the Land of Israel), they established rich cultural and economic lives and contributed significantly to the societies where they lived. Yet, they continued their national culture and prayed to return to Israel through the centuries. In the first half of the 20th century, there were major waves of immigration of Jews back to Israel from Arab countries and Europe. Despite the Balfour Declaration, the British severely restricted the entry of Jews into Palestine, and those living in Palestine were subject to violence and massacres by Arabs mobs. During World War II, the Nazi regime in Germany decimated about 6 million Jews creating the great tragedy of The Holocaust.

Despite all the hardships, the Jewish community prepared itself for independence openly and in clandestine. On May 14, 1948, the day that the last British forces left Israel, the Jewish community leader, David Ben-Gurion, declared independence, establishing the modern State of Israel (see the Declaration of independence).

Arab-Israeli wars

A day after the declaration of independence of the State of Israel, armies of five Arab countries, Egypt, Syria, Transjordan, Lebanon, and Iraq, invaded Israel. This invasion marked the beginning of the War of Independence of Israel (מלחמת העצמאות). Arab states have jointly waged four full-scale wars against Israel:

  • 1948 War of Independence
  • 1956 Sinai War
  • 1967 Six-Day War
  • 1973 Yom Kippur War

Despite the numerical superiority of the Arab armies, Israel defended itself each time and won. After each war, Israeli army withdrew from most of the areas it captured (see maps). This is unprecedented in World history and shows Israel's willingness to reach peace even at the risk of fighting for its very existence each time anew.

Including Judea and Samaria, Israel is only 40 miles wide. Thus, Israel can be crossed from the Mediterranean coast to the Eastern border at the Jordan river within two hours of driving.

References and resources for further information

    - An excellent high-quality book including a chronology of the history of Israel by Francisco Gil-White. This is the best revolutionary exposition of the influence of Judaism on World culture in a historical perspective.

Ingathering of the Israelites

This drawing by Dr. Semion Natliashvili depicts the modern ingathering of the Jewish People after 2,000 years of Diaspora.

The center image of the picture shows a young and old man attired in a prayer shawl and reading from a Torah scroll that has united the Jewish People. The written portion shows Shema Yisrael Adonay Eloheynu Adonay Echad (Hear, Israel, the Lord is our G-d, the Lord is One).

The Star of David symbolizes the gathering of the Jewish People from all corners of the world, including Georgia (country of birth of the artist), Morocco, Russia, America, China, Ethiopia, Europe and other countries joining together and dancing in celebration. Other images inside the star symbolize modern Israeli industry, agriculture and military. The images on the margins of the picture symbolize the major threats that the Jewish People faced in Exile starting from the Exodus from Egypt, followed by Romans, Arabs, and culminating in the gas-chambers of the Holocaust in Europe.

Palestine’s Early Roots

Scholars believe the name “Palestine” originally comes from the word “Philistia,” which refers to the Philistines who occupied part of the region in the 12th century B.C.

Throughout history, Palestine has been ruled by numerous groups, including the Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Fatimids, Seljuk Turks, Crusaders, Egyptiansਊnd Mamelukes.

From about 1517 to 1917, the Ottoman Empire ruled much of the region.

When World War I ended in 1918, the British took control of Palestine. The League of Nations issued a British mandate for Palestine𠅊 document that gave Britain administrative control over the region, and included provisions for establishing a Jewish national homeland in Palestine—which went into effect in 1923.

History of Israel | Timeline

In this article, we will divide the list of significant events in Israel in two ways:

  1. We will look into the origins of the people of Israel from a Biblical standpoint.
  2. We will discuss the post-Biblical events that shaped the history and creation of Israel.

– Biblical History of Israel

We can trace the Biblical history of Israel back to Abraham the Patriarch, as explained in the Book of Genesis, and from where Israel originated [the origination of Israel story]. In Genesis Chapter 12, Abram, 75, a man from the nomadic tribe of Ur, was called upon by the Jewish God to leave his land, family, and belongings and go to Canaan, the promised land.

In Chapter 17, Yahweh said that from now on, Abram would be called Abraham, which means “father of multitudes.” This pronouncement confused Abraham as he is very old. He told his wife Sarah about what Yahweh told him, and she laughed at God’s promise. Sarah was too old to bear and give birth to a child.

Even before Yahweh’s promised heir, Abraham bedded his Egyptian slave-girl Hagar who gave birth to Ishmael. [Scholars say Ishmael is the root from which the word Islam was based.]

In Genesis Chapter 21, Sarah became pregnant and gave birth to a son whom Abraham named Isaac.

Many years have passed, and Isaac has grown into a man. He married Rebekah and gave birth to twin brothers Esau and Jacob. As it is common in old Jewish traditions, conflicts among kins are present. Jacob cheated Esau for his birthright, and the latter wanted to kill him. His father also wanted to marry him off to a Canaanite woman, and Jacob was against it. So, Jacob ran away from home and went to his uncle Laban. It is here where Jacob married two women who later on gave birth to 12 children.

After serving Laban for some years, he left and headed to Palestine. On his way, he encountered an angel of God. Jacob wrestled with the holy being, hoping to get the Holy High’s blessing. They wrestled until sundown, and when the angel realized Jacob would not give up, he broke one of Jacob’s ribs, blessed him, and called him “Israel,” which translates to “the one who wrestled with God.”

The name Israel stuck with Jacob and his 12 sons, Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Benjamin, and Joseph, are referred to as the 12 tribes of Israel in the Old Testament. These 12 tribes later served as the foundation of the Kingdom of Israel.

One famous story among the 12 brothers is Joseph’s narrative, the 11th son of Jacob, being sold to Egypt. Joseph is the favorite of Jacob, and his brothers became jealous. Jacob has a gift of dream interpretation, and it came in handy during his stay in Egypt.

He interpreted the Pharaoh’s dream giving insight into what will happen to Egypt in the future. It was because of his dream interpretation that allowed the Pharaoh and the rest of Egypt to plan and stave off calamities. The Pharaoh rewarded Joseph. Such reward trickled down to Jacob’s other children when they suffered from famine and had to go to Egypt to beg for food and supplies.

Joseph welcomed his brothers openly and forgave them. It is at this point in which the tribes of Israel found a new home in Egypt.

However, when Joseph and Jacob died, their sons and lineage suffered from the succeeding Egyptian leadership’s hands. They were subjected to slave labor building Egyptian architecture for hundreds of years.

It was during this period that Israel’s history became even more interesting. Moses, whose name means “saved by the waters,” was the son of Amran and Jochebed, two Jewish slaves of the Egyptian empire. They saved Moses from the wrath of the Pharaoh, who ordered the killing of firstborn Jewish children. There was a prophecy when the eldest Jewish son would lead a slave revolt and overthrow the Egyptian leadership.

Moses was set adrift in the River Nile, and Bithya, the Pharaoh’s daughter, saved the child. She kept Moses as her own. Moses grew up as one of the princes of Egypt. He became a close and dear friend of Ramses II, the heir to the Egyptian throne.

Later, Moses discovered the truth about his background and left Egypt to be with his people. During this period, the God of Abraham talked to him in one of his treks to Mount Sinai. Yahweh told Moses that he would be instrumental in setting the Jewish people free from Egyptian slavery.

Below is a brief timeline of the Biblical history of ancient Israel:

  • 1300 B.C. – Moses led Israel’s children out of Egypt, crossed the Red Sea, and through the desert for 40 years before reaching the promised land.
  • 1250 B.C. – Under Joshua’s leadership, they conquered and took over Canaan – the promised land.
  • 1000 B.C. to 970 B.C. – The period of kings, most especially the first King of Israel, Saul, and King David’s history.
  • 965 B.C. to 931 B.C. – This period took place after the death of King Solomon when Israel became a nation divided into two – Judah to the south and the Kingdom of Israel in the north
  • 722 B.C. – Assyria attacked and conquered Israel, which later led to the exile of the ten tribes.
  • 586 B.C. – King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon went after Judah. He conquered Judah and took many Israelites as slaves. They also destroyed the First Temple that Solomon built.
  • 538 B.C. to 333 B.C. – The Persians, in turn, conquered Babylon and set the people of Israel free to return to their land. The surviving children of Israel got back home. They proceeded to build the Second Temple in the city of Jerusalem.
  • 333 B.C. – Israel was recaptured again, this time by Alexander the Great of Greece. He captured them with the help of Egypt and Persia.
  • 167 B.C. – The Maccabean revolt happened, setting the Israelites free from Alexander the Great’s bondage.
  • 63 B.C. to 37 B.C. – The period between when Pompey of Rome conquered Israel and when Herod became the first King of Israel in the city of Rome.
  • 20 A.D. to 30 A.D. – The start of Jesus’ story and his ministry, including his passion, death on the cross, resurrection, and ascension.

– Post-Biblical History of Israel

  • 60 A.D. to 73 A.D. – The Romans destroyed the second temple. It was in this period the Israelites rebelled against the Roman Empire but were defeated at Masada.
  • 132 A.D. – The Israelites revolted against Rome the second time.
  • 200 A.D. to 390 A.D. – The codification of the oral laws and traditions of the Israelites commenced and completed.
  • 615 A.D. – Jerusalem, the city of the Israelites, was invaded and captured by the Persians.
  • 629 A.D. to 1517 – This was the period when Jerusalem became the target of so many people. The city and its residents captured by the Byzantine Empire, the Muslim Force, Seljuk Turks, the Crusaders, Saladin of Egypt, and the Ottoman Empire.

– Israel History in Modern Days

  • 1914 to 1918 – World War 1 began at this period while the Israelites were still under the Ottoman Empire’s rule. And by the end of World War 1 in 1918, Britain took over from the Ottoman Empire and began to rule what was now known as the Palestine Mandate (this consists of Israel, Jordan, and Palestine).
  • 1922 –The Balfour Declaration’s approval, a statement drafted by the British Foreign Secretary, Arthur James Balfour, called for establishing a national home for Israelites in Palestine. The declaration aimed to secure the allegiance and support of the Jewish people during World War I. However, the idea of having the Jews own their homeland didn’t go down well with the Arabs. Palestinians opposed this move because they believe that once the Jews are allowed to make Palestine their home, they will subdue the Palestinian-Arabs.
  • 1939 to 1945 – The start and end of World War II. It was during this period hundreds of thousands of Jews suffered and died in Nazi Germany concentration camps.
  • 1947 – Palestine was partitioned into different Arab and Israeli states was recommended by the U.N., such that the United Nations would have control over Jerusalem.
  • 1948 – Israel became the newest member of the United Nations after gaining independence from British rule. David Ben-Gurion became the first Prime Minister of the Independent Country of Israel.

– Post-Independence in Israel History

  • 1948 to 1949 – Shortly after Israel’s independence, a joint army of Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Arab, and Egypt attacked Israel. Israel won the war, leaving over 700,000 Palestinian Arabs fleeing from Arab states. Israel went ahead to hold her first Israeli Assembly in 1949.
  • 1954 – Moshe Sharett becomes the Prime Minister of Israel.
  • 1956 to 1957 – A coalition of France, Israel, and Britain invaded Egypt in what was known as the Suez Crisis. This invasion was to put an end to the Palestinians’ attack on Israel via Gaza and Sinai. Another reason for the invasion was the Suez Canal re-opening so that Israelites would enjoy seamless shipping.
  • 1963 – Levi Eshkol became the Prime Minister of Israel.
  • 1967 – A six-day war happened between Israel and some Arab nations: Iraq, Syria, Egypt, and Jordan. Israel also won this war, and she won control over Sinai, Gaza, West Bank, and Golan Heights.
  • 1969 – This was the year that Israel had its first female Prime Minister, in the person of Golda Meir.
  • 1972 – The year of the infamous “Black September” in which Palestinian terrorists infiltrated the Munich Olympics in Germany and murdered nine Israeli athletes.
  • 1973 – On the Holy day of Yom Kippur in October of that year, Syria and Egypt came together to invade Israel. Although Israel won the war, and she suffered a significant loss too.
  • 1979 – This was when Egypt and Israel signed a treaty in the United States of America, particularly at Camp David.
  • 1980 to 1991 – Between the duration of these years, the Shekel replaced the Israeli Lira as its official currency. Also, during this period, the Gulf war happened. During the war, 42 Scud missiles were fired at Israel by Iraq for no good reason. Fortunately for Iraq, Israel didn’t respond to the shooting. Hence she wasn’t dragged into the war.
  • 2009 – Israel elected another Prime Minister, whose name was Benjamin Netanyahu. In that same year, it was discovered that Israel has massive deposits of offshore natural gas.
  • 2010 – The relationship between Turkey and Israel threatens to break finally as 9 Turkish activists (Pro-Palestinian) were killed while Israelis tried to remove the Gaza blockade.
  • 2010 – The Palestinian Authority and Israel resume direct peace talks, encourage an excellent social, and most importantly, a good economic relationship between both nations. The talks didn’t end well at that time.
  • 2013 – This year saw the Prime Minister of Israel, Benjamin Netanyahu, bringing on secular and centrist parties into government in place of religious Israel groups. In that same year, Palestinian Authority and Israel continued their peace talks for a few months. They finally agreed to pump water from the Red Sea into the Dead Sea in December of that year. This decision was taken to make sure that the Dead Sea doesn’t run out of water.
  • 2015 – An Israeli couple was murdered in a car in West Bank by alleged Palestinian Arabs. It seems that the Dead Sea/Red Sea was the only agreement that the Palestinian Arabs want to have with the Israelis. The agreement didn’t cover meaningless killings and car rammings. Israel experienced a lot of car-rammings and killings in that year.
  • 2016 – Concerning Turkey and Israel’s clash in 2010, both nations reached a consensus and normalized their relationship.
  • 2017 – After securing the West Bank for over 20 years, the Israeli Parliament passes the law that legalized the building of twelve Jewish settlements on the West Bank. In the same year, work started on the West Bank.
  • 2017 – President Donald Trump announced Jerusalem as Israel’s capital city. He instructed that the American Embassy be relocated from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. But this announcement and recognition of Jerusalem didn’t bode well with the Arab world.
  • 2018 – The American Embassy was moved from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem this year. This led to fights and protests in which over 58 Palestinians were killed, and over 2,700 were injured. In the same year, the Israeli Parliament passed a law that characterized the country majorly as a Jewish state. It made the Hebrew Language the Official Israel language.
  • 2019 – The United States of America legalized the Israeli settlements on West Bank. In the same year, President Donald Trump also recognized Israel’s rule over Golan Heights Golan Heights was one of Israel’s lands forcefully collected from Syria during the 6-day war in the year 1967. But it happened that contrary to what President Trump said, the international community didn’t recognize Israel’s rule over Golan Heights. In the same year, President Benjamin Netanyahu was accused and formally charged with fraud, bribery, and breach of trust. He was required to give up the ministerial portfolios under his management. He was left alone with his position as the Prime Minister of Israel.
  • 2020 – Israel established a diplomatic relationship with the United Arab Emirates. This makes the UAE the first nation amongst the Gulf states to ever agree with Israel. Following suit, Bahrain also established an agreement with Israel to normalize their relationship. The reason for this was to boost stability, prosperity, and security between both nations and their regions.

Netanyahu’s Road Through Israel’s History, in Pictures

A photographic journey shows how ‘Bibi’ put his stamp on Israel — through his toughness and the search for security in an unstable region.

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel addressing the American Israel Public Affairs Committee in Washington, D.C. Credit. Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images

That is a shout from his fervent supporters that might have given pause to King David, let alone King Solomon. But Benjamin Netanyahu, Israel’s longest-serving prime minister, has finally lost his job, unable to cobble together a final majority in the Knesset after four elections in the last two years.

The government that has now replaced him is fragile, however. Little holds it together except a desire to get Mr. Netanyahu out of office, where he will no longer be immune from punishment, if convicted, over charges of corruption.

But Mr. Netanyahu still appears to rule Israel’s largest party, Likud, and given Israel’s riven politics, his fall may only be a sort of sabbatical.

Whatever the criticism of his actions and political cynicism, Mr. Netanyahu’s career represents an extraordinary accomplishment for a man who grew up in the shadow of a difficult and demanding father and a hero brother, killed at the age of 30 in command of one of Israel’s most storied military ventures, Operation Entebbe. The 1976 operation rescued hostages held at Entebbe Airport in Uganda.

Both brothers served in the military’s elite commando unit, Sayeret Matkal. But Bibi survived to put a more lasting stamp on the young state through his political and economic policies, his toughness toward rivals. He has an instinctive sense of what drives Israelis — the search for security in one of the most unstable regions of the world, a Jewish state built on the remnants the Nazis left behind, in the midst of an Arab and Iranian sea.

Mr. Netanyahu’s path to leadership was not an obvious one. Born in Israel, he grew up partly in the United States, where his father, a deeply conservative scholar of Judaic history, was teaching.

He returned to Israel after high school, fluent in English, to make a distinguished career as a commando in Sayaret Matkal, where he rose to captain and was wounded several times.

He then returned to the United States, using the more Anglicized name Ben Nitay (later changed to Benjamin Ben Nitai) to get degrees in architecture and business management. By 1978, he was already appearing on American television, where his English made him an ideal guest to discuss Israel.

He found his way into diplomacy and politics in the early 1980s, when he was appointed deputy chief of mission to the Israeli Embassy in Washington. He then served as ambassador to the United Nations before returning to Israel to enter politics in earnest.

He joined the Likud in 1988 and was elected to Parliament.

By 1993, he was the leader of Likud and was a strong critic of Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin of the Labor party and his willingness to give up territory to reach peace with the Palestinians in the Oslo accords. After Mr. Rabin was assassinated in 1995, Mr. Netanyahu was criticized for language approaching incitement, a charge he said he found deeply wounding.

But he defeated Washington’s favorite candidate, Shimon Peres, in the 1996 elections by pushing the theme of security in the midst of a badly managed conflict with Lebanon and a series of terrorist bombings by Palestinian groups Hamas and Islamic Jihad. He became the youngest prime minister in Israeli history and the first to be born in the independent state.

That same year, 1996, Mr. Netanyahu represented Israel for the first time in summit meetings organized by President Clinton, who was eager to build on Oslo to create a more lasting peace.

Then and later, in the 1998 Wye River summit, Mr. Netanyahu proved a difficult partner. He was willing to appeal to American Jews and Israel supporters in Congress to heighten political pressure on Mr. Clinton not to press Israel to go farther than he judged wise.

His relations with the Palestinian leader, Yasir Arafat, were always tense, and the two never came to trust one another enough to reach the peace that Mr. Clinton thought was within grasp.


Can i get full history in Tamil language

Please go to Select Language at the top of the page and select “Tamil”


A Kingdom that is Yet to Come

Despite many setbacks and failings, the history of Israel is really 'His-Story': it is all about Jesus Christ and His coming kingdom that will soon be established on earth. Jesus will soon return to the Mount of Olives

Israel's Ancient History:
The wilderness of Paran

The location of much of the wilderness wanderings of the nation of Israel. It is typically identified as an area in the Sinai peninsula south of Kadesh-barnea.
Image: Bible Places

Israel's Ancient History:
The Ark of the Covenant

Whilst the Israelites were wandering in the wilderness, God instructed them to make an ark out of acacia wood. It probably contained the first tablets of the Ten Commandments.
Image: License: CC-BY-SA

Israel's Ancient History:
Model of the Second Temple

The Temple of Solomon was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 BC. At the decree of Cyrus the Jews began rebuilding and the second Temple was completed in 515 BC. It was improved by Herod in 19 BC and then destroyed by the Romans in 70 AD.
Image: Ariely [CC BY 3.0], Wikimedia Commons

Israel's Recent History:
Declaration of State of Israel

David Ben-Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14 1948, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Israel's Recent History:
Jewish aliyah to Israel

The Palmach: Jewish immigration to Israel. During the last century the number of Jews in Israel increased by over 7,000%. The return of Jews to Israel was prophesied (Ezek 37.21). Enlarge image

Whilst the Israelites were wandering in the wilderness, God instructed them to make an ark or chest out of acacia wood (Exod 25.10-22). It was a little over 3 feet long and 2 foot wide and high and overlaid with pure gold. It became the most important symbol of the Jewish faith for several reasons. First, it represented the only place on earth where God promised to manifest himself to man (v22). Secondly, God used the ark as an indicator of when He wanted the Israelites to travel, and when to stop. It went before them on their travels to search out a resting place for them (Num 10.33).

It probably contained the first tablets of the Ten Commandments (which were broken by Moses) and also the second tablets, which remained intact, link.

"I will insist the Hebrews have [contributed] more to civilize men than any other nation"
[ J. Adams, Second President USA ]

"Dispersed as the Jews are, they still form one nation, foreign to the land they live in"
[ T. Jefferson, American statesman ]

"The Jews remain what they have been at all times: an elite people, self-confident and domineering"
[ Charles De Gaulle ]

"The Jews looked for a special savior, a messiah, who was to redeem mankind"
[ H. G. Wells ]

"All things are mortal but the Jew all other forces pass, but he remains. What is the secret of his immortality?"
[ Mark Twain ]

"The Jews, however, are beyond all doubt the strongest, toughest, and purest race at present living in Europe they know how to succeed even under the worst conditions"
[ Friedrich Nietzsche ]

"Some people like the Jews, and some do not. But no thoughtful man can deny the fact that they are, beyond any question, the most formidable and the most remarkable race which has appeared in the world"
[ Winston Churchill ]

"What is the Jew. What kind of unique creature is this whom all the rulers of all the nations of the world have disgraced and crushed and expelled and destroyed persecuted, burned and drowned, and who, despite their anger and their fury, continues to live and to flourish"
[ Leo Tolstoy ]

The Christian Jewish Foundation, CJF Ministries, exists to make Jesus (Yeshua) the Messiah known to the Jewish people first and then to the nations (Romans 1:16). Their primary goal is to reach Jewish people with the Gospel of Yeshua HaMashiach, Jesus the Messiah. Like Paul, they wish to proclaim the Good News that God has fulfilled the promise He made to the Patriarchs: The Messiah has come (see Acts 13:14-39).

Their second goal is to build up the Body of Messiah and equip believers for service by means of Bible study and discipleship training (see Eph. 4:11-12). Their third goal is to teach the local church about its Jewish roots and to train other believers in how to share the Gospel with their Jewish friends (see Rom. 9:4-5, 10:14-15).

Other Christian organisations taking the love of Yeshua to the Jews:

Jews are coming to know Yeshua

Throughout the history of Israel God has always maintained the Jewish presence in the world. Even in the most testing times a remnant is supernaturally preserved through God’s sovereign choice.

In Elijah's day 7,000 did not bow the knee to Baal. In Isaiah's time, despite Israel's sin, God did not destroy the nation but instead left a 'very small remnant' (Isa 1.9). During the exile in Babylon we see a remnant in Jews like Ezekiel, Daniel, Esther and Mordecai, and at the end of 70 years a remnant returned to Jerusalem to rebuild (Hag 1.12, 2.2).

In Jesus' day we see the remnant in Jews like John the Baptist, Simeon, Anna and others who 'looked for the redemption of Jerusalem'. A remnant entered the church age (Rom 11.5) and survived severe persecution in the Middle Ages and the 20th century. And during the end of the church age a remnant of Israel is grafted back into their own 'olive tree' (Rom 11.23) as they return to their God.

Looking to the end of the age, it is a remnant who are 'sealed' by God for service and witness to the world (Rev 7.3,4), and it is a remnant who survive end time wars, return to their God, and enter into the Millennium (Mat 24.16, Isa 10.20,21, Zech 8.6).

First look at the symbolism of the number. Note that 144,000 = 12 × 12,000 where 12 = 5 (God's goodness) + 7 (completeness and spiritual perfection), link. The 1000 denotes 'divine completeness and Father's glory'. So we might see this as God making a people group spiritually complete and ready to glorify Him. Remember that Jesus chose 12 disciples to be His servants and to proclaim the gospel. So the number 144,000 denotes a people made holy and spiritually complete for God's service. In the context of Rev 7, the 144,000 are servants of God made ready to proclaim the gospel to the nations in the great Tribulation (Rev 7.14). This biblical symbolism could apply to either a symbolic number or a literal number of God's servants.

Who are the 144,000? Mainstream Christianity associates them with the church (the redeemed drawn from all peoples, including Israel). Others associated them with God's people throughout all history, others with an end time Messianic Jewish remnant, and still others with the last generation of Christians (spiritual Israel), link. But it is clear that the number (either symbolic or literal) is drawn only from 'the children of Israel' (Rev 7.4) and this is underscored by a list of the tribes of Israel (here the tribes of Dan and Ephraim are omitted, possibly because they led the children of Israel into idolatry, 1 Kings 12.25-30). These servants of God are sealed on their foreheads (Rev 9.6) for ministry and protection from demonic powers throughout the tribulation period.

The number 144,000 also appears in Rev 14.1-5 and these too have their Father's name written on their foreheads. They are indeed a special people, male virgins who follow close to Christ wherever He goes (v4). If this is the same people group as in Rev 7, then we must also regard the latter as male virgins.

Learn Biblical Hebrew Online

Learn from the convenience of your own home. This is the first accredited online Biblical Hebrew course offered by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Go Deeper into the Mysteries of Israel

Creation of Israel, 1948

On May 14, 1948, David Ben-Gurion , the head of the Jewish Agency, proclaimed the establishment of the State of Israel. U.S. President Harry S. Truman recognized the new nation on the same day.

Although the United States supported the Balfour Declaration of 1917, which favored the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine, President Franklin D. Roosevelt had assured the Arabs in 1945 that the United States would not intervene without consulting both the Jews and the Arabs in that region. The British, who held a colonial mandate for Palestine until May 1948, opposed both the creation of a Jewish state and an Arab state in Palestine as well as unlimited immigration of Jewish refugees to the region. Great Britain wanted to preserve good relations with the Arabs to protect its vital political and economic interests in Palestine.

Soon after President Truman took office, he appointed several experts to study the Palestinian issue. In the summer of 1946, Truman established a special cabinet committee under the chairmanship of Dr. Henry F. Grady, an Assistant Secretary of State, who entered into negotiations with a parallel British committee to discuss the future of Palestine. In May 1946, Truman announced his approval of a recommendation to admit 100,000 displaced persons into Palestine and in October publicly declared his support for the creation of a Jewish state. Throughout 1947, the United Nations Special Commission on Palestine examined the Palestinian question and recommended the partition of Palestine into a Jewish and an Arab state. On November 29, 1947 the United Nations adopted Resolution 181 (also known as the Partition Resolution) that would divide Great Britain’s former Palestinian mandate into Jewish and Arab states in May 1948 when the British mandate was scheduled to end. Under the resolution, the area of religious significance surrounding Jerusalem would remain a corpus separatum under international control administered by the United Nations.

Although the United States backed Resolution 181, the U.S. Department of State recommended the creation of a United Nations trusteeship with limits on Jewish immigration and a division of Palestine into separate Jewish and Arab provinces but not states. The State Department, concerned about the possibility of an increasing Soviet role in the Arab world and the potential for restriction by Arab oil producing nations of oil supplies to the United States, advised against U.S. intervention on behalf of the Jews. Later, as the date for British departure from Palestine drew near, the Department of State grew concerned about the possibility of an all-out war in Palestine as Arab states threatened to attack almost as soon as the UN passed the partition resolution.

Despite growing conflict between Palestinian Arabs and Palestinian Jews and despite the Department of State’s endorsement of a trusteeship, Truman ultimately decided to recognize the state Israel.

U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel: Total Aid

1 Military aid: 1959-1973 (Loans) 1974-1984 (Loans & Grants) 1984-Present (Grants).
2 Other defense funds are separate from military assistance and include funding for other missile defense programs (Arrow, David&rsquos Sling and Iron Dome) as well as anti-tunnel cooperation. See below:
3 Economic aid is combination of grants and loans. Israel stopped receiving almost all economic aid in 2007.
4 Refugee resettlement aid is earmarked for the Jewish Agency/United Israel Appeal to help transport and resettle immigrants in Israel. It was primarily used to help Soviet immigrants in the 1980s and 1990s, and later for Ethiopian immigrants.
5 This is funding allocated to American Schools and Hospitals Abroad (ASHA)
6 Includes Food for Peace (loans & grants) Export-Import Bank aid Housing Loans Cooperative Development aid missile defense and, others.
* Includes $1.92 billion in regular military assistance and $1.2 billion for implementation of the Wye Agreement.

Loan guarantees are not considered foreign aid so the $7.9 billion in guarantees have been excluded from this table (see Loan Guarantees for Israel [table]). This table also excludes funding for certain other projects the CRS does not consider foreign aid, such as the $180 million for the research and development of the Arrow missile.

Other Military Assistance

Source: Jeremy Sharp, &ldquoU.S. Foreign Aid to Israel,&rdquo Congressional Research Service, (April 10, 2018, August 7, 2019)

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Rebellions against Rome

In A.D. 66, tensions between the region's Jewish inhabitants and Roman rulers came to a head. A rebellion started and culminated in A.D. 70 in the siege of Jerusalem and the destruction of the second temple. Resistance continued after the city's fall — the last major stronghold of the rebels was at Masada it didn't fall until A.D. 73 or A.D. 74, after a protracted Roman siege.

Masada's defenders were part of a group that modern-day scholars often refer to as the "Zealots." The ancient writer Josephus (A.D. 37-100) wrote that the Zealots chose to take their own lives rather than surrender to the Romans. "For the husbands tenderly embraced their wives, and took their children into their arms, and gave the longest parting kisses to them, with tear in their eyes" before they committed suicide, wrote Josephus.

Further rebellions occurred over the decades. The final rebellion was crushed in A.D. 136. The ancient writer Cassius Dio (lived ca. A.D. 155-235) wrote that this last rebellion led to the desolation of the Jewish population. He claimed that Roman forces killed about 580,000 Jewish men.

"Five hundred and eighty thousand men were slain in the various raids and battles, and the number of those that perished by famine, disease and fire was past finding out … thus nearly the whole of Judaea was made desolate," Dio wrote. (Translation by Earnest Cary, from volume VIII of the "Loeb Classical Library" published in 1925). Archaeologists are still finding treasure hoards buried by people who lived during the rebellion.

In the millennia afterward, the Jewish diaspora spread throughout the world. It wasn't until the establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948 that the Jewish people had a homeland again.

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